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Controller design by R.L. Typical setup: C(s) G(s) Controller Design Goal: •Select poles and zero of C(s) so that R.L. pass through desired region •Select K corresponding to a good choice of dominant pole pair Types of classical controllers • Proportional control – Needed to make a specific point on RL to be closed-loop system dominant pole • Proportional plus derivative control (PD control) – Needed to “bend” R.L. into the desired region • Lead control – Similar to PD, but without the high frequency noise problem; max angle contribution limited to < 75 deg • Proportional plus Integral Control (PI control) – Needed to “eliminate” a non-zero steady state tracking error • Lag control – Needed to reduce a non-zero steady state error, no type increase • PID control – When both PD and PI are needed, PID = PD * PI • Lead-Lag control – When both lead and lag are needed, lead-lag = lead * lag Proportional control design 1. Draw R.L. for given plant nump=…; denp= …; sysp=tf(nump, denp); rlocus(sysp); 2. Draw desired region for poles from specs 3. Pick a point on R.L. and in desired region • Use ginput to get point and convert to complex # [x,y]=ginput(1); pd=x+j*y; 4. Compute Gpd=evalfr(sysp,pd); K=1/abs(Gpd); sysc = K; 5. Obtain closed-loop TF syscl = feedback(sysc*sysp,1); 6. Obtain step response and compute specs use your program from several weeks ago to do all these 7. Decide if modification is needed Example code for Matlab rlocus([9], [1 8 12 0]); grid; yl=ylim; Draws circle with r=5 omega_n=5; %this may be from tr or td requirement rectangle('Position',[-omega_n,- omega_n,2*omega_n,2*omega_n],'Curvature',[1,1]); sigma = 4; %this may be from ts requirement line([-sigma -sigma],yl); Draws line at -4 zeta=0.7; %this may be from Mp requiremet line([0 yl(1)*zeta/sqrt(1-zeta^2)],[0 yl(1)]); line([0 -yl(2)*zeta/sqrt(1-zeta^2)],[0 yl(2)]); xl=xlim; xl(2)=0; Draws 2 rays for zeta=0.7 xlim(xl); Can use mouse to zoom in PD controller design • • This is introducing an additional zero to the R.L. for G(s) • Use this if the dominant pole pair branches of G(s) do not pass through the desired region • Place additional zero to “bend” the RL into the desired region Design steps: 1. From specs, draw desired region for pole. Pick from region, not on RL [x,y]=ginput(1); pd=x+j*y; 2. Compute Gpd=evalfr(sys_p,pd) phi=pi - angle(Gpd) 3. Select z=abs(real(pd))+abs(imag(pd)/tan(pi-phi)) 4. Select: Kd=1/abs(pd+z)/abs(Gpd) Example: C(s) Want: Sol: (pd not on R.L.) (Need a zero to attract R.L. to pd) 2. 3. 4. ts is OK But Mp too large To redesign: Reduce wd pd=-2+j1.5 Gpd = evalfr(sys_p, pd) Gpd = - 0.1600 + 0.2133i phi = pi - angle(Gpd) phi = 0.9273 z = abs(real(pd)) + abs(imag(pd)/tan(pi - phi)) z = 3.1250 Kd = 1/abs(pd+z)/abs(Gpd) Kd = 2 Kp = z*Kd Kp = 6.2500 sys_c=tf([Kd Kp], 1); sys_cl=feedback(sys_c*sys_p, 1) Transfer function: 2 s + 6.25 ---------------- s^2 + 4 s + 6.25 step(sys_cl); ylim([0 yss*(1+2*Mp)]) Drawbacks of PD • Not proper : deg of num > deg of den • High frequency gain → ∞: • High gain for noise Saturates circuits Cannot be implemented physically Lead Controller • Approximation to PD • Same usefulness as PD • • It contributes a lead angle: • Approximation to PD Lead Control: • Same usefulness as PD • Draw R.L. for G • From specs draw region for desired c.l. poles • Select pd from region [x,y]=ginput(1); pd=x+j*y; Gpd=evalfr(sysp,pd) • Let phi=pi - angle(Gpd) Pick –z somewhere below pd on –Re axis [x,y]=ginput(1); z=abs(x); Let phi1=angle(pd+z); phi2=phi1-phi; Select p=abs(real(pd))+abs(imag(pd)/tan(phi2)); K=abs((pd+p)/(pd+z)/Gpd); sysc=tf(K*[1 z],[1 p]); Hold on; rlocus(sysc*sysp); Example: Lead Design MP is fine, C(s) but too slow. Want: Don’t increase MP but double the resp. speed Sol: Original system: C(s) = 1 Since MP is a function of ζ, speed is proportional to ωn Draw R.L. & desired region Pick pd right at the vertex: (Could pick pd a little inside the region to allow “flex”) Clearly, R.L. does not pass through pd, nor the desired region. need PD or Lead to “bend” the R.L. into region. (Note our choice may be the easiest to achieve) Let’s do Lead: Pick –z to the left of pd Speed is doubled, but over shoot is too much. Change controller from to To reduce the gain a bit, and make it a little closer to PD Particular choice of z : angle bisector Lead Control with angle bisector • Draw R.L. for G • From specs draw region for desired c.l. poles • Select pd from region • Let phipd=angle(pd); phi1=(phipd+phi)/2; phi2=phi1-phi; Select

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posted: | 9/25/2013 |

language: | English |

pages: | 29 |

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