The capacity to perform an act, either innate or as the result of learning and pra
Arrangement whereby students are assigned to groups on the basis of aptitude
Combining adult learning theory and whole brain learning theory in the learning
environment to achieve a faster learning rate.
The degree of freedom from error or the degree of conformity to a standard.
A measurement of what a person knows or can do after training.
The specific behavior the learner is to exhibit after training.
A case study which has been programmed. Learners receive enough informatio
n to take them to their first decision point. The decision then takes them to the n
ext frame, which explains the consequence of their decision. This process is co
ntinued until the maze has been completed.
This is a continuous process of learning and reflection with the intention of getti
ng something done. It does not use project work, job rotation, or any form of a s
imulation such as case studies or business games (see active learning). Learni
ng is centered around the need to find a solution to a real problem. Most action
learning programs take from four to nine months to complete. Learning is volunt
ary and learner driven, while individual development is as important as finding t
he solution to the problem.
A word that conveys action/behaviors and reflects the type of performance that i
s to occur (i.e., place, cut, drive, open, hold). Action verbs reflect behaviors that
are measurable, observable, verifiable, and reliable.
A process of learning new ideas, skills and attitudes through what we do at wor
k or in other behavioral situations. It is about learning from doing, performing, a
nd taking action. The action can be either mental (e.g. reflection) or physical (e.
g. case study). It uses such devices as games, simulations, introspection, role p
The step of learner activity based on the enabling objective. In achieving the act
ivity the learner is carried through the teaching points and the teaching steps.
Information about the current skills, knowledge, perspectives and environment
of individuals in an organization. Specifics about what people now do.
adaptive branching (adjustive device)
Any of several techniques used in scheduling to accommodate individual differe
nces. It may permit the student to bypass material they already know or may pr
ovide them with additional instruction as needed.
A type of instructional device that applies programming principles to existing co
urse materials, texts, manuals, etc. Learners are directed to specific areas withi
n these materials that support course objectives; then directed to respond and g
iven confirmation until they have progressed through the material and have acc
omplished predetermined objectives.
A classification of objectives that focus on the development of attitudes, beliefs,
and values. Affective learning is about gaining new perceptions (e.g., self-confid
ence, responsibility, respect, dependability, and personal relations). The taxono
my of categories arranged in ascending order of difficulty are:
Receiving: Aware of, passively attending to certain stimuli.
Responding: Complies to given expectations by reacting to stimuli.
Valuing: Displays behavior consistent with single belief or attitude in situations where not forc
ed to obey.
Organizing: Committed to a set of values as displayed by behavior.
Characterizing: Total behavior consistent with internalized values.
First of the Instructional System Design phases. The purpose of this phase is to
determine what the job holder must know or do on the job and to determine trai
ning needs. Also see front-end analysis
From the Greek words "anere", for adult and "agogus", the art and science of h
elping students learn. Widely used by adult educators to describe the theory of
adult learning. The term offers an alternative to pedagogy. The andragogic mod
el asks that five issues be considered and addressed in formal learning:
Letting learners know why something is important to learn - The need to know.
Showing learners how to direct themselves through information - The need to be self directin
Relating the topic to the learner's experiences - Greater volume and quality of experience.
People will not learn until ready and motivated to learn - Readiness to learn.
A need to have a life centered, task centered, or problem centered orientation - Often this req
uires helping them overcome inhibitions, behaviors, and beliefs about learning.
The ability of an individual to acquire a new skill or show the potential for acquiri
ng a skill when given the opportunity and proper training.
Any learning event that is delivered after the original live event.
Also used to indicate a learning event where the interaction is
delayed over time, such as a correspondence course.
Essentially a measurement process of the learning that has either taken place o
r can take place. Usually measured against stated learning outcomes:
Predictive assessment attempts to measure what the learner might achieve given suitable trai
Attainment assessment attempts to measure what the learner knows or can do, and is usuall
y related to the syllabus of a course the learner has followed.
A persisting feeling or emotion of a person that influences choice of action and r
esponse to stimulus. Defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively
or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, situation). They enco
mpass, or are closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon o
ur experiences. Training that produces tangible results starts by changing beha
vior...which ultimately changes attitudes. Training often uses the term attitude to
identify the psychological term "affective domain."
A structured approach to developing all elements of a unit of instruction.
Software application used to produce media-based learning content
Information carrying capacity of a communication channel.
1) Valid and reliable information about the intended learner population used to a
scertain differences between learners' performances before and after instructio
n. 2) A set of measurements (metrics) that seek to establish the current starting
level of a performance. These measurements are usually established before im
plementing improvement activities.
Any activity (either covert or overt) the learner will be expected to exhibit after tr
aining. The activity should be observable and measurable. It is the primary com
ponent of an objective.
Belief that learning results in a change in the learner's behavior. The focus of b
ehaviorists is on the outputs of the learning process. The study of learning only
through the examination and analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable
behavioral events, in contrast with subjective mental states.
The change in the knowledge, skills, or attitude of an individual which occurs as
the result of a planned set and schedule of reinforcements.
block of instruction
A group of related instructional units or modules covering a major subject area.
An individual's preference for using one's cognitive abilities. There are two style
s of thinking - right brain (intuitive, spontaneous, qualitative) and left brain (factu
al, analytical and quantitative).
An instructional technique, usually in the form of programmed text, in which the
learner's next step of instruction is determined by her response to a previous st
ep. Two or more directions in a program path can go from a decision point.
Bricks and mortar schools
A traditional school or class building. A Brick and Click school would be a combi
nation of a traditional and online (click) school.
Method of transferring learning content to many learners simultaneously.
In programmed instruction, a technique that permits a student to skip certain po
rtions of the material because of prior knowledge.
A printed description of a problem situation that contains enough detail to enabl
e the learners to recommend a solution. The learners encounter a real-life situat
ion under the guidance of an instructor or computer in order to achieve an instru
ctional objective. Control of the discussion comes through by the amount of the
What gets in the way of individual and organizational performance. There are fo
ur kinds of causes: absence of skills and knowledge or information, weak motiv
ation, improper environment, and flawed incentives.
Program and process where a learner completes prescribed training and passe
s an assessment with a minimum acceptable score. To increase validity and as
sure authentication, the certification process should be proctored by an indepen
An instructional technique that transforms a learned response into a stimulus fo
r the next desired response.
Classroom learning or conventional learning as compared to e-learning (electro
A process of organizing many tasks into groups for the purpose of deciding upo
n the optimal instructional setting mix for that group of tasks. Also pertains to se
quencing groups of objectives within a course of instruction.
A person who instructs, demonstrates, directs, and prompts learners. Generally
concerned with methods rather than concepts. There are four coaching roles/st
hands-on - acting as an instructor for inexperienced learners.
hands-off - developing high performance in experienced learners.
supporter - helping learners use a flexible learning package.
qualifier - helping a learner develop a specific requirement for a competence-based or profes
From the Latin cogito; "I think". The mental processes of perception, memory, ju
dgment, and reasoning. Cognitive also refers to attempts to identify a perspecti
ve or theory in contrast to emphasizing observable behavior.
Involves mental processes. The Taxonomy of categories arranged in ascending
order of difficulty are:
Knowledge: Recognition and recall of information.
Comprehension: Interprets, translates or summarizes given information.
Application: Uses information in a situation different from original learning context.
Analysis: Separates wholes into parts until relationships are clear.
Synthesis: Combines elements to form new entity from the original one.
Evaluation: Involves acts of decision making based on criteria or rationale.
The intentional and purposeful processing of lesson content. Engagement, in ef
fect, requires strategies that promote manipulation rather than memorization, as
the means through which learners acquire both lesson knowledge and deeper c
onceptual insight. Engagement can be elevated through a variety of activities s
uch as inducing cognitive dissonance, posing argumentative questions requirin
g the development of a supportable position, and causing learners to generate
a prediction and rationale during a lesson.
Believe that learning occurs when learners are able to add new concepts and id
eas to their cognitive structure by recognizing a relationship between something
they already know and what they are learning. The focus of cognitivists is on th
e inputs of the learning process. Cognitive theorists emphasize internal process
es and knowledge representations which are impossible to observe directly, but
which are inferred.
A more radical departure from "cooperative learning". It involves learners worki
ng together in small groups to develop their own answer through interaction and
reaching consensus, not necessarily a known answer. Monitoring the groups or
correcting "wrong" impressions is not the role of the trainer since there is no aut
hority on what the answer should be.
A task that requires more than one individual to complete with each individual p
erforming a discreet part of the collective task.
common learning objective
A learning objective written for a task element (supporting skill or knowledge) th
at is common to two or more tasks.
(1) Areas of personal capability that enable people to perform successfully in th
eir jobs by completing task effectively. A competency can be knowledge, attitud
es, skills, values, or personal values. Competency can be acquired through tale
nt, experience, or training. (2) Competency comprises the specification of knowl
edge and skill and the application of that knowledge and skill to the standard of
performance required in employment.
Instruction that is organized around a set of learning objectives based upon the
knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a set of skills called compete
ncies. Evaluation of student success is based on competent performance of the
skills. Normative measurement is specifically excluded from competency-based
A test component requiring the completion of a statement, phrase, or concept.
computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
The use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction in which the system all
ows for remediation based on answers but not for a change in the underlying pr
computer-based training (CBT)
Interactive instructional experience between a computer and a learner in which
the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the learner responds, re
sulting in progress toward increased skills or knowledge. Has a more complicat
ed branching program of mediation and answering than CAI. Now an all-encom
passing term used to describe any computer-delivered training including CD-R
OM and the World Wide Web. Some people still use the term CBT to refer only
to old-time text-only training.
computer managed instruction (CMI)
The use of computers and software to manage the instructional process. Functi
ons of CMI can include a management administration system designed to track
student performance over a period of time, provide information concerning perf
ormance trends, record individual and group performance data, schedule trainin
g, and provide support for other training management functions.
A mental picture of a group of things that have common characteristics. A gener
alization is a person’s idea of the relationships between two or more concepts.
Concepts represent a group of solid objects, such as an airplane or book; or ab
stract ideas such as leadership and honesty. A concept is an idea about a grou
p of things. A concept involves thinking about what it is that makes those things
belong to that one group.
concept map (learning map)
The arrangement of major concepts from a text or lecture into a visual arrange
ment, Lines are drawn between associated concepts, and relationships betwee
n the connected concepts are named. These concept maps reveal the structura
l pattern in the material and provide the big picture.
The component of an objective that describes the situation, environment, or limi
tations in which the learner must exhibit the specified behavior.
Branching which occurs when a specified condition or set of conditions is satisfi
A response that has been learned through employing a specific stimulus.
Giving each learner knowledge of the results of each exercise throughout the in
structional process. This reinforces or rewards the learner during the entire lear
Any element or factor that prevents a person from reaching a higher lever of per
formance with respect to her goal.
An answer requiring recall or completion as opposed to recognition (e.g., drawi
ng a diagram, filling in a form, and labeling the parts of a piece of equipment).
School of human learning which believes in the need to identify current learning
prior to constructing new meaning. Knowledge is seen as a mental construct th
at is built on and added to. Learners create an image of what the world is like a
nd how it operates and they adapt and transform their understanding of new ex
periences in light of what they already '‘know'’. This theory of learning has cons
equences for teaching and learning strategies. It means that trainers must reco
gnize how a learner already sees the world, and how that learner believes it to
operate. New information presented to the learner will be modified by what the l
earner already knows and believes. By starting 'where the learner is at’, that is,
engaging prior knowledge with present learning, the trainer assists the students
to build on her understanding of the world and its workings.
The almost simultaneous occurrence of stimulus and response in psychomotor
A programming principle that implies self-pacing within an instructional system.
The information and learner activity are developed so that the learners can prog
ress toward the criterion objectives according to their own learning ability.
Involves the more conventional notion of cooperation, in that learners work in s
mall groups on an assigned project or problem under the guidance of the trainer
who monitors the groups, making sure the learners are staying on task and are
coming up with the correct answers (if there is a right or a best answer). Also se
e collaborative learning.
The relationship between two sets of data, that when one changes, the other is
likely to make a corresponding change. If the changes are in the same direction
, then there is a positive correlation. If it is in the opposite direction, then it is a n
A means of assisting and developing students and subordinates. A leader/instru
ctor counsels subordinates: to praise and reward good performance, to develop
teamwork, to inform students on how well or how poorly they are performing, to
assist students to reach required standards, to cause students to set personal a
nd professional goals, and to help students resolve personal problems.
A complete integrated series of lessons which are identified by a common title a
course management plan
A document that includes the course description and the administrative directio
ns for managing a course. Sometimes called a training management plan.
A chart that depicts the designed sequence for events of a course.
A full length course conducted in a target environment (facilities, instructors and
students) using the curriculum and supporting training material prepared for that
course. It has as its purpose the "shaking down" or "validating" of the curriculu
m and materials in a classroom situation to determine their effectiveness in attai
ning the approved learning objectives or training goals. Also called “pilot course
The media, either text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the instru
ctional content of the course.
Mental activity usually referred to as thinking. Behavior that is not directly obser
vable but may be inferred from overt behavior that is observable.
The standard by which something is measured. In training, the task or learning
objective standard is the measure of student performance. In test validation, it i
s the standard against which test instruments are correlated to indicate the acc
uracy with which they predict human performance in some specific area. In eval
uation it is the measure used to determine the adequacy of a product, process,
criterion referenced instruction
Testing of the objectives as a learner progresses through the course of instructi
on. Learners pass or fail depending upon their attainment of the objectives and
NOT in accordance with their rank or standing among peers.
critical incident technique
A methodology of task analysis which determines the tasks to be included in ins
truction. Experts identify the critical job incidents and their products. Incidents ar
e edited for redundancy, grouped into similar tasks, and then classified as positi
ve or negative incidents. The incidents are summarized and then validated by t
he experts for completeness. This is a useful means for obtaining a list of releva
nt, real-world tasks to be included in instruction.
Providing training in several different areas or functions. This provides backup
workers when the primary worker is unavailable.
A prompt that signals performance is needed. An initiating cue is a signal to beg
in performing a task or task performance step. An internal cue is a signal to go f
rom one element of a task to another. A terminating cue indicates task completi
The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment. The course
s are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier. In schools, a c
urriculum spans several grades, for example, the math curriculum. In business,
it can run for days, weeks, months, or years. Learners enter it at various points
depending on their job experience and the needs of the business.
The amount of time it takes learners to forget what they have learned in training
. The decay rate can be stopped or slowed by having them use their new skills
on the job.
An instructional design where rules are presented followed by examples. The e
mphasis is on forming conclusions.
Failure to meet a set performance standard.
Any method of transferring offerings to learners. Variants are instructor-led train
ing, web-based distance learning, online laboratory, CD-ROM, and books.
A learning experience in which students observe and then participate in a sequ
ence of events designed to teach a procedure, a technique, or an operation, fre
quently combining oral explanation with the operation or handling of systems, e
quipment, or materials.
dependent learning objective
Skills and knowledge in one learning objective that are related to those in anoth
er learning objective. In order to master one of the learning objectives, it is first
necessary to learn the other.
The second of the Instructional System Design phases. The learning objectives,
tests, and the required skills and knowledge for a task are constructed and seq
A technique for evaluating a proposed design to ensure that:
adequate resources are available to meet time deadlines.
it will work successfully.
it can be built within a reasonable cost.
it meets the organization's needs.
Any training delivered by computer at one's desk.
Training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. It enables
leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive r
ather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services
, and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual,
but not related to a specific present or future job.
Progressive testing of an instructional system before implementation to evaluat
e the effectiveness of the course. It consists of three phases:
individual testing - done with an individual learner to evaluate sequence and grammatical stru
cture or problem areas in the script while the material is still in draft format.
group tryout - done with individual learners to evaluate the final format after revisions are mad
e from the individual testing.
operational tryout - conducted by course personnel in the actual training situation before impl
ementation into the system.
The third of the Instructional System Design phases. The purpose of this phase
is to develop and validate the instructional material (courseware).
Instructional design in which the student is presented information and asked to r
espond to questions.
Test response feedback specific to the multiple choice answer selected by the s
One of several models available for use in selecting tasks for training. Using thi
s model, tasks are identifies as critical based on the difficulty, importance, and f
requency of job task performance.
Learning without a teacher; usually in a controlled (i.e. pre-designed) set-up, an
d under supervision.
The ability to choose between two closely related responses to a specific stimul
(1) The use of any media for self-study. (2) A telecommunications-based instruc
tional system evolved from the open learning movement used to overcome geo
graphical "place-based" learning. (3) In its most common historical form, this ref
ers to a broadcast of a lecture to distant locations, usually through video presen
Students take courses from a variety of sources (and delivery modes) to custo
mize a program of study. Often is used synonymously with online learning.
In testing, incorrect answers provided as choices in multiple choice or matching
type test items.
A standardized technique or procedure that prepares students to execute critica
l collective tasks in an instinctive and spontaneous manner. The drill includes th
e methods by which it is trained.
drill and practice
Ungraded verifications of comprehension of enabling objectives (e.g., questions
, exercises, and problems). A method of instruction characterized by systematic
repetition of concepts, examples, and practice problems. An ungraded practice
A combination of related tasks equal a duty, and duties combine to form a job.
Offerings that organize text and graphics into lessons or chapters like traditional
Training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who have been i
dentified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or u
pwards, or to increase their potential.
A complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, an
d organization, for analyzing problems, and devising, implementing, evaluating
and managing solutions to those problems, involved in all aspects of human lea
A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output expect
ed. Efficiency measures how well someone is performing relative to expectation
Covers a wide set of applications and processes such as web-based learning, c
omputer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes
the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet, audio and videotape, satell
ite, and CD-ROM. However, many organizations only consider it as a network-
enabled transfer of skills and knowledge.
electronic performance support system (EPSS)
Applications designed to run simultaneously with other applications or embedde
d within other applications that provide support for the user in accomplishing sp
ecific tasks. An EPSS may provide needed information, present job aids, and d
eliver just-in-time, context-sensitive training on demand. A Web-based performa
nce support system (WBPSS) is an EPSS which uses Web technology to delive
r support in an enterprise environment.
Components of a task or the smallest meaningful activity that describes what e
mployees in an industry are expected to be able to do. Elements combine to for
m a task, tasks combine to form a duty, and duties combine to from a job. Elem
ents depend on other elements and are always components of a procedure. Als
o, the sub-division of a unit of competence. The element encapsulates:
Skills - the performance of relevant tasks.
Management - the skills required to manage a group of tasks to achieve the overall job functi
Contingency management skills - i.e. responding to breakdowns in routines and procedures.
Job/role environment - i.e. responding to general aspects of the work role and environment, s
uch as natural constraints and working relationships.
enabling learning objective (ELO)
A statement in behavioral terms of what is expected of the student in demonstra
ting mastery at the knowledge and skill level necessary for achievement of a Te
rminal Learning Objective (TLO) or another ELO.
Specific competencies or skills a learner must have mastered before entering a
given instructional activity.
A branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits
of human knowledge. The study of how we know what we know.
An approach to job design that focuses on the interactions between the person
and the environmental elements such as the work station, light, sound, tools, et
The process of gathering information in order to make good decisions. It is broa
der than testing, and includes both subjective (opinion) input and objective (fact
) input. Evaluation can take many forms including memorization tests, portfolio
assessment, and self-reflection. There are at least six major reasons for evaluat
ing training, each requiring a different type of evaluation:
Improve the instruction (formative evaluation)
Promote individual growth and self-evaluation (evaluation by both trainer and learner)
Assess the degree of demonstrated achievement (summative evaluation attained by the teac
Diagnose future learning needs (of both trainer and learner)
Enhance one's sense of merit or worth (learner)
Identify or clarify desired behaviors (trainer).
evaluation hierarchy (four levels of evaluation model)
Donald Kirkpatrick identified the evaluation model most widely recognized today
in corporate training organizations. The Kirkpatrick Model addresses the four fu
ndamental behavior changes that occur as a result of training.
Level one is how participants feel about training (reaction). This level is often measured with
Level two determines if people memorized the material (learning). This is often accomplished
with pre-testing and post-testing.
Level three answers the question, "Do people use the information on the job?" This level addr
esses transference of new skills to the jobs (behavior change). This is often accomplished by
Level four measures the training effectiveness, "What result has the training achieved?" This
broad category is concerned with the impact of the program on the wider community (results).
A test or other measuring device used to determine achievement (go and no-go
) or the relative standing of an individual or group or a test objective (i.e., attitud
e, behavior, performance objective, and other attributes). Evaluation instrument
s include tests, rating forms, inventories, and standard interviews.
The fifth of Instructional System Design phases. The purpose of this phase is d
etermine the value or worth of the instructional program. This phase is actually
conducted during and between all the other phases.
A method for developing training programs. It includes both deterministic and in
cremental systems, in contrast to the systems approach, which is entirely deter
ministic. This means that in an evolutionary approach, tentative or short term go
als may be specified. This approach is particularly appropriate for situations wh
ere there is limited past experience from which to draw guidance.
Any learning based on experiencing: doing, exploring, and even living.
A learning activity having a behavioral based hierarchy that allows the student t
o experience and practice job related tasks and functions during a training sessi
A sub-level of the comprehension level of learning in which students develop su
fficient understanding to estimate trends or predict outcomes based upon the su
bject matter under study.
Students and teachers are in the same location at the same time.
A person who makes it easier for learners to learn by attempting to discover wh
at a learner is interested in knowing, and then determines the best way to make
that information available to the learner by providing the knowledge, systems, o
r materials which enable the learner to perform a task more effectively. This is d
one by listening, asking questions, providing ideas, suggesting alternatives, and
identifying possible resources.
The technique of gradually removing the teaching information in programmed s
equence to the point that the learner is required to perform the desired behavior
Providing learners with information about the nature of an action and its result i
n relation to some criterion of acceptability. It provides the flow of information ba
ck to the learner so that actual performance can be compared with planned perf
ormance. Feedback can be positive, negative, or neutral. Feedback is almost al
ways considered external while reinforcement can be external or intrinsic (i.e., g
enerated by the individual).
The focus of discussion between trainer and learner, as a result of which both p
arties review their objectives or approach.
Learning objects given to learners in order to achieve an answer. Their answer
will determine the next frame to proceed to. Learners proceed through these "bi
ts of data" until they have completed the required instruction.
The "front end" phase of the ISD or SAT process in which the job is analyzed, t
asks are selected for training, task performance measures are constructed, exis
ting courses are reviewed, and the instructional setting tentatively determined.
Organizing instruction such that tasks that relate to the same procedures or equ
ipment are presented together.
A technique in which the student is presented situations involving choice and ris
ks. The choices and the consequences resemble real-life situations, and the pla
yers are reinforced for various decisions. Gaming is typically an enjoyable learni
ng method for the student.
Responding in the same manner to several different stimuli.
Study of human learning where understanding is based upon insight.
To reach total understanding of a subject. From Robert Heinlein's Stranger in a
Strange Land. Now a magazine reporting on the internet.
group-paced instruction (lockstep)
Students progress as a group at a rate equal to that of the slowest student. The
re is no fixed minimum time for a unit.
Tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the target population t
o gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates, criterio
n test performance, and time to complete the course.
A complete self-instructional package that guides the learner through various m
ethods and media to achieve specific learning objectives and directs the learner
activities in the performance of a task.
guided discussion method
A learning experience in which students participate in an instructor-controlled, i
nteractive process of sharing information and experiences related to achieving
an instructional objective.
A document prepared specifically to provide guidance information. Handbooks
are used for the presentation of general information, procedural and technical u
se data, or design information related to commodities, processes, practices, an
Supporting information to be used by the learner as reference material in a train
Student practice on actual equipment, simulators, or training aids.
Skills to perform where job requirements are well defined in terms of actions to
be taken and expected outcomes.
A problem solving approach, not a direct step-by-step procedure, but a trial-and
-error approach frequently involving the act of learning.
The sum of the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and competencies of people in an o
rganization. Unlike structural capital, human capital is owned by the individuals
who have it. It is the renewable part of intellectual capital and is the source of cr
eativity and innovation.
Human Performance Improvement (HPI)
A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance improv
ement gaps, planning for future improvements in human performance, designin
g and developing cost-effective and ethically-justifiable interventions to close pe
rformance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial an
d nonfinancial results.
human resource development (HRD)
An organized learning experience, conducted in a definite time period, to increa
se the possibility of improving job performance and growth.
hybrid task analysis method
Involves both a quantitative analysis and consensus building. Using job task do
cuments, a list of tasks is compiled by an analyst. Through an iterative process i
nvolving consensus building, the validity of the task list is assessed by subject
matter experts, supervisors and job incumbents. Through discussions, each tas
k's complexity, importance and frequency are numerically rated by members of
the consensus group. Once the tasks are identified, the group identifies and vali
dates the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform each task.
The fourth of the Instructional System Design phases. The instruction is deliver
ed to the learners during this phase.
An instructional design where examples are presented and then followed by the
The delivery of information to enable learning. The process by which knowledge
and skills are transferred to students. Instruction applies to both training and ed
The procedures applied to an instructional goal in order to identify the relevant s
kills and their subordinate skills and information required for a learner to achiev
e the goal.
An initial estimate of what the instruction should do, and what it should look like.
The philosophy, methodology, and approach used to deliver information. Some
courseware aspects include question strategy, level of interaction, reinforcemen
t, and branching complexity.
Clear statements of behavior that learners are to demonstrate as a result of inst
A component of the instructional strategy defining a particular means for accom
plishing the objective. For example a traditional instructor led instructional strate
gy may be accomplished using the lecture method, a Socratic lecture technique
, and a defined step-by-step questioning procedure. Also called “method of instr
A self-contained instructional unit that includes one or more learning objectives,
appropriate learning materials and methods, and associated criterion-reference
The location and physical characteristics of the area in which instruction takes p
lace. The setting can be in a classroom, a laboratory, a field, or workplace locati
on. An example is: a clean, well lighted, temperature controlled classroom equi
pped with individual desks, chairs, and individual video monitors.
A portion of material to which the student makes a response. It is a stage in the
instructional process that represents progress in the student's mastery. A subje
ct to be taught is broken down into frames, items, or segments (steps). It is ass
umed that students cannot take later steps in a given sequence before taking th
e earlier step and that each segment or item represents a step forward.
The approach used to present information in a manner that achieves learning.
Approaches include tutorial, gaming, simulation, etc. Aspects of instructional str
ategies include the order of presentation, level of interaction, feedback, remedia
tion, testing strategies, and the medium used to present the information.
instructional systems design (ISD)
A formal process for designing training, be it computer-based or traditional instr
uctor-led training. The ISD process includes analysis, design, development, imp
lementation, and evaluation. Also known as System Approach to Training (SAT)
The use of technology (computers, compact disc, interactive media, modem, sa
tellite, teleconferencing, etc.) to support learning.
An individual who gives knowledge or information to learners in a systematic m
anner by presenting information, directing structured leaning experiences, and
managing group discussions and activities.
An umbrella term that includes both computer-based and multimedia training.
A segment of instruction that reviews recent learning to reinforce prior informati
Delivery of educational content via a Web browser over the internet or intranet.
It provides links to learning resources outside of the course, such as references
, email, bulletin boards, and discussion groups.
A major section of a lesson designed to establish a common ground between th
e presenter and students, to capture and hold attention, to outline the lesson an
d relate it to the overall course, to point out benefits to the student, and to lead t
he student into the body of the lesson; usually contains attention step, motivatio
n step, and overview. A segment that provides a general statement of the cours
e content, target population, why the student is studying the material, and appro
priate motivation to gain the student's attention.
What a person does at work to satisfy an employer's needs and expectations in
exchange for pay. A job consists of responsibilities, duties, and tasks that are d
efined and can be accomplished, measured, and rated. It is used as an employ
ment tool for classifying work and for selecting employees.
A device designed for use on the job and providing guidance on the performanc
e of a specific task or skill. May be printed or on-line. Used in situations where it
is not feasible or worthwhile to commit the procedure to memory before on-the-j
ob activity. Often these are paper-based and posted on the wall in plain sight or
in a small reference notebook. They can also be, decals, manuals, cards, etc.
Breaking down the complexity of a person's job into logical parts such as duties
and tasks. It identifies and organizes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes require
d to perform the job correctly. This is accomplished by gathering task activities
and requirements by observation, interviews, or other recording systems.
A formal statement of duties, qualifications, and responsibilities associated with
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs. It is associated
with the design of jobs to reduce employee dissatisfaction.
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs and an increase
in the control over those tasks. It is associated with the design of jobs and is an
extension of job enlargement.
just-in-time training (JITT):
A method of providing training when it is needed. Its advantages are:
Eliminates the need for refresher training due to subject knowledge loss experienced if trainin
g precedes, over an extended period of time (prevents decay if the learner cannot use the ma
terial upon returning to the job).
Prevents training being wasted on people who leave the job before the training they received
is used on the job.
Allows the learners to receive training when they need it...not weeks or months later.
1. The sum of what is known; a body of truths, principles, and information. 2. Sp
ecific information required for the student to develop the skills and attitudes for
effective accomplishment of the jobs, duties, and tasks.
knowledge level summary
A reiteration of key points of content in a knowledge-level lesson designed to en
hance a learner's ability to remember facts.
Capturing, organizing, and storing knowledge and experiences of individual wor
kers and groups within an organization and making it available to others in the o
rganization. The information is stored in a special database called a knowledge
base and is used to enhance organizational performance. Two of the most com
mon ways are:
Documenting individual's knowledge and disseminating through manuals or a database.
Using such tools as groupware, email, and the internet that facilitates communication.
knowledge mapping (mind maps)
A learning method similar to outlining that consists of drawing out circles and co
nnecting them with lines while writing words in the circles and on the lines.
There are three knowledge structures: declarative, procedural and strategic.
Declarative knowledge tells us why things work the way they do, or that the object or thing ha
s a particular name or location. It includes information about the concepts and elements in th
e domain and the relationships between them.
Procedural knowledge tells us how to perform a given task. It contains the discrete steps or a
ctions to be taken and the available alternatives to perform a given task. With practice, proce
dural knowledge can become an automatic process, thus allowing the human to perform a ta
sk without conscious awareness.
Strategic knowledge is comprised of information that is the basis of problem solving, such as
action plans to meet specific goals; knowledge of the context in which procedures should be i
mplemented; actions to be taken if a proposed solution fails; and how to respond if necessary
information is absent.
A question initiated by the presenter that is usually directed to a group of studen
ts at the beginning of a lesson or main point and designed to generate discussi
learner activity step
The step of learner activity based on the enabling objective. In achieving this ac
tivity the learner is carried through the teaching points and the teaching steps.
learner centered instruction
An instructional process in which the content is determined by the student’s nee
ds, the instructional materials are geared to the student’s abilities, and the instr
uctional design makes the students active participants.
The traits, such as reading level, possessed by learners that could affect their a
bility to learn. These characteristics are included in the target population descrip
a relatively permanent change in behavioral potentiality, that can be measured,
that occurs as a result of reinforced practice; gaining knowledge, skills, or devel
oping a behavior through study, instruction, or experience.
Events intended to promote trainee learning.
The analysis of each task or subject area to determine what the learner must do
upon completion of training, how well the learner must be able to do it, and wha
t skills and knowledge must be taught in order to meet the end-of-training requir
A curve reflecting the rate of improvement in performing a new task as a learner
practices and uses her newly acquired skills.
A decrease of learned skills over a period of time. Decay can be retarded by the
conduct of sustainment training.
A graphic display of the relationships among learning objectives in which some l
earning objectives must be mastered before others can be learned.
learning management system (LMS)
Infrastructure platform through which learning content is delivered and manage
d. A combination of software tools perform a variety of functions related to onlin
e and offline training administration and performance management.
learning package (courseware)
The media, either text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the instru
ctional content of the course.
A reusable chunk of information that is media independent. Includes Reusable I
nformation Objects (RIOs), educational objects, content objects, training compo
nents, nuggets, and chunks.
A statement of what the learners will be expected to do when they have comple
ted a specified course of instruction. It prescribes the conditions, behavior (actio
n), and standard of task performance for the training setting. An Enabling Learni
ng Objective measures an element of the Terminal Learning Objective. Someti
mes referred to as performance, instructional, or behavioral objectives.
Continually learning new KSA's (knowledge, skills, abilities or attitudes) and ap
plying them to improve product or service quality.
Any Website that offers learners or organizations consolidated access to learnin
g and training resources from multiple sources.
A sub-unit of a learning objective derived when the learning objective is analyze
d into its component parts.
The methods that students use to learn. This ranges from techniques for improv
ed memory to better studying or test taking strategies. For example, one learnin
g strategy program is SQ3R which suggests 5 steps:
Survey the material to be learned
develop Questions about the material
Read the material
Recall the key ideas
Review the material
A composite of the cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as r
elatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and respon
ds to the learning environment. Included in this definition are perceptual modalit
ies, information processing styles, and personality patterns.
learning style inventory
Kolb & Fry's Learning Style Inventory which theorizes that people develop prefe
rences for different learning styles in the same way that they develop any other
sort of style, i.e. - management, leadership, negotiating etc. The four predomina
nt styles are:
active experimentation (simulations, case study, homework). If this if the preferred style of the
learner then she is an Activist - what's new? I'm game for anything.
reflective observation (logs, journals, brainstorming). If this if the preferred style of the learner
then he is a Reflector - I'd like time to think about this.
abstract conceptualization (lecture, papers, analogies). If this if the preferred style of the learn
er then she is a Theorist - How does this relate to that?
concrete experience (laboratories, field work, observations). If this if the preferred style of the
learner then he is a Pragmatist - How can I apply this in practice?
learning style preferences (VAK)
Preferred method of learning for an individual:
Visual learners - gain knowledge best by seeing or reading what you're trying to teach.
Auditory learners - gain knowledge best by listening.
Kinesthetic learners - gain knowledge best by touching, moving, and doing.
learning taxonomy (Bloom's Hierarchy):
A taxonomic classification of cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviors for
the purposes of test design invented by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues. Le
arning is broken down into three domains:
affective: The manner in which we deal with things emotionally - our feelings, values, appreci
ation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. We can observe how learners are:
cognitive: The recall or recognition of specific facts, procedures, concepts, and universals tha
t serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. We are concerned with a learner'
s growth in:
psychomotor: Involves physical movement, coordination, and use of motor skill areas:
A segment of instruction that contains a learning objective and information to be
imparted to the student.
A written guide for trainers plans in order to achieve the intended learning outco
mes. It provides specific definition and direction on learning objectives, equipme
nt, instructional media material requirements, and conduct of the training.
levels of competence
There are four levels of competence
Unconscious incompetence: the learner is unaware that he cannot do a task
Conscious incompetence: the learner is aware of the task, but cannot do it
Conscious competence: the learner is able to think through a task step-by-step and do it
Unconscious competence: the learner can do the task without thinking about intermediate ste
A way of generating a quantitative value (numerical) to a qualitative questionnai
re (e.g. poor, fair, good, very good, excellent). Sometimes used on end of cours
e evaluation. (smile sheets) For an ascending five point scale incremental value
s are assigned to each category and a mean figure for all the responses is calc
ulated. (via the sum of the products of the categories' assigned value times the
number of respondents for that category, divided by the total number of respon
dents) Example: Total number of respondents=25, assigned values are; poor=1
, fair=2, good=3, very good=4, excellent=5; respondents selecting following cat
egories are; good=9, very good=10, excellent=6. The quantitative mean = ((9*3)
The concept of 'continuous personal development' through student centered (se
lf-actualized) learning. Lifelong learners demonstrate:
the ability to accept themselves as well as others
spontaneous but ethical behavior
a strong focus upon problems outside themselves
the ability to capitalize on the qualities of detachment and solitude
independent stability in the face of hard knocks
freshness of appreciation
deep feelings of identification, sympathy, and affection for humankind
profound interpersonal relationships
a democratic character structure
strong ethics with definite moral standards
philosophical, unhostile sense of humor
a special kind of creativeness
the ability to function independently as a part of the growing tip of humanity .
A programming method characterized by short steps of instruction, constructed
response, and a maximum amount of overt activity. The least desirable progra
mming technique. (see branching)
linear lesson design
A type of lesson design in which a student is presented with uni-dimensional or
straight line sequential material.
Meeting all of the specified minimum requirements for a specific performance.
A tool used to provide feedback to the learner and the trainer to determine wher
e the learner is in relation to the ultimate goal or objective.
The means by which material is presented to learners; e.g. film, slides, compute
A wise and trusted counselor. Three mentoring roles can exist in a work context
mainstream mentor - someone who acts as a guide, adviser and counselor at various stages
in someone's career destined for a senior position.
professional qualification mentor - someone required by a professional association to be app
ointed to guide a student through a program of study, leading to a professional qualification.
vocational qualification mentor; someone appointed to guide a candidate through a program
of development and the accumulation of evidence to prove competence to a standard.
Cognitive strategies that an individual applies to the processing of new informati
on in a novel situation (a scenario not previously experienced). These skills incl
ude chunking or organizing new information, recalling relevant schemas, adding
the new information to the old schemas, and creating new schemas.
Technique invented by Tony Buzan following research on note taking procedur
es which proved that if a learner writes down own key words then retention was
The way a teacher/learning activity is controlled; e.g. lecture, demonstration, pe
rformance, lockstep, individual paced, etc.
(1) A person that serves as a target subject for a learner to emulate. (2) A repre
sentation of a process or system that show the most important variables in the s
ystem in such a way that analysis of the model leads to insights into the system
The process of observing and mapping the successful behaviors of other peopl
The process by which courses are divided into separate elements - modules - w
hich are self contained.
A stand-alone instructional unit that is designed to satisfy one or more learning
objectives. A separate component complete within itself that can be taught, me
asured, and evaluated for a change or bypassed as a whole; one that is interch
angeable with others, used for assembly into units of differing size, complexity,
or function. A module consists of one or more lessons. Also called 밶nnex?or
A design element that causes and sustains interest or regulates activity for the
purpose of causing the student to perform in a desired way.
A segment of a lesson introduction in which a presenter provides specific reaso
ns why students need to learn the information being presented.
Applying the principle of chaining to a motor skill or procedural task.
An instructional system that incorporates all or various instructional methods an
d media. It describes any application that uses multiple media (graphics, text, a
nimation, audio, video), but multimedia is primarily thought of as any application
that uses high-bandwidth media (audio and video) and is most often delivered o
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Known formally as Jung's theory of personality type, first developed by Carl Jun
g in the early 1920's and more recently resurrected and made into a practical in
strument by Myers and Briggs. It is a particular test vehicle for personality typin
g. Personality typing essentially assumes that our whole personality can be divi
ded into four orthogonal (or independent) areas or scales:
extroversion (E) or introversion (I)
sensing (S) or intuition (N)
thinking (T) or feeling (F)
judging (J) or perceiving (P)
Within each scale we have a preference for one of two opposites that define the
scale. This makes for a total of 16 different combinations (2x2x2x2), each of
which defines one particular and unique personality type. Summary of the
overall personality for each of the 16 types:
ENFJ: "Pedagogue". Outstanding leader of groups. Can be aggressive at helping others to b
e the best that they can be. 5% of the total population.
INFJ: "Author". Strong drive and enjoyment to help others. Complex personality. 1% of the tot
ENFP: "Journalist". Uncanny sense of the motivations of others. Life is an exciting drama. 5%
of the total population.
INFP: "Questor". High capacity for caring. Calm and pleasant face to the world. High sense of
honor derived from internal values. 1% of the total population.
ENTJ: "Field Marshall". The basic driving force and need is to lead. Tend to seek a position of
responsibility and enjoys being an executive. 5% of the total population.
INTJ: "Scientist". Most self-confident and pragmatic of all the types. Decisions come very easi
ly. A builder of systems and the applier of theoretical models. 1% of the total population.
ENTP: "Inventor". Enthusiastic interest in everything and always sensitive to possibilities. Non
-conformist and innovative. 5% of the total population.
INTP: "Architect". Greatest precision in thought and language. Can readily discern contradicti
ons and inconsistencies. The world exists primarily to be understood. 1% of the total populati
ESTJ: "Administrator". Much in touch with the external environment. Very responsible. Pillar o
f strength. 13% of the total population.
ISTJ: "Trustee". Decisiveness in practical affairs. Guardian of time- honored institutions. Depe
ndable. 6% of the total population.
ESFJ: "Seller". Most sociable of all types. Nurturer of harmony. Outstanding host or hostesse
s. 13% of the total population.
ISFJ: "Conservator". Desires to be of service and to minister to individual needs - very loyal. 6
% of the total population.
ESTP: "Promoter". Action! When present, things begin to happen. Fiercely competitive. Entre
preneur. Often uses shock effect to get attention. Negotiator par excellence. 13% of the total
ESFP: "Entertainer". Radiates attractive warmth and optimism. Smooth, witty, charming, clev
er. Fun to be with. Very generous. 13% of the total population.
ISTP: "Artisan". Impulsive action. Life should be of impulse rather than of purpose. Action is a
n end to itself. Fearless, craves excitement, master of tools. 5% of the total population.
ISFP: "Artist". Interested in the fine arts. Expression primarily through action or art form. The
senses are keener than in other types. 5% of the total population.
A method used to determine training needs by reviewing work tasks, identifying
performance factors and objectives, and defining training objectives and recom
A systematic study that incorporates data and opinions from varied sources in o
rder to create, install and evaluate educational and informational products and s
ervices. The effort commences as a result of a "hand-off" from performance ana
lysis. Also known as training needs assessment, needs analysis, front end anal
ysis, task and subject matter analysis....
Problem identification process that looks at the difference between "what is" an
d "what should be" for a particular situation. A systematic study that incorporate
s data and opinions from varied sources in order to create, install and evaluate
educational and informational products and services. The effort commences as
a result of a "hand-off" from performance analysis. Also known as training need
s assessment, needs analysis, front end analysis, task and subject matter analy
neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)
Developed in the 1970's by John Grinder, professor of linguistics, and John Ban
dler, a mathematician. They produced a set of 'hypothetical' rules for self-mana
gement and one-to-one communication. Many practitioners now apply these rul
es to education, training, and development to allow learners to recognize their '
automatic' responses and behavior and apply strategies to control them.
The process of determining a student's achievement in relation to other student
In testing, the elimination of subjective bias by limiting choices to fixed alternativ
Formal training for learning the skills and knowledge to perform a job that takes
place in the actual work environment.
open-ended test item (open-ended response)
A question that can be answered in a variety of ways (e.g., an essay).
Behavior that is simply emitted by the organism rather than elicited by a known
optimum class size
The largest number of learners in a class that can be trained with no degradatio
n in training effectiveness. The constraining factor is the availability of equipme
nt, facilities, and manpower.
The largest step of instruction a learner is expected to master without frustration
Leading people on a different path than what they are accustomed to. Associat
ed with business planning. There are three main driving forces - people, technol
ogy, and information.
An instruction sheet that provides the student with an outline of the major teachi
ng points in the topic.
Practice beyond what is required for retention. Also called over training.
Behavior that is observable and measurable, as opposed to a convert response
, which is not publicly observable.
The process of stepping through the courseware using storyboards/scripts on th
e actual delivery system.
(1) An attachment to a programmed text that is necessary to the learner for com
pletion of the text. (2) A decision making body.
A process that refers to all the participation of all the functional areas of the org
anization in the training design activity. The intent is to enhance the design with
the input of all the key stakeholders. Such a process should ensure that the fina
l outcome of the design meets the needs of the stakeholders.
Learning where no feedback is provided to a user's response.
Literally means the art and science of educating children, pedagogy is often use
d as a synonym for teaching. Pedagogy embodies teacher-focused education.
Learning style that refers to the primary way our bodies take in and perceive inf
ormation; auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile.
The accomplishment of a task in accordance with a set standard of completene
ss and accuracy.
See job aid.
It is the process by which professionals partner with clients to identify and respo
nd to opportunities and problems, and through study of individuals and the orga
nization, to determine an appropriate cross-functional solution system. Perform
ance analysis is a systematic and systemic approach to engaging with the client
. It is the process by which we determine when and how to use education and i
Instruction which develops learner performance proficiency via task-based learn
ing objectives written with an action verb. Learners prove competency by actual
performance of the objectives to the established standards.
The breakdown of a learning objective into elements that must be correctly perf
ormed to determine whether each learner satisfactorily meets the performance
standards described in the learning objective.
Part of a learning objective that describes the observable learner behavior (or th
e product of that behavior) that is acceptable as proof that learning has occurre
The inability of a unit or individual to perform the required tasks to the establish
Causes of performance problems. Barriers which get in the way of optimal perfo
rmance, and influence the success of people and organizations.
A process of data collection and analysis to determine the success of learners o
n a specific task as a result of a training program.
performance evaluation tools
Competency tests that allow the trainer to profile the student's proficiency and i
dentify weak areas so that training can be efficiently planned for the areas of m
ost critical need.
Evidence that the individual can actually achieve the standard, meeting all the s
pecified performance criteria, is essential for a judgment of competence. Knowl
edge evidence alone is not enough. Performance evidence may be naturally oc
curring or the product of special assessment arrangements such as simulations
, projects and assignments.
A proficiency (criterion-referenced) test used to evaluate mastery of a task as s
pecified by the criterion-referenced objective.
The delta between desired and actual performance.
A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance improv
ement gaps, planning for future improvements in human performance, designin
g and developing cost-effective and ethically-justifiable interventions to close pe
rformance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial an
d nonfinancial results.
The actions that can be objectively observed and measured to determine if a ta
sk performer has performed the task to the prescribed standard.
A statement of the conditions, learner's behavior (action), and standard. A criteri
on for prescribing the desired learner performance. This is a generic term and
may be either a criterion objective or an enabling objective.
Training in which learning is accomplished through performance of the tasks or
supporting learning objectives under specific conditions until an established sta
ndard is met.
Observation of learner performance to rate productivity in terms of the performa
The identification of the separate acts that are required to satisfactorily complet
e an individual's performance on the job. It includes the act (behavior), the cond
itions under which the behavior is performed and the standard of performance r
equired by the incumbent.
A statement of requirements, in terms of the required results with criteria for veri
fying compliance, without stating the methods for achieving the required results.
A performance specification defines the functional requirements for the item, th
e environment in which it must operate, and interface and interchangeability ch
A single discrete operation, movement, or action that comprises part of a task.
Technologies designed to enhance human performance and capabilities in the
workplace. Also referred to as human performance technology, it is a systemati
c process of integrating practices from a vast breadth of fields such as instructio
nal technology, organizational development, motivation, feedback, human facto
rs, and employee selection.
personalized system of instruction (PSI) (Keller plan)
A teaching technique that involves dividing course material into segments, eval
uating learner performance on each segment for subject mastery, and allowing l
earners to move from segment to segment at their own pace.
A major part of a training course that contains one or more modules.
Training that has been compartmentalized into distinct phases to enhance traini
The total time involved in training personnel once they are designated as stude
nts. This includes time traveling to the training activity, time awaiting instruction,
time of actual training, time from termination of training until reporting back to th
e workplace; may include more than one training activity.
plan of instruction
A qualitative course control document designed for use primarily within a school
for course planning, organization, and operation. Generally, for every block of in
struction within a course there is a listing of criterion objectives, duration of instr
uction, and support materials/guidance factors. Also called “syllabus”.
A technique used during a training session that permits students to acquire and
practice the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to successfully perform
one or more training objectives.
practical exercise sheet
A description of the exercise, the actions to be performed by the student, the co
nditions under which they will perform, and how performance will be measured.
Repeated and systematic performance to gain proficiency using the psychomot
or, cognitive, and affective skills, acquired in the training phase. Initial practice o
ccurs while the student is acquiring skills; proficiency practice occurs at interval
s after training so that the skills may be refreshed. Practice enables the student
to perform the job proficiently.
The influence of previous experience in taking a test for the second time or mor
e. Familiarity with directions, types of items, and questions when taking a test a
gain usually helps the examinee to score higher. Practice effect is greatest whe
n the time interval between the test and retest is short and when the same form
The extent to which the test or expert opinion predicts how well students will act
ually perform on the job.
preferred modes indicator (PMI)
Every individual has a preferred mode(s), at both conscious and subconscious l
evels, determine the likely way in which situations will be perceived, reactions s
haped and behavior molded. Those modes are usually well rooted in significant
subsequent life events. (Similar to "Behavior Style Profile," which has the style
name listed in parentheses ( ) below). The Four Modes are:
"Be Popular" (persuader) people have strengths which are likely to lie in their ability to get alo
ng with people. They are often good communicators.
"Be Careful" (organizer) people have strengths that lie in their reliability and ability to do exact
ly what they are told. They follow procedures carefully.
"Be Strong" (controller) People have strengths that are likely to lie in a desire to take control o
f most situations and ensure that results are obtained.
"Be Perfect" (analyst) people's strengths are likely to lie in their pursuit of high quality results i
n everything they do. Goal oriented.
probability of deficient performance
Tasks selection criterion that ensures training is given in those essential job skill
s in which job incumbents frequently perform poorly.
A method for analyzing tasks that lend themselves to flowcharting.
A task for which a set of procedures has been published to produce the desired
results. The procedures may be either a single fixed array (linear) or a set of alt
ernatives on the contingencies encountered (branching).
A planned series of actions that advances a procedure from one stage of compl
etion to another. A process always has an input and an output.
A chart that represents the sequence of steps or tasks needed to complete an o
peration. It serves as a basis for examining and possibly improving the way the
operation is carried out.
An early stage in Instructional Systems Development (ISD) that identifies the st
eps in the process that will be used for the course under development. The pur
pose of the process evaluation is to describe and document the actual develop
mental process for this particular instruction.
A standard for a task which consists of a series of steps resulting in individual o
btaining a single result. The task is evaluated by observing the process and by
scoring each step or element as it is performed in terms, of sequence, complete
ness, accuracy, or speed.
Ability to perform a specific behavior (e.g., task, learning objective) to the establ
ished performance standard in order to demonstrate mastery of the behavior.
Training conducted to improve or maintain the capability of individuals and team
s to perform in a specified manner. Training to develop and maintain a given lev
el of skill in the individual or team performance of a particular task.
programmed instructional package (PIP)
All the components of a specific unit of programmed instruction, including the pr
ogrammed instructional materials, learning aids, instructor guide or manual, pre
tests and post tests, validation data, description of intended student target popu
lation, and objectives.
A procedure that provides information to the learner in small steps, guarantees i
mmediate feedback concerning whether or not the material was learned properl
y and allows the learner the pace with which she can go through the material.
A publication that uses programmed instruction principles, such as self-pacing,
controlled responding. feedback, etc.
Training which is sequenced to require increased levels of performance proficie
A word or signal that initiates or guides behavior; a cue.
Student performance of a simulated procedure under controlled circumstances.
The student is prompted, guided through the procedure, provided necessary re
mediation, given explanations, and help is provided. It usually consists of video
or graphic still frames.
An inexperienced person, usually younger, who is assigned to a mentor.
Involves physical movement and coordination. The Taxonomies major categori
es in order of ascending difficulty are:
Imitation: Observes skill and tries to repeat it.
Manipulation: Performs skill according to instruction rather than observation.
Precision: Reproduces a skill with accuracy, proportion and exactness. Usually performed ind
ependent of original source.
Articulation: Combines one or more skills in sequence with harmony and consistency.
Naturalization: Completes one or more skills with ease and becomes automatic.
Conformance to the requirements of a stated product or service attribute.
A short test administered by the instructor to measure achievement on material
recently taught or on any small, newly completed unit of work.
A portion of the target population in which there is a high degree of probability t
hat it contains at least some or all of the characteristics (educational level, back
ground, intelligence quotients, etc.) of the infinite target population. The selectio
n of the sampling is based on proven random sampling techniques (each sampl
e selected is based on pure chance).
reading grade level (RGL)
A number representing a person's ability to read and comprehend what they ar
e reading, equating to a given level of schooling in which a student should be c
apable of reading and comprehending the written matter (i.e., a RGL of 7 is repr
esentative of an individual being able to read and comprehend 7th grade subjec
t matter). A number representing the school grade level assigned to the comple
xity of reading materials. Formulas used to calculate reading grade level are us
ually based on length of words and sentences.
A meaningful way to study complex subjects by dividing it up into smaller comp
A task that requires frequent or continuous use of a reference during task perfor
A task that must be performed without the aid of references due to mission or jo
Used to reinforce previous training and/or sustain/regain previously acquired ski
lls and knowledge.
Affects the tendency to make a specific response again. It is either positive (incr
eases the response) or negative (decreases the response). Feedback is almost
always considered external while reinforcement can be external or intrinsic (i.e.,
generated by the individual).
Yielding comparable results each time. In examinations, reliability is consistenc
y; the same result is achieved on successive trials.
Supplemental course materials to correct a learner's understanding or to reinfor
ce the learning objective.
A segment of a lesson conclusion during which the presenter reminds students
why the information presented is important to the student as an individual so th
at student will have a desire to retain and use what they have learned.
Any behavior that results from a stimulus or stimuli. In instruction, it designates
a wide variety of behavior which may involve a single word, selection among alt
ernatives (multiple choice), the solution of a complex problem, the manipulation
of buttons or keys, etc.
An adjustive device that allows remedial instruction for learners.
A metaphor which describes the support offered by educators in assisting learn
ers to achieve learning outcomes. It is characterized by the explicit training of s
kills and knowledge targeting specific individuals, small groups or, where appro
priate, whole classes. Prior knowledge of the subject matter or the learning envi
ronment can help the learners regulate by providing a ready scaffold (stepping
stone, learning aid) for new knowledge, or by making the learning environment
easier to use so it doesn't displace the subject matter as the object of study.
In learning psychology, the way in which a human processes, store and "recreat
es" information coming into the brain.
Modification of existing formal courses into discrete portions.
Learning initiated and directed by the learner. Either for leisure learning or as a
result of being informed that we may need additional knowledge for a job, or sc
hool. More and more training departments are developing courses that employe
es go through at their own pace. The term is used by some organizations now t
o include computer-based, web-based and multimedia training.
A document containing a series of lessons arranged in discrete steps with self-t
est questions that allow the instructor to monitor the students' progress. It is use
d to guide the student through a controlled path of study and specific job tasks
with a minimum amount of supervision. An instructional document that provides
the student study material in support of objectives. This document contains the
objectives, sub-objectives, subject matter content, reference to adjunct reading
or study material, review exercises with feedback, and directions to interact with
training media including an instructor.
self teaching packages
Self instructional study units sent to the learner's location.
Arranging the teaching points, teaching steps, and criterion steps into the most
appropriate order for effective learning.
The ordering of training so that the learning of new or more complex skills/know
ledge is built on and reinforces previously learned material.
Location for training a learner. Also called a site.
The process of gradually changing a student's behavior until it conforms to the
Any representation or imitation of reality. An instructional strategy used to teach
problem solving, procedures, or operations by immersing learners in situations r
esembling reality. The learners actions can be analyzed, feedback about specifi
c errors provided, and performance can be scored. They provide safe environm
ents for users to practice real-world skills. They can be especially important in si
tuations where real errors would be too dangerous or too expensive.
sitting with Nellie
Discredited form of training where the learner observes an expert performing th
Six Thinking Hats
A strategy devised by Edward de Bono which requires learners and trainers to
extend their way of thinking about a topic by wearing a range of different ’thinkin
White hat thinking identifies the facts and details of a topic
Purple hat thinking examines the negative aspects of a topic
Yellow hat thinking focuses on the positive aspects of a topic
Red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of emotions and feelings
Green hat thinking requires imagination and lateral thinking about a topic
Blue hat thinking focuses on reflection, metacognition (thinking about the thinking that is requi
red), and the need to understand the big picture
The colors help learners to visualize six separate modes of
thinking and to convey something of the meaning of that thinking,
for example, red as pertaining to matters of the heart, white as
neutral and objective. Learners learn to reflect on their thinking
and to recognize that different thinking is required in different
The ability to perform a psychomotor activity that contributes to the effective per
formance of a job task.
skill retention model
A model which provides a numerical score for an individual task used in predicti
ng retention on that task. Of value for determining sustainment training require
An ability acquired for the performance of a task that may be used in the perfor
mance of a different task.
small group instruction (SGI)
A means of delivering training which places the responsibility for learning on the
student through participation in small groups led by small group leaders who se
rve as role models throughout the course. SGI uses small group processes, me
thods, and techniques to stimulate learning.
small group leader (SGL)
An instructor who facilitates role modeling, counseling, coaching, learning, and t
eam building in Small Group Instruction (SGI).
small group trial
Tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the student target pop
ulation to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates,
criterion test performance, and time to complete the course. Also called “trials”
or “tryout, small group”.
Skills needed to perform jobs where job requirements are defined in terms of ex
pected outcomes, but the process(es) to achieve the outcomes may vary widely
. Usually, an area of performance that does not have a definite beginning and e
nd (i.e., counseling, supervising, and managing).
Describes the criterion or standards of performance which must be attained. An
established norm against which measurements are compared. The time allowe
d to perform a task including the quality and quantity of work to be produced.
The length of time that should be required to perform a task through one compl
ete cycle. It assumes an average worker follows prescribed procedures and allo
ws time for rest to overcome fatigue.
The part of a test item that asks a question.
Still frames selected to show a process, such as raising an antenna, at different
points of completion.
Anything that provokes behavior. The event, situation, condition, signal, or cue t
o which a response must be made.
The correct response to a multiple choice situation
The part of a discrimination-type situation that tells the learner how to work the
exercise, or the stem to a discrimination type exercise.
The undesirable response in a multiple choice stimulus.
The portion of a discrimination-response type program that tells the learner the t
eaching point or information that she is expected to learn.
A series of pictures which support the action and content that will be contained i
n an audiovisual sequence.
The complete set of relationships between parts of a learning program as displa
yed in a course map or learning plan.
structured question or structured response
A question that can only be answered in a specific way (e.g., yes/no, true/false).
An individual who has been placed in a learning situation in order to acquire skil
ls, knowledge, and attitudes. Also called “learner” or "trainee".
student controlled instruction
An instructional environment in which the student can choose from a variety of i
nstructional options for achievement of the terminal objectives. Students can va
ry their rate of learning, the media used, and other such learning factors. Also c
alled "learner controlled instruction".
student population baseline data
Information about the current level of performance of the student population tha
t can be used to confirm the need to develop new instruction or to assess differ
ences between student performance before (at baseline) and after instruction.
Also called “baseline data”.
subject matter expert (SME)
A person who can perform a job or a selected group of tasks to standards. Her
experience and knowledge of the job designates her as a technical expert. She
must know what is critical to the performance of the task and what is nice-to-kn
ow. She must have recent job experience, otherwise, her knowledge of the task
may be outdated by new procedures or equipment.
Methodology developed by Georgi Lozanov. Sometimes called Super Learning
or Accelerated Learning. In broad terms, it is a research based technology and
an philosophy that uses learners' holistic natural talents to provide them the hig
hest probability of maximizing their learning, retention, and performance. It is su
pposed to create a stress-free, positive, joyful, psychologically and physically h
ealthy environment that enhances self-esteem and focuses on the needs of the
system approach to training (SAT)
See Instructional Systems Design (ISD) .
Using a facilitator, a small group of (3-10) subject matter experts convene to ide
ntify the various tasks to be performed. Through brainstorming and consensus
building, the team develops a sequential list of tasks. Following this process, th
e team determines which tasks should be trained. Task selection is based on th
e frequency, difficulty, criticality and the consequences of error or poor perform
The total collection of a population that is scheduled to enter a given instruction
The smallest essential part of a job. A unit of work activity that is a logical and n
ecessary action in the performance of a job. It can be described in simple terms
. Has an identifiable start and end point and results in a measurable accomplish
ment or product.
Involves the systematic process of identifying specific tasks to be trained; and a
detailed analysis of each of those tasks. Task analysis information can be used
as the foundation for: developing instructional objectives, identifying and selecti
ng appropriate instructional strategies, sequencing instructional content, identify
ing and selecting appropriate instructional media, and designing performance e
valuation tools. It is always done in the context of a specific job. It facilitates trai
ning program design by providing a description of the fundamental elements of
A trait of an activity that is conducive to communication through a defined senso
ry mode. Examples of attributes include tactile, olfactory, visual, aural, color, mo
tion, and interactivity.
task delay tolerance
An individual critical task selection factor. A measure of how much delay can be
tolerated between the time the need for task performance becomes evident and
the time actual performance must begin.
The degree of correspondence of cues and responses accompanying task perf
ormance on a training device to those characteristics of analogous performance
on the operational system/equipment.
List that itemizes all of the tasks that make up a selected job. Obtained from do
cument studies, task observations, questionnaires, SME interviews or a combin
ation of these.
task oriented instructional system (TOIS)
An instructional system in which the instruction is oriented toward what the lear
ner must do as a result of the instruction and not on the presentation itself.
task selection model
A model used to apply statistically valid task selection models to identify critical
individual tasks. There are a variety of models available for use. Some example
s of task selection models are as follows:
Difficulty-importance-frequency model. An individual critical task selection model that uses dif
ficulty, importance, and frequency factors.
Eight-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that uses percent performing, p
ercent time spent performing, consequence of inadequate performance, task delay tolerance,
frequency of performance, task learning difficulty, probability of deficient performance, and im
mediacy of performance.
Four-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that uses percent performance,
and task learning difficulty.
Training Emphasis (TE) model. An individual critical task selection model that uses the trainin
g emphasis factor to determine if a task is critical or not. The TE factor is collected from super
visors of job holders. It reflects how much emphasis the task should be given in training for a
A listing of the conditions, standards, performance steps, and performance mea
sures, references, and proponent for each individual critical task. Information is
extracted from the individual critical task analysis. The following are different typ
es of task summaries:
Reference-dependent task summary. A summary written for those tasks which require the trai
ned individual to refer to one or more publications while performing all or part of a task in wart
Reference-independent task summary. A summary written for those tasks that require the trai
ned individual to perform the task in wartime conditions from memory, without reference to an
The smallest increment of information to which a learner may be expected to re
spond; a statement of fact or a procedural step in the performance of a task; the
precise information you want a learner to know or respond to.
technique of delivery
Process or manner of delivering instruction that includes one or more methods.
For example, group-paced instruction could use conference, discussion, demon
stration, and practical exercise. A technique of delivery may involve a whole co
urse, a phase, or a module. Also called “instructional strategy”.
The behavior which the learner is to demonstrate after the learning experience.
terminal learning objective
Prescription of the conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performan
ce for the training setting. A learning objective at the highest level of learning (S
KA) appropriate to the human performance requirements a student will accompl
ish when successfully completing instruction.
A device or technique used to measure the performance, skill level, or knowled
ge of a learner on a specific subject matter. It usually involves quantification of r
esults -- a number that represents an ability or characteristic of the person bein
The degree to which the test resembles the actual task performed. The closer t
he resemblance, the higher the fidelity of the test.
Any device/technique used to measure the performance, skill level and knowled
ge of an individual. See appropriate types listed below:
Achievement test. A test for measuring an individual's attainment of knowledge/skills as the r
esult of specific teaching or training.
Aptitude test. A test or battery of tests designed to show a person's capacity for a particular ty
pe of behavior in a single field or in several related fields.
Comparative test. A test given at the completion of a major section of a course and, as requir
ed, at completion of a course to measure whether the student has mastered the course learni
Criterion-referenced test. A test that establishes whether or not a unit or individual performs t
he learning objective to the established standard. Performance is measured as a "go" or "no-
go" against a prescribed criterion or set of criteria - the learning objective standard. It is score
d based upon absolute standards, such as job competency, rather than upon relative standar
ds, such as class standings.
Diagnostic test. A test used to measure performance against a criterion and to identify specifi
c areas of weakness or strength in individual knowledge and skills.
End-of-course comprehensive test. An end-of-course test, administered to all initial entry stud
ents prior to graduation, designed to ensure a high probability that students can perform all cr
itical tasks taught in the course. It provides feedback on the need for both reinforcement traini
ng and course revisions.
Entry skills test. A test designed to determine if a student already possesses certain knowled
ge or skills needed as a prerequisite before undertaking new instruction.
Field test. Tryout of any training course on a representative sample of the student target popu
lation to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates, criterion test p
erformance, and time to complete the course.
Heuristic test. Heuristic or discovery tests will present problem-solving simulations that emula
te the on-the-job environment. These tests present the student with stimulus information that i
s inadequate, incomplete, ambiguous, or irrelevant to the simulated environment. The student
will be required to synthesize knowledge and apply training received in order to solve the job
Job performance test. A test used to determine whether an individual can perform a job. It ma
y include all job performance measures for a job or a subset of the job performance measure
Knowledge test. A test that measures the achievement of theory supporting skill through the
use of test items written at the appropriate knowledge and training levels.
Multiple-choice test. A type of selection test in which the student is asked to choose for each t
est item the answer(s) that is most correct.
Non-language test. Identical to the definition for "nonverbal test".
Nonverbal test. A test that requires little or no speaking, reading, or understanding of languag
e on the part of the examinee either in connection with comprehending directions or making r
esponses. Directions may be given pictorially or in pantomime. Also called "non-language tes
Norm-referenced test. A test that ranks a student in relation to the performance of other stude
nts in contrast to criterion-referenced testing wherein a student is measured against a prescri
bed performance standard.
Objective test. A test whose scoring requires no human judgment.
Performance test. An evaluation of the actual performance of the task or learning objective us
ing the conditions under which it will be performed and the absolute standards for acceptable
Post-test. A test administered to a student upon completion of a course or unit of instruction t
o measure learning achieved and to assess whether a student has mastered the objectives of
the course or unit of instruction.
Power test. A test in which items are usually arranged in order of increasing difficulty and in w
hich examinees are given all the time they need to complete as many items as they possibly
Pretest. A test administered to a student prior to entry into a course or unit of instruction to de
termine the technical skills (entering behaviors) the student already possesses in a given subj
ect. Often used to identify portions of the instruction the student can bypass.
Proficiency test. A test designed to measure a student's capabilities in terms of the job. It mea
sures both psychomotor and cognitive skills. A performance test is sometimes understood to
mean a skill demonstration, while a proficiency test is understood to be a comprehensive pro
cedure used to examine the student's capability to do what the job requires.
Progress test. A short test administered throughout a course to evaluate student progress. It i
s administered at strategic points in a course to determine the degree to which students are a
ccomplishing the learning or enabling objectives. Also called “within-course test”.
Qualifying test. A test administered to determine whether a student is qualified for a task that
the student has been selected or trained for, or for which the student is being considered. A q
ualifying test may also be applied to tests used for selecting personnel for training, although t
he usage is not so common.
Simple gaming test. Presents the student with fill-in-the-blank, multiple choice, matching, com
pletion, and true/false test items formatted and presented in a gaming style.
Simulated part-task performance test. Measures critical sub-sets of job task performance. Si
mulated part-task performance tests should meet the same construction criteria as simulated
Simulated performance test. A performance-based two dimensional simulation of the job perf
ormance required. A synthetic performance test.
Simulation performance test. A test that measures the student's ability to meet training objecti
ves by performing whole tasks or parts of tasks using simulators or simulations.
Speed test. A test in which the time limit is set so that almost no one can finish all the items o
r tasks making up the test.
Survey test. A criterion-referenced test used prior to the development of an instructional syste
m. It is administered to a sample of prospective students to determine what knowledge and s
kills should be put into the course of instruction. Also called "Threshold Knowledge Test (TKT
Threshold Knowledge Test (TKT). Identical to the definition for "survey test".
True-false test. A type of selection or alternate-response test in which the student indicates w
hether each of a number of statements is true or false.
Verbal test. Any test involving language. In general usage, the term is restricted to those tests
in which the questions and responses are mainly expressed in language or which use langua
ge to a substantial degree.
Within-course test. Identical to the definition for progress test.
Written test. A test in which an individual demonstrates their capabilities by responding to writ
ten test items. It is not usually a performance test, and hence is usually a measure of supporti
ng knowledge rather than skills.
test item analysis
The process of evaluating single test items by any of several methods. This usu
ally involves the determination of how well an individual item separates examin
ees, its relative difficulty value, and its correlation with some criterion of measur
The degree to which a test/test item gives consistent results each time it is used
The degree to which a test measures what it was designed to measure.
The basic organizational unit of instruction covering one or more closely related
An outline of the topics to be included in the instructor guide. It provides course
learning objectives, a listing of part, section, and topic titles and statements of r
ationale to explain or justify the training. It is used by the curriculum designer to
develop the instructor guides.
A person who directs the growth of learners by making them qualified or proficie
nt in a skill or task. Uses coaching, instructing, and facilitating techniques to acc
omplish the learning objectives.
Learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job.
An item to enhance training. May include charts, slides, and schematics
A summary describing how the required training is to be accomplished in terms
of type of training, presentation environment, presentation techniques, presenta
tion media, pipeline, location, and other considerations.
training cost effectiveness
Actual or predicted effectiveness in relation to life cycle cost.
The extent to which cue and response capabilities in training allow for the learni
ng and practice of specific tasks so that what is learned will transfer to performa
nce of the tasks in the operational environment.
A significant long-term activity, as opposed to a project. Normally defined as a li
ne item in the organization's budget.
An endeavor with a specific objective to be met within a prescribed time and dol
training task analysis
The process of examining each unique unit of work from the job task analysis to
derive descriptive information (e.g., procedural steps, elements, task conditions,
standards, and other information) used in the design, development and testing
of training products.
transfer of training
The ability of persons to effectively apply to the job the knowledge and skills the
y gain in dissimilar learning situation. Also, the learning in one situation that facil
itates learning (and therefore performance) in subsequent similar situations.
An instructional program that presents new information to the student efficiently
and provides practice exercises based on that information. A lesson design use
d to teach an entire concept. Interactive instruction that asks questions based o
n the information presented, requests student responses, and evaluates studen
t responses. It is self-paced, accommodates a variety of users, and generally in
volves some questioning, branching, and options for review.
A process of testing the effectiveness of instruction by administering the criterio
n test immediately after the instruction. Also, a process through which a course
is administered and revised until learners effectively attain the base line objectiv
The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Although t
here are several types of validity and different classification schemes for descri
bing validity there are two major types of validity that test developers must be c
oncerned with, they are content-related and criterion-related validity.
Design elements that repeat a segment of a lesson differently to enhance learni
Applying the principle of chaining to a verbal skill, (e.g. memorizing a poem).
vertical alignment of tasks
Tasks are vertically aligned when a task identified for a specific skill or organiza
tion level supports a task at the next higher skill level. Tasks in the same catego
ry (subject area) must be progressive, i.e., they show an increase in performanc
e required at the next higher skill level, the conditions and standard are more ex
acting, or there are increased supervisory responsibilities when compared to su
pporting tasks. The task should indicate the increase in required performance o
r supervisory responsibilities.
vertical alignment of training
Training is vertically aligned when tasks for a particular skill level are built upon
skills, knowledge, and behaviors gained during previous training and/or operatio
nal assignments. If tasks are in the same general categories, then their training
must be progressive -- they must show an increase in the skill level required to
accomplish them, the conditions and standards must be more exacting, or the t
asks represent increased supervisory responsibilities when compared to related
tasks trained earlier. Task statements should indicate the increase in required s
kill level or supervisory responsibility.
A variant of job rotation in which a separate work area is set up for a learner so
that the actual work situation does not pressure the learner, (e.g. cockpit simula
A test before the final acceptance or evaluation to verify that the training enviro
nment is ready for learning to take place.
web based instruction (WBI)
Web-based Instruction is delivered over public or private computer networks an
d displayed by a Web browser. WBI is available in many formats and several te
rms are linked to it; on-line courseware, distance education on-line, etc. WBI is
not downloaded CBT, but rather on-demand training stored in a server and acc
essed across a network. WBI can be updated very rapidly, and access to the tr
aining controlled by the training provider.
A handout that contains procedures and exercises designed to assist the learne
r in achieving the learning objectives.
A measure (usually computed as a percentage) of worker performance that co
mpares the standard time allowed to complete a task to the actual worker time t
o complete it.
The use of number of random samples to determine the frequency with which c
ertain activities are performed. Performance on a work sample is frequently use
d as a criterion against which prediction devices in evaluation are validated.