ability The capacity to perform an act, either innate or as the result of learning and pra ctice. ability grouping Arrangement whereby students are assigned to groups on the basis of aptitude testing. accelerated learning Combining adult learning theory and whole brain learning theory in the learning environment to achieve a faster learning rate. accuracy The degree of freedom from error or the degree of conformity to a standard. achievement A measurement of what a person knows or can do after training. action The specific behavior the learner is to exhibit after training. action maze A case study which has been programmed. Learners receive enough informatio n to take them to their first decision point. The decision then takes them to the n ext frame, which explains the consequence of their decision. This process is co ntinued until the maze has been completed. action learning This is a continuous process of learning and reflection with the intention of getti ng something done. It does not use project work, job rotation, or any form of a s imulation such as case studies or business games (see active learning). Learni ng is centered around the need to find a solution to a real problem. Most action learning programs take from four to nine months to complete. Learning is volunt ary and learner driven, while individual development is as important as finding t he solution to the problem. action verb A word that conveys action/behaviors and reflects the type of performance that i s to occur (i.e., place, cut, drive, open, hold). Action verbs reflect behaviors that are measurable, observable, verifiable, and reliable. active learning A process of learning new ideas, skills and attitudes through what we do at wor k or in other behavioral situations. It is about learning from doing, performing, a nd taking action. The action can be either mental (e.g. reflection) or physical (e. g. case study). It uses such devices as games, simulations, introspection, role p laying, etc. activity step The step of learner activity based on the enabling objective. In achieving the act ivity the learner is carried through the teaching points and the teaching steps. actuals Information about the current skills, knowledge, perspectives and environment of individuals in an organization. Specifics about what people now do. adaptive branching (adjustive device) Any of several techniques used in scheduling to accommodate individual differe nces. It may permit the student to bypass material they already know or may pr ovide them with additional instruction as needed. adjunct program A type of instructional device that applies programming principles to existing co urse materials, texts, manuals, etc. Learners are directed to specific areas withi n these materials that support course objectives; then directed to respond and g iven confirmation until they have progressed through the material and have acc omplished predetermined objectives. affective domain A classification of objectives that focus on the development of attitudes, beliefs, and values. Affective learning is about gaining new perceptions (e.g., self-confid ence, responsibility, respect, dependability, and personal relations). The taxono my of categories arranged in ascending order of difficulty are: Receiving: Aware of, passively attending to certain stimuli. Responding: Complies to given expectations by reacting to stimuli. Valuing: Displays behavior consistent with single belief or attitude in situations where not forc ed to obey. Organizing: Committed to a set of values as displayed by behavior. Characterizing: Total behavior consistent with internalized values. analysis phase First of the Instructional System Design phases. The purpose of this phase is to determine what the job holder must know or do on the job and to determine trai ning needs. Also see front-end analysis andragogy From the Greek words "anere", for adult and "agogus", the art and science of h elping students learn. Widely used by adult educators to describe the theory of adult learning. The term offers an alternative to pedagogy. The andragogic mod el asks that five issues be considered and addressed in formal learning: Letting learners know why something is important to learn - The need to know. Showing learners how to direct themselves through information - The need to be self directin g. Relating the topic to the learner's experiences - Greater volume and quality of experience. People will not learn until ready and motivated to learn - Readiness to learn. A need to have a life centered, task centered, or problem centered orientation - Often this req uires helping them overcome inhibitions, behaviors, and beliefs about learning. aptitude The ability of an individual to acquire a new skill or show the potential for acquiri ng a skill when given the opportunity and proper training. asynchronous learning Any learning event that is delivered after the original live event. Also used to indicate a learning event where the interaction is delayed over time, such as a correspondence course. assessment Essentially a measurement process of the learning that has either taken place o r can take place. Usually measured against stated learning outcomes: Predictive assessment attempts to measure what the learner might achieve given suitable trai ning. Attainment assessment attempts to measure what the learner knows or can do, and is usuall y related to the syllabus of a course the learner has followed. attitude A persisting feeling or emotion of a person that influences choice of action and r esponse to stimulus. Defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, situation). They enco mpass, or are closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon o ur experiences. Training that produces tangible results starts by changing beha vior...which ultimately changes attitudes. Training often uses the term attitude to identify the psychological term "affective domain." authoring A structured approach to developing all elements of a unit of instruction. authoring tool Software application used to produce media-based learning content bandwidth Information carrying capacity of a communication channel. baseline 1) Valid and reliable information about the intended learner population used to a scertain differences between learners' performances before and after instructio n. 2) A set of measurements (metrics) that seek to establish the current starting level of a performance. These measurements are usually established before im plementing improvement activities. behavior Any activity (either covert or overt) the learner will be expected to exhibit after tr aining. The activity should be observable and measurable. It is the primary com ponent of an objective. behaviorism Belief that learning results in a change in the learner's behavior. The focus of b ehaviorists is on the outputs of the learning process. The study of learning only through the examination and analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events, in contrast with subjective mental states. behavior modification The change in the knowledge, skills, or attitude of an individual which occurs as the result of a planned set and schedule of reinforcements. block of instruction A group of related instructional units or modules covering a major subject area. brain dominance An individual's preference for using one's cognitive abilities. There are two style s of thinking - right brain (intuitive, spontaneous, qualitative) and left brain (factu al, analytical and quantitative). branching An instructional technique, usually in the form of programmed text, in which the learner's next step of instruction is determined by her response to a previous st ep. Two or more directions in a program path can go from a decision point. Bricks and mortar schools A traditional school or class building. A Brick and Click school would be a combi nation of a traditional and online (click) school. broadcast Method of transferring learning content to many learners simultaneously. bypassing In programmed instruction, a technique that permits a student to skip certain po rtions of the material because of prior knowledge. case study A printed description of a problem situation that contains enough detail to enabl e the learners to recommend a solution. The learners encounter a real-life situat ion under the guidance of an instructor or computer in order to achieve an instru ctional objective. Control of the discussion comes through by the amount of the detail provided. causes What gets in the way of individual and organizational performance. There are fo ur kinds of causes: absence of skills and knowledge or information, weak motiv ation, improper environment, and flawed incentives. certification Program and process where a learner completes prescribed training and passe s an assessment with a minimum acceptable score. To increase validity and as sure authentication, the certification process should be proctored by an indepen dent agent. chaining An instructional technique that transforms a learned response into a stimulus fo r the next desired response. c-learning Classroom learning or conventional learning as compared to e-learning (electro nic). clustering A process of organizing many tasks into groups for the purpose of deciding upo n the optimal instructional setting mix for that group of tasks. Also pertains to se quencing groups of objectives within a course of instruction. coach A person who instructs, demonstrates, directs, and prompts learners. Generally concerned with methods rather than concepts. There are four coaching roles/st yles: hands-on - acting as an instructor for inexperienced learners. hands-off - developing high performance in experienced learners. supporter - helping learners use a flexible learning package. qualifier - helping a learner develop a specific requirement for a competence-based or profes sional qualification. cognitive From the Latin cogito; "I think". The mental processes of perception, memory, ju dgment, and reasoning. Cognitive also refers to attempts to identify a perspecti ve or theory in contrast to emphasizing observable behavior. cognitive domain Involves mental processes. The Taxonomy of categories arranged in ascending order of difficulty are: Knowledge: Recognition and recall of information. Comprehension: Interprets, translates or summarizes given information. Application: Uses information in a situation different from original learning context. Analysis: Separates wholes into parts until relationships are clear. Synthesis: Combines elements to form new entity from the original one. Evaluation: Involves acts of decision making based on criteria or rationale. cognitive engagement The intentional and purposeful processing of lesson content. Engagement, in ef fect, requires strategies that promote manipulation rather than memorization, as the means through which learners acquire both lesson knowledge and deeper c onceptual insight. Engagement can be elevated through a variety of activities s uch as inducing cognitive dissonance, posing argumentative questions requirin g the development of a supportable position, and causing learners to generate a prediction and rationale during a lesson. cognitivists Believe that learning occurs when learners are able to add new concepts and id eas to their cognitive structure by recognizing a relationship between something they already know and what they are learning. The focus of cognitivists is on th e inputs of the learning process. Cognitive theorists emphasize internal process es and knowledge representations which are impossible to observe directly, but which are inferred. collaborative learning A more radical departure from "cooperative learning". It involves learners worki ng together in small groups to develop their own answer through interaction and reaching consensus, not necessarily a known answer. Monitoring the groups or correcting "wrong" impressions is not the role of the trainer since there is no aut hority on what the answer should be. collective task A task that requires more than one individual to complete with each individual p erforming a discreet part of the collective task. common learning objective A learning objective written for a task element (supporting skill or knowledge) th at is common to two or more tasks. competency (1) Areas of personal capability that enable people to perform successfully in th eir jobs by completing task effectively. A competency can be knowledge, attitud es, skills, values, or personal values. Competency can be acquired through tale nt, experience, or training. (2) Competency comprises the specification of knowl edge and skill and the application of that knowledge and skill to the standard of performance required in employment. competency-based instruction Instruction that is organized around a set of learning objectives based upon the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a set of skills called compete ncies. Evaluation of student success is based on competent performance of the skills. Normative measurement is specifically excluded from competency-based instruction. completion item A test component requiring the completion of a statement, phrase, or concept. computer-assisted instruction (CAI) The use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction in which the system all ows for remediation based on answers but not for a change in the underlying pr ogram structure. computer-based training (CBT) Interactive instructional experience between a computer and a learner in which the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the learner responds, re sulting in progress toward increased skills or knowledge. Has a more complicat ed branching program of mediation and answering than CAI. Now an all-encom passing term used to describe any computer-delivered training including CD-R OM and the World Wide Web. Some people still use the term CBT to refer only to old-time text-only training. computer managed instruction (CMI) The use of computers and software to manage the instructional process. Functi ons of CMI can include a management administration system designed to track student performance over a period of time, provide information concerning perf ormance trends, record individual and group performance data, schedule trainin g, and provide support for other training management functions. concept A mental picture of a group of things that have common characteristics. A gener alization is a person’s idea of the relationships between two or more concepts. Concepts represent a group of solid objects, such as an airplane or book; or ab stract ideas such as leadership and honesty. A concept is an idea about a grou p of things. A concept involves thinking about what it is that makes those things belong to that one group. concept map (learning map) The arrangement of major concepts from a text or lecture into a visual arrange ment, Lines are drawn between associated concepts, and relationships betwee n the connected concepts are named. These concept maps reveal the structura l pattern in the material and provide the big picture. condition The component of an objective that describes the situation, environment, or limi tations in which the learner must exhibit the specified behavior. conditional branching Branching which occurs when a specified condition or set of conditions is satisfi ed. conditioned response A response that has been learned through employing a specific stimulus. confirmation Giving each learner knowledge of the results of each exercise throughout the in structional process. This reinforces or rewards the learner during the entire lear ning situation. constraint Any element or factor that prevents a person from reaching a higher lever of per formance with respect to her goal. constructed response An answer requiring recall or completion as opposed to recognition (e.g., drawi ng a diagram, filling in a form, and labeling the parts of a piece of equipment). constructivism School of human learning which believes in the need to identify current learning prior to constructing new meaning. Knowledge is seen as a mental construct th at is built on and added to. Learners create an image of what the world is like a nd how it operates and they adapt and transform their understanding of new ex periences in light of what they already '‘know'’. This theory of learning has cons equences for teaching and learning strategies. It means that trainers must reco gnize how a learner already sees the world, and how that learner believes it to operate. New information presented to the learner will be modified by what the l earner already knows and believes. By starting 'where the learner is at’, that is, engaging prior knowledge with present learning, the trainer assists the students to build on her understanding of the world and its workings. contiguity The almost simultaneous occurrence of stimulus and response in psychomotor skill learning. controlled pacing A programming principle that implies self-pacing within an instructional system. The information and learner activity are developed so that the learners can prog ress toward the criterion objectives according to their own learning ability. cooperative learning Involves the more conventional notion of cooperation, in that learners work in s mall groups on an assigned project or problem under the guidance of the trainer who monitors the groups, making sure the learners are staying on task and are coming up with the correct answers (if there is a right or a best answer). Also se e collaborative learning. correlation The relationship between two sets of data, that when one changes, the other is likely to make a corresponding change. If the changes are in the same direction , then there is a positive correlation. If it is in the opposite direction, then it is a n egative correlation. counseling A means of assisting and developing students and subordinates. A leader/instru ctor counsels subordinates: to praise and reward good performance, to develop teamwork, to inform students on how well or how poorly they are performing, to assist students to reach required standards, to cause students to set personal a nd professional goals, and to help students resolve personal problems. course A complete integrated series of lessons which are identified by a common title a nd/or number. course management plan A document that includes the course description and the administrative directio ns for managing a course. Sometimes called a training management plan. course map A chart that depicts the designed sequence for events of a course. course trials A full length course conducted in a target environment (facilities, instructors and students) using the curriculum and supporting training material prepared for that course. It has as its purpose the "shaking down" or "validating" of the curriculu m and materials in a classroom situation to determine their effectiveness in attai ning the approved learning objectives or training goals. Also called “pilot course ”. courseware The media, either text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the instru ctional content of the course. covert behavior Mental activity usually referred to as thinking. Behavior that is not directly obser vable but may be inferred from overt behavior that is observable. criterion The standard by which something is measured. In training, the task or learning objective standard is the measure of student performance. In test validation, it i s the standard against which test instruments are correlated to indicate the acc uracy with which they predict human performance in some specific area. In eval uation it is the measure used to determine the adequacy of a product, process, or behavior. criterion referenced instruction Testing of the objectives as a learner progresses through the course of instructi on. Learners pass or fail depending upon their attainment of the objectives and NOT in accordance with their rank or standing among peers. critical incident technique A methodology of task analysis which determines the tasks to be included in ins truction. Experts identify the critical job incidents and their products. Incidents ar e edited for redundancy, grouped into similar tasks, and then classified as positi ve or negative incidents. The incidents are summarized and then validated by t he experts for completeness. This is a useful means for obtaining a list of releva nt, real-world tasks to be included in instruction. cross-training Providing training in several different areas or functions. This provides backup workers when the primary worker is unavailable. cue A prompt that signals performance is needed. An initiating cue is a signal to beg in performing a task or task performance step. An internal cue is a signal to go f rom one element of a task to another. A terminating cue indicates task completi on. curriculum The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment. The course s are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier. In schools, a c urriculum spans several grades, for example, the math curriculum. In business, it can run for days, weeks, months, or years. Learners enter it at various points depending on their job experience and the needs of the business. decay rate The amount of time it takes learners to forget what they have learned in training . The decay rate can be stopped or slowed by having them use their new skills on the job. deductive design An instructional design where rules are presented followed by examples. The e mphasis is on forming conclusions. deficiency Failure to meet a set performance standard. delivery Any method of transferring offerings to learners. Variants are instructor-led train ing, web-based distance learning, online laboratory, CD-ROM, and books. demonstration-performance method A learning experience in which students observe and then participate in a sequ ence of events designed to teach a procedure, a technique, or an operation, fre quently combining oral explanation with the operation or handling of systems, e quipment, or materials. dependent learning objective Skills and knowledge in one learning objective that are related to those in anoth er learning objective. In order to master one of the learning objectives, it is first necessary to learn the other. design phase The second of the Instructional System Design phases. The learning objectives, tests, and the required skills and knowledge for a task are constructed and seq uenced. design review A technique for evaluating a proposed design to ensure that: adequate resources are available to meet time deadlines. it will work successfully. it can be built within a reasonable cost. it meets the organization's needs. desktop training Any training delivered by computer at one's desk. development Training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive r ather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services , and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job. developmental testing Progressive testing of an instructional system before implementation to evaluat e the effectiveness of the course. It consists of three phases: individual testing - done with an individual learner to evaluate sequence and grammatical stru cture or problem areas in the script while the material is still in draft format. group tryout - done with individual learners to evaluate the final format after revisions are mad e from the individual testing. operational tryout - conducted by course personnel in the actual training situation before impl ementation into the system. development phase The third of the Instructional System Design phases. The purpose of this phase is to develop and validate the instructional material (courseware). didactic design Instructional design in which the student is presented information and asked to r espond to questions. differential feedback Test response feedback specific to the multiple choice answer selected by the s tudent. difficulty-importance-frequency model One of several models available for use in selecting tasks for training. Using thi s model, tasks are identifies as critical based on the difficulty, importance, and f requency of job task performance. discovery learning Learning without a teacher; usually in a controlled (i.e. pre-designed) set-up, an d under supervision. discrimination The ability to choose between two closely related responses to a specific stimul us. distance learning (1) The use of any media for self-study. (2) A telecommunications-based instruc tional system evolved from the open learning movement used to overcome geo graphical "place-based" learning. (3) In its most common historical form, this ref ers to a broadcast of a lecture to distant locations, usually through video presen tations. distributed learning Students take courses from a variety of sources (and delivery modes) to custo mize a program of study. Often is used synonymously with online learning. distracter In testing, incorrect answers provided as choices in multiple choice or matching type test items. drill A standardized technique or procedure that prepares students to execute critica l collective tasks in an instinctive and spontaneous manner. The drill includes th e methods by which it is trained. drill and practice Ungraded verifications of comprehension of enabling objectives (e.g., questions , exercises, and problems). A method of instruction characterized by systematic repetition of concepts, examples, and practice problems. An ungraded practice quiz. duty A combination of related tasks equal a duty, and duties combine to form a job. e-book Offerings that organize text and graphics into lessons or chapters like traditional print books. education Training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who have been i dentified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or u pwards, or to increase their potential. educational technology A complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, an d organization, for analyzing problems, and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems, involved in all aspects of human lea rning. efficiency A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output expect ed. Efficiency measures how well someone is performing relative to expectation s. e-learning Covers a wide set of applications and processes such as web-based learning, c omputer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet, audio and videotape, satell ite, and CD-ROM. However, many organizations only consider it as a network- enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. electronic performance support system (EPSS) Applications designed to run simultaneously with other applications or embedde d within other applications that provide support for the user in accomplishing sp ecific tasks. An EPSS may provide needed information, present job aids, and d eliver just-in-time, context-sensitive training on demand. A Web-based performa nce support system (WBPSS) is an EPSS which uses Web technology to delive r support in an enterprise environment. elements Components of a task or the smallest meaningful activity that describes what e mployees in an industry are expected to be able to do. Elements combine to for m a task, tasks combine to form a duty, and duties combine to from a job. Elem ents depend on other elements and are always components of a procedure. Als o, the sub-division of a unit of competence. The element encapsulates: Skills - the performance of relevant tasks. Management - the skills required to manage a group of tasks to achieve the overall job functi on. Contingency management skills - i.e. responding to breakdowns in routines and procedures. Job/role environment - i.e. responding to general aspects of the work role and environment, s uch as natural constraints and working relationships. enabling learning objective (ELO) A statement in behavioral terms of what is expected of the student in demonstra ting mastery at the knowledge and skill level necessary for achievement of a Te rminal Learning Objective (TLO) or another ELO. entry behaviors Specific competencies or skills a learner must have mastered before entering a given instructional activity. epistemology A branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. The study of how we know what we know. ergonomics An approach to job design that focuses on the interactions between the person and the environmental elements such as the work station, light, sound, tools, et c. evaluation The process of gathering information in order to make good decisions. It is broa der than testing, and includes both subjective (opinion) input and objective (fact ) input. Evaluation can take many forms including memorization tests, portfolio assessment, and self-reflection. There are at least six major reasons for evaluat ing training, each requiring a different type of evaluation: Improve the instruction (formative evaluation) Promote individual growth and self-evaluation (evaluation by both trainer and learner) Assess the degree of demonstrated achievement (summative evaluation attained by the teac her) Diagnose future learning needs (of both trainer and learner) Enhance one's sense of merit or worth (learner) Identify or clarify desired behaviors (trainer). evaluation hierarchy (four levels of evaluation model) Donald Kirkpatrick identified the evaluation model most widely recognized today in corporate training organizations. The Kirkpatrick Model addresses the four fu ndamental behavior changes that occur as a result of training. Level one is how participants feel about training (reaction). This level is often measured with attitude questionnaires. Level two determines if people memorized the material (learning). This is often accomplished with pre-testing and post-testing. Level three answers the question, "Do people use the information on the job?" This level addr esses transference of new skills to the jobs (behavior change). This is often accomplished by observation. Level four measures the training effectiveness, "What result has the training achieved?" This broad category is concerned with the impact of the program on the wider community (results). evaluation instrument A test or other measuring device used to determine achievement (go and no-go ) or the relative standing of an individual or group or a test objective (i.e., attitud e, behavior, performance objective, and other attributes). Evaluation instrument s include tests, rating forms, inventories, and standard interviews. evaluation phase The fifth of Instructional System Design phases. The purpose of this phase is d etermine the value or worth of the instructional program. This phase is actually conducted during and between all the other phases. evolutionary approach A method for developing training programs. It includes both deterministic and in cremental systems, in contrast to the systems approach, which is entirely deter ministic. This means that in an evolutionary approach, tentative or short term go als may be specified. This approach is particularly appropriate for situations wh ere there is limited past experience from which to draw guidance. experiential education Any learning based on experiencing: doing, exploring, and even living. experiential learning A learning activity having a behavioral based hierarchy that allows the student t o experience and practice job related tasks and functions during a training sessi on. extrapolation A sub-level of the comprehension level of learning in which students develop su fficient understanding to estimate trends or predict outcomes based upon the su bject matter under study. face-to-face (F2F) Students and teachers are in the same location at the same time. facilitator A person who makes it easier for learners to learn by attempting to discover wh at a learner is interested in knowing, and then determines the best way to make that information available to the learner by providing the knowledge, systems, o r materials which enable the learner to perform a task more effectively. This is d one by listening, asking questions, providing ideas, suggesting alternatives, and identifying possible resources. fading The technique of gradually removing the teaching information in programmed s equence to the point that the learner is required to perform the desired behavior without assistance. feedback Providing learners with information about the nature of an action and its result i n relation to some criterion of acceptability. It provides the flow of information ba ck to the learner so that actual performance can be compared with planned perf ormance. Feedback can be positive, negative, or neutral. Feedback is almost al ways considered external while reinforcement can be external or intrinsic (i.e., g enerated by the individual). formative assessment The focus of discussion between trainer and learner, as a result of which both p arties review their objectives or approach. frame Learning objects given to learners in order to achieve an answer. Their answer will determine the next frame to proceed to. Learners proceed through these "bi ts of data" until they have completed the required instruction. front-end analysis The "front end" phase of the ISD or SAT process in which the job is analyzed, t asks are selected for training, task performance measures are constructed, exis ting courses are reviewed, and the instructional setting tentatively determined. functional grouping Organizing instruction such that tasks that relate to the same procedures or equ ipment are presented together. gaming A technique in which the student is presented situations involving choice and ris ks. The choices and the consequences resemble real-life situations, and the pla yers are reinforced for various decisions. Gaming is typically an enjoyable learni ng method for the student. generalizations Responding in the same manner to several different stimuli. Gestalt Study of human learning where understanding is based upon insight. Grok To reach total understanding of a subject. From Robert Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land. Now a magazine reporting on the internet. group-paced instruction (lockstep) Students progress as a group at a rate equal to that of the slowest student. The re is no fixed minimum time for a unit. group trial Tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the target population t o gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates, criterio n test performance, and time to complete the course. guidance package A complete self-instructional package that guides the learner through various m ethods and media to achieve specific learning objectives and directs the learner activities in the performance of a task. guided discussion method A learning experience in which students participate in an instructor-controlled, i nteractive process of sharing information and experiences related to achieving an instructional objective. handbook A document prepared specifically to provide guidance information. Handbooks are used for the presentation of general information, procedural and technical u se data, or design information related to commodities, processes, practices, an d services. handout Supporting information to be used by the learner as reference material in a train ing program. hands-on Student practice on actual equipment, simulators, or training aids. hard skills Skills to perform where job requirements are well defined in terms of actions to be taken and expected outcomes. heuristic routine A problem solving approach, not a direct step-by-step procedure, but a trial-and -error approach frequently involving the act of learning. human capital The sum of the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and competencies of people in an o rganization. Unlike structural capital, human capital is owned by the individuals who have it. It is the renewable part of intellectual capital and is the source of cr eativity and innovation. Human Performance Improvement (HPI) A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance improv ement gaps, planning for future improvements in human performance, designin g and developing cost-effective and ethically-justifiable interventions to close pe rformance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial an d nonfinancial results. human resource development (HRD) An organized learning experience, conducted in a definite time period, to increa se the possibility of improving job performance and growth. hybrid task analysis method Involves both a quantitative analysis and consensus building. Using job task do cuments, a list of tasks is compiled by an analyst. Through an iterative process i nvolving consensus building, the validity of the task list is assessed by subject matter experts, supervisors and job incumbents. Through discussions, each tas k's complexity, importance and frequency are numerically rated by members of the consensus group. Once the tasks are identified, the group identifies and vali dates the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform each task. implementation phase The fourth of the Instructional System Design phases. The instruction is deliver ed to the learners during this phase. inductive design An instructional design where examples are presented and then followed by the rule. instruction The delivery of information to enable learning. The process by which knowledge and skills are transferred to students. Instruction applies to both training and ed ucation. instructional analysis The procedures applied to an instructional goal in order to identify the relevant s kills and their subordinate skills and information required for a learner to achiev e the goal. instructional concept An initial estimate of what the instruction should do, and what it should look like. instructional design The philosophy, methodology, and approach used to deliver information. Some courseware aspects include question strategy, level of interaction, reinforcemen t, and branching complexity. instructional goals Clear statements of behavior that learners are to demonstrate as a result of inst ruction. instructional method A component of the instructional strategy defining a particular means for accom plishing the objective. For example a traditional instructor led instructional strate gy may be accomplished using the lecture method, a Socratic lecture technique , and a defined step-by-step questioning procedure. Also called “method of instr uction”. instructional module A self-contained instructional unit that includes one or more learning objectives, appropriate learning materials and methods, and associated criterion-reference measures. instructional setting The location and physical characteristics of the area in which instruction takes p lace. The setting can be in a classroom, a laboratory, a field, or workplace locati on. An example is: a clean, well lighted, temperature controlled classroom equi pped with individual desks, chairs, and individual video monitors. instructional step A portion of material to which the student makes a response. It is a stage in the instructional process that represents progress in the student's mastery. A subje ct to be taught is broken down into frames, items, or segments (steps). It is ass umed that students cannot take later steps in a given sequence before taking th e earlier step and that each segment or item represents a step forward. instructional strategy The approach used to present information in a manner that achieves learning. Approaches include tutorial, gaming, simulation, etc. Aspects of instructional str ategies include the order of presentation, level of interaction, feedback, remedia tion, testing strategies, and the medium used to present the information. instructional systems design (ISD) A formal process for designing training, be it computer-based or traditional instr uctor-led training. The ISD process includes analysis, design, development, imp lementation, and evaluation. Also known as System Approach to Training (SAT) . instructional technology The use of technology (computers, compact disc, interactive media, modem, sa tellite, teleconferencing, etc.) to support learning. instructor An individual who gives knowledge or information to learners in a systematic m anner by presenting information, directing structured leaning experiences, and managing group discussions and activities. interactive training An umbrella term that includes both computer-based and multimedia training. interim summary A segment of instruction that reviews recent learning to reinforce prior informati on. internet-based training Delivery of educational content via a Web browser over the internet or intranet. It provides links to learning resources outside of the course, such as references , email, bulletin boards, and discussion groups. introduction A major section of a lesson designed to establish a common ground between th e presenter and students, to capture and hold attention, to outline the lesson an d relate it to the overall course, to point out benefits to the student, and to lead t he student into the body of the lesson; usually contains attention step, motivatio n step, and overview. A segment that provides a general statement of the cours e content, target population, why the student is studying the material, and appro priate motivation to gain the student's attention. job What a person does at work to satisfy an employer's needs and expectations in exchange for pay. A job consists of responsibilities, duties, and tasks that are d efined and can be accomplished, measured, and rated. It is used as an employ ment tool for classifying work and for selecting employees. job aid A device designed for use on the job and providing guidance on the performanc e of a specific task or skill. May be printed or on-line. Used in situations where it is not feasible or worthwhile to commit the procedure to memory before on-the-j ob activity. Often these are paper-based and posted on the wall in plain sight or in a small reference notebook. They can also be, decals, manuals, cards, etc. job analysis Breaking down the complexity of a person's job into logical parts such as duties and tasks. It identifies and organizes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes require d to perform the job correctly. This is accomplished by gathering task activities and requirements by observation, interviews, or other recording systems. job description A formal statement of duties, qualifications, and responsibilities associated with a job. job enlargement An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs. It is associated with the design of jobs to reduce employee dissatisfaction. job enrichment An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs and an increase in the control over those tasks. It is associated with the design of jobs and is an extension of job enlargement. just-in-time training (JITT): A method of providing training when it is needed. Its advantages are: Eliminates the need for refresher training due to subject knowledge loss experienced if trainin g precedes, over an extended period of time (prevents decay if the learner cannot use the ma terial upon returning to the job). Prevents training being wasted on people who leave the job before the training they received is used on the job. Allows the learners to receive training when they need it...not weeks or months later. knowledge 1. The sum of what is known; a body of truths, principles, and information. 2. Sp ecific information required for the student to develop the skills and attitudes for effective accomplishment of the jobs, duties, and tasks. knowledge level summary A reiteration of key points of content in a knowledge-level lesson designed to en hance a learner's ability to remember facts. knowledge management Capturing, organizing, and storing knowledge and experiences of individual wor kers and groups within an organization and making it available to others in the o rganization. The information is stored in a special database called a knowledge base and is used to enhance organizational performance. Two of the most com mon ways are: Documenting individual's knowledge and disseminating through manuals or a database. Using such tools as groupware, email, and the internet that facilitates communication. knowledge mapping (mind maps) A learning method similar to outlining that consists of drawing out circles and co nnecting them with lines while writing words in the circles and on the lines. knowledge structures There are three knowledge structures: declarative, procedural and strategic. Declarative knowledge tells us why things work the way they do, or that the object or thing ha s a particular name or location. It includes information about the concepts and elements in th e domain and the relationships between them. Procedural knowledge tells us how to perform a given task. It contains the discrete steps or a ctions to be taken and the available alternatives to perform a given task. With practice, proce dural knowledge can become an automatic process, thus allowing the human to perform a ta sk without conscious awareness. Strategic knowledge is comprised of information that is the basis of problem solving, such as action plans to meet specific goals; knowledge of the context in which procedures should be i mplemented; actions to be taken if a proposed solution fails; and how to respond if necessary information is absent. lead-off question A question initiated by the presenter that is usually directed to a group of studen ts at the beginning of a lesson or main point and designed to generate discussi on. learner activity step The step of learner activity based on the enabling objective. In achieving this ac tivity the learner is carried through the teaching points and the teaching steps. learner centered instruction An instructional process in which the content is determined by the student’s nee ds, the instructional materials are geared to the student’s abilities, and the instr uctional design makes the students active participants. learner characteristics The traits, such as reading level, possessed by learners that could affect their a bility to learn. These characteristics are included in the target population descrip tion. learning a relatively permanent change in behavioral potentiality, that can be measured, that occurs as a result of reinforced practice; gaining knowledge, skills, or devel oping a behavior through study, instruction, or experience. learning activities Events intended to promote trainee learning. learning analysis The analysis of each task or subject area to determine what the learner must do upon completion of training, how well the learner must be able to do it, and wha t skills and knowledge must be taught in order to meet the end-of-training requir ement. learning curve A curve reflecting the rate of improvement in performing a new task as a learner practices and uses her newly acquired skills. learning decay A decrease of learned skills over a period of time. Decay can be retarded by the conduct of sustainment training. learning hierarchy A graphic display of the relationships among learning objectives in which some l earning objectives must be mastered before others can be learned. learning management system (LMS) Infrastructure platform through which learning content is delivered and manage d. A combination of software tools perform a variety of functions related to onlin e and offline training administration and performance management. learning package (courseware) The media, either text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the instru ctional content of the course. learning object A reusable chunk of information that is media independent. Includes Reusable I nformation Objects (RIOs), educational objects, content objects, training compo nents, nuggets, and chunks. learning objective A statement of what the learners will be expected to do when they have comple ted a specified course of instruction. It prescribes the conditions, behavior (actio n), and standard of task performance for the training setting. An Enabling Learni ng Objective measures an element of the Terminal Learning Objective. Someti mes referred to as performance, instructional, or behavioral objectives. learning organization Continually learning new KSA's (knowledge, skills, abilities or attitudes) and ap plying them to improve product or service quality. learning portal Any Website that offers learners or organizations consolidated access to learnin g and training resources from multiple sources. learning step A sub-unit of a learning objective derived when the learning objective is analyze d into its component parts. learning strategies The methods that students use to learn. This ranges from techniques for improv ed memory to better studying or test taking strategies. For example, one learnin g strategy program is SQ3R which suggests 5 steps: Survey the material to be learned develop Questions about the material Read the material Recall the key ideas Review the material learning style A composite of the cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as r elatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and respon ds to the learning environment. Included in this definition are perceptual modalit ies, information processing styles, and personality patterns. learning style inventory Kolb & Fry's Learning Style Inventory which theorizes that people develop prefe rences for different learning styles in the same way that they develop any other sort of style, i.e. - management, leadership, negotiating etc. The four predomina nt styles are: active experimentation (simulations, case study, homework). If this if the preferred style of the learner then she is an Activist - what's new? I'm game for anything. reflective observation (logs, journals, brainstorming). If this if the preferred style of the learner then he is a Reflector - I'd like time to think about this. abstract conceptualization (lecture, papers, analogies). If this if the preferred style of the learn er then she is a Theorist - How does this relate to that? concrete experience (laboratories, field work, observations). If this if the preferred style of the learner then he is a Pragmatist - How can I apply this in practice? learning style preferences (VAK) Preferred method of learning for an individual: Visual learners - gain knowledge best by seeing or reading what you're trying to teach. Auditory learners - gain knowledge best by listening. Kinesthetic learners - gain knowledge best by touching, moving, and doing. learning taxonomy (Bloom's Hierarchy): A taxonomic classification of cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviors for the purposes of test design invented by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues. Le arning is broken down into three domains: affective: The manner in which we deal with things emotionally - our feelings, values, appreci ation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. We can observe how learners are: cognitive: The recall or recognition of specific facts, procedures, concepts, and universals tha t serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. We are concerned with a learner' s growth in: psychomotor: Involves physical movement, coordination, and use of motor skill areas: lesson A segment of instruction that contains a learning objective and information to be imparted to the student. lesson plan A written guide for trainers plans in order to achieve the intended learning outco mes. It provides specific definition and direction on learning objectives, equipme nt, instructional media material requirements, and conduct of the training. levels of competence There are four levels of competence Unconscious incompetence: the learner is unaware that he cannot do a task Conscious incompetence: the learner is aware of the task, but cannot do it Conscious competence: the learner is able to think through a task step-by-step and do it Unconscious competence: the learner can do the task without thinking about intermediate ste ps Lickert Scale A way of generating a quantitative value (numerical) to a qualitative questionnai re (e.g. poor, fair, good, very good, excellent). Sometimes used on end of cours e evaluation. (smile sheets) For an ascending five point scale incremental value s are assigned to each category and a mean figure for all the responses is calc ulated. (via the sum of the products of the categories' assigned value times the number of respondents for that category, divided by the total number of respon dents) Example: Total number of respondents=25, assigned values are; poor=1 , fair=2, good=3, very good=4, excellent=5; respondents selecting following cat egories are; good=9, very good=10, excellent=6. The quantitative mean = ((9*3) +(10*4)+(6*5))/25=3.9 lifelong learning The concept of 'continuous personal development' through student centered (se lf-actualized) learning. Lifelong learners demonstrate: the ability to accept themselves as well as others spontaneous but ethical behavior a strong focus upon problems outside themselves the ability to capitalize on the qualities of detachment and solitude independent stability in the face of hard knocks freshness of appreciation deep feelings of identification, sympathy, and affection for humankind profound interpersonal relationships a democratic character structure strong ethics with definite moral standards philosophical, unhostile sense of humor a special kind of creativeness the ability to function independently as a part of the growing tip of humanity . linear A programming method characterized by short steps of instruction, constructed response, and a maximum amount of overt activity. The least desirable progra mming technique. (see branching) linear lesson design A type of lesson design in which a student is presented with uni-dimensional or straight line sequential material. mastery Meeting all of the specified minimum requirements for a specific performance. measurement A tool used to provide feedback to the learner and the trainer to determine wher e the learner is in relation to the ultimate goal or objective. media The means by which material is presented to learners; e.g. film, slides, compute rs, etc. mentor A wise and trusted counselor. Three mentoring roles can exist in a work context : mainstream mentor - someone who acts as a guide, adviser and counselor at various stages in someone's career destined for a senior position. professional qualification mentor - someone required by a professional association to be app ointed to guide a student through a program of study, leading to a professional qualification. vocational qualification mentor; someone appointed to guide a candidate through a program of development and the accumulation of evidence to prove competence to a standard. metaskills Cognitive strategies that an individual applies to the processing of new informati on in a novel situation (a scenario not previously experienced). These skills incl ude chunking or organizing new information, recalling relevant schemas, adding the new information to the old schemas, and creating new schemas. mind mapping Technique invented by Tony Buzan following research on note taking procedur es which proved that if a learner writes down own key words then retention was maximized. mode The way a teacher/learning activity is controlled; e.g. lecture, demonstration, pe rformance, lockstep, individual paced, etc. model (1) A person that serves as a target subject for a learner to emulate. (2) A repre sentation of a process or system that show the most important variables in the s ystem in such a way that analysis of the model leads to insights into the system . modeling The process of observing and mapping the successful behaviors of other peopl e. modularization The process by which courses are divided into separate elements - modules - w hich are self contained. module A stand-alone instructional unit that is designed to satisfy one or more learning objectives. A separate component complete within itself that can be taught, me asured, and evaluated for a change or bypassed as a whole; one that is interch angeable with others, used for assembly into units of differing size, complexity, or function. A module consists of one or more lessons. Also called 밶nnex?or 뱒ubcourse? motivational device A design element that causes and sustains interest or regulates activity for the purpose of causing the student to perform in a desired way. motivation step A segment of a lesson introduction in which a presenter provides specific reaso ns why students need to learn the information being presented. motor chaining Applying the principle of chaining to a motor skill or procedural task. multimedia training An instructional system that incorporates all or various instructional methods an d media. It describes any application that uses multiple media (graphics, text, a nimation, audio, video), but multimedia is primarily thought of as any application that uses high-bandwidth media (audio and video) and is most often delivered o n CD-ROM. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Known formally as Jung's theory of personality type, first developed by Carl Jun g in the early 1920's and more recently resurrected and made into a practical in strument by Myers and Briggs. It is a particular test vehicle for personality typin g. Personality typing essentially assumes that our whole personality can be divi ded into four orthogonal (or independent) areas or scales: extroversion (E) or introversion (I) sensing (S) or intuition (N) thinking (T) or feeling (F) judging (J) or perceiving (P) Within each scale we have a preference for one of two opposites that define the scale. This makes for a total of 16 different combinations (2x2x2x2), each of which defines one particular and unique personality type. Summary of the overall personality for each of the 16 types: ENFJ: "Pedagogue". Outstanding leader of groups. Can be aggressive at helping others to b e the best that they can be. 5% of the total population. INFJ: "Author". Strong drive and enjoyment to help others. Complex personality. 1% of the tot al population. ENFP: "Journalist". Uncanny sense of the motivations of others. Life is an exciting drama. 5% of the total population. INFP: "Questor". High capacity for caring. Calm and pleasant face to the world. High sense of honor derived from internal values. 1% of the total population. ENTJ: "Field Marshall". The basic driving force and need is to lead. Tend to seek a position of responsibility and enjoys being an executive. 5% of the total population. INTJ: "Scientist". Most self-confident and pragmatic of all the types. Decisions come very easi ly. A builder of systems and the applier of theoretical models. 1% of the total population. ENTP: "Inventor". Enthusiastic interest in everything and always sensitive to possibilities. Non -conformist and innovative. 5% of the total population. INTP: "Architect". Greatest precision in thought and language. Can readily discern contradicti ons and inconsistencies. The world exists primarily to be understood. 1% of the total populati on. ESTJ: "Administrator". Much in touch with the external environment. Very responsible. Pillar o f strength. 13% of the total population. ISTJ: "Trustee". Decisiveness in practical affairs. Guardian of time- honored institutions. Depe ndable. 6% of the total population. ESFJ: "Seller". Most sociable of all types. Nurturer of harmony. Outstanding host or hostesse s. 13% of the total population. ISFJ: "Conservator". Desires to be of service and to minister to individual needs - very loyal. 6 % of the total population. ESTP: "Promoter". Action! When present, things begin to happen. Fiercely competitive. Entre preneur. Often uses shock effect to get attention. Negotiator par excellence. 13% of the total population. ESFP: "Entertainer". Radiates attractive warmth and optimism. Smooth, witty, charming, clev er. Fun to be with. Very generous. 13% of the total population. ISTP: "Artisan". Impulsive action. Life should be of impulse rather than of purpose. Action is a n end to itself. Fearless, craves excitement, master of tools. 5% of the total population. ISFP: "Artist". Interested in the fine arts. Expression primarily through action or art form. The senses are keener than in other types. 5% of the total population. needs analysis A method used to determine training needs by reviewing work tasks, identifying performance factors and objectives, and defining training objectives and recom mendations. needs assessment A systematic study that incorporates data and opinions from varied sources in o rder to create, install and evaluate educational and informational products and s ervices. The effort commences as a result of a "hand-off" from performance ana lysis. Also known as training needs assessment, needs analysis, front end anal ysis, task and subject matter analysis.... needs assessment Problem identification process that looks at the difference between "what is" an d "what should be" for a particular situation. A systematic study that incorporate s data and opinions from varied sources in order to create, install and evaluate educational and informational products and services. The effort commences as a result of a "hand-off" from performance analysis. Also known as training need s assessment, needs analysis, front end analysis, task and subject matter analy sis. neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) Developed in the 1970's by John Grinder, professor of linguistics, and John Ban dler, a mathematician. They produced a set of 'hypothetical' rules for self-mana gement and one-to-one communication. Many practitioners now apply these rul es to education, training, and development to allow learners to recognize their ' automatic' responses and behavior and apply strategies to control them. norm-referenced measurement The process of determining a student's achievement in relation to other student s. objectivity In testing, the elimination of subjective bias by limiting choices to fixed alternativ es. on-the-job-training (OJT) Formal training for learning the skills and knowledge to perform a job that takes place in the actual work environment. open-ended test item (open-ended response) A question that can be answered in a variety of ways (e.g., an essay). operant behavior Behavior that is simply emitted by the organism rather than elicited by a known stimulus. optimum class size The largest number of learners in a class that can be trained with no degradatio n in training effectiveness. The constraining factor is the availability of equipme nt, facilities, and manpower. optimum step The largest step of instruction a learner is expected to master without frustration or boredom. organizational change Leading people on a different path than what they are accustomed to. Associat ed with business planning. There are three main driving forces - people, technol ogy, and information. outline sheet An instruction sheet that provides the student with an outline of the major teachi ng points in the topic. over learning Practice beyond what is required for retention. Also called over training. overt behavior Behavior that is observable and measurable, as opposed to a convert response , which is not publicly observable. paper validation The process of stepping through the courseware using storyboards/scripts on th e actual delivery system. panel (1) An attachment to a programmed text that is necessary to the learner for com pletion of the text. (2) A decision making body. participative design A process that refers to all the participation of all the functional areas of the org anization in the training design activity. The intent is to enhance the design with the input of all the key stakeholders. Such a process should ensure that the fina l outcome of the design meets the needs of the stakeholders. passive learning Learning where no feedback is provided to a user's response. pedagogy (pèd-e-go´jê) Literally means the art and science of educating children, pedagogy is often use d as a synonym for teaching. Pedagogy embodies teacher-focused education. perceptual modality Learning style that refers to the primary way our bodies take in and perceive inf ormation; auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile. performance The accomplishment of a task in accordance with a set standard of completene ss and accuracy. performance aid See job aid. performance analysis It is the process by which professionals partner with clients to identify and respo nd to opportunities and problems, and through study of individuals and the orga nization, to determine an appropriate cross-functional solution system. Perform ance analysis is a systematic and systemic approach to engaging with the client . It is the process by which we determine when and how to use education and i nformation resources. performance-based instruction Instruction which develops learner performance proficiency via task-based learn ing objectives written with an action verb. Learners prove competency by actual performance of the objectives to the established standards. performance checklist The breakdown of a learning objective into elements that must be correctly perf ormed to determine whether each learner satisfactorily meets the performance standards described in the learning objective. performance criteria/standard Part of a learning objective that describes the observable learner behavior (or th e product of that behavior) that is acceptable as proof that learning has occurre d. performance deficiency The inability of a unit or individual to perform the required tasks to the establish ed standard. performance drivers Causes of performance problems. Barriers which get in the way of optimal perfo rmance, and influence the success of people and organizations. performance evaluation A process of data collection and analysis to determine the success of learners o n a specific task as a result of a training program. performance evaluation tools Competency tests that allow the trainer to profile the student's proficiency and i dentify weak areas so that training can be efficiently planned for the areas of m ost critical need. performance evidence Evidence that the individual can actually achieve the standard, meeting all the s pecified performance criteria, is essential for a judgment of competence. Knowl edge evidence alone is not enough. Performance evidence may be naturally oc curring or the product of special assessment arrangements such as simulations , projects and assignments. performance exercise A proficiency (criterion-referenced) test used to evaluate mastery of a task as s pecified by the criterion-referenced objective. performance gap The delta between desired and actual performance. performance improvement A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance improv ement gaps, planning for future improvements in human performance, designin g and developing cost-effective and ethically-justifiable interventions to close pe rformance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial an d nonfinancial results. performance measures The actions that can be objectively observed and measured to determine if a ta sk performer has performed the task to the prescribed standard. performance objective A statement of the conditions, learner's behavior (action), and standard. A criteri on for prescribing the desired learner performance. This is a generic term and may be either a criterion objective or an enabling objective. performance-oriented training Training in which learning is accomplished through performance of the tasks or supporting learning objectives under specific conditions until an established sta ndard is met. performance rating Observation of learner performance to rate productivity in terms of the performa nce standard. performance requirements The identification of the separate acts that are required to satisfactorily complet e an individual's performance on the job. It includes the act (behavior), the cond itions under which the behavior is performed and the standard of performance r equired by the incumbent. performance specification A statement of requirements, in terms of the required results with criteria for veri fying compliance, without stating the methods for achieving the required results. A performance specification defines the functional requirements for the item, th e environment in which it must operate, and interface and interchangeability ch aracteristics. performance step A single discrete operation, movement, or action that comprises part of a task. performance technology Technologies designed to enhance human performance and capabilities in the workplace. Also referred to as human performance technology, it is a systemati c process of integrating practices from a vast breadth of fields such as instructio nal technology, organizational development, motivation, feedback, human facto rs, and employee selection. personalized system of instruction (PSI) (Keller plan) A teaching technique that involves dividing course material into segments, eval uating learner performance on each segment for subject mastery, and allowing l earners to move from segment to segment at their own pace. phase A major part of a training course that contains one or more modules. phased training Training that has been compartmentalized into distinct phases to enhance traini ng. pipeline The total time involved in training personnel once they are designated as stude nts. This includes time traveling to the training activity, time awaiting instruction, time of actual training, time from termination of training until reporting back to th e workplace; may include more than one training activity. plan of instruction A qualitative course control document designed for use primarily within a school for course planning, organization, and operation. Generally, for every block of in struction within a course there is a listing of criterion objectives, duration of instr uction, and support materials/guidance factors. Also called “syllabus”. practical exercise A technique used during a training session that permits students to acquire and practice the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to successfully perform one or more training objectives. practical exercise sheet A description of the exercise, the actions to be performed by the student, the co nditions under which they will perform, and how performance will be measured. practice Repeated and systematic performance to gain proficiency using the psychomot or, cognitive, and affective skills, acquired in the training phase. Initial practice o ccurs while the student is acquiring skills; proficiency practice occurs at interval s after training so that the skills may be refreshed. Practice enables the student to perform the job proficiently. practice effect The influence of previous experience in taking a test for the second time or mor e. Familiarity with directions, types of items, and questions when taking a test a gain usually helps the examinee to score higher. Practice effect is greatest whe n the time interval between the test and retest is short and when the same form is administered. predictive validity The extent to which the test or expert opinion predicts how well students will act ually perform on the job. preferred modes indicator (PMI) Every individual has a preferred mode(s), at both conscious and subconscious l evels, determine the likely way in which situations will be perceived, reactions s haped and behavior molded. Those modes are usually well rooted in significant subsequent life events. (Similar to "Behavior Style Profile," which has the style name listed in parentheses ( ) below). The Four Modes are: "Be Popular" (persuader) people have strengths which are likely to lie in their ability to get alo ng with people. They are often good communicators. "Be Careful" (organizer) people have strengths that lie in their reliability and ability to do exact ly what they are told. They follow procedures carefully. "Be Strong" (controller) People have strengths that are likely to lie in a desire to take control o f most situations and ensure that results are obtained. "Be Perfect" (analyst) people's strengths are likely to lie in their pursuit of high quality results i n everything they do. Goal oriented. probability of deficient performance Tasks selection criterion that ensures training is given in those essential job skill s in which job incumbents frequently perform poorly. procedural analysis A method for analyzing tasks that lend themselves to flowcharting. procedural task A task for which a set of procedures has been published to produce the desired results. The procedures may be either a single fixed array (linear) or a set of alt ernatives on the contingencies encountered (branching). process A planned series of actions that advances a procedure from one stage of compl etion to another. A process always has an input and an output. process chart A chart that represents the sequence of steps or tasks needed to complete an o peration. It serves as a basis for examining and possibly improving the way the operation is carried out. process evaluation An early stage in Instructional Systems Development (ISD) that identifies the st eps in the process that will be used for the course under development. The pur pose of the process evaluation is to describe and document the actual develop mental process for this particular instruction. process standard A standard for a task which consists of a series of steps resulting in individual o btaining a single result. The task is evaluated by observing the process and by scoring each step or element as it is performed in terms, of sequence, complete ness, accuracy, or speed. proficiency Ability to perform a specific behavior (e.g., task, learning objective) to the establ ished performance standard in order to demonstrate mastery of the behavior. proficiency training Training conducted to improve or maintain the capability of individuals and team s to perform in a specified manner. Training to develop and maintain a given lev el of skill in the individual or team performance of a particular task. programmed instructional package (PIP) All the components of a specific unit of programmed instruction, including the pr ogrammed instructional materials, learning aids, instructor guide or manual, pre tests and post tests, validation data, description of intended student target popu lation, and objectives. programmed learning A procedure that provides information to the learner in small steps, guarantees i mmediate feedback concerning whether or not the material was learned properl y and allows the learner the pace with which she can go through the material. programmed text A publication that uses programmed instruction principles, such as self-pacing, controlled responding. feedback, etc. progressive training Training which is sequenced to require increased levels of performance proficie ncy. prompt A word or signal that initiates or guides behavior; a cue. prompted simulation Student performance of a simulated procedure under controlled circumstances. The student is prompted, guided through the procedure, provided necessary re mediation, given explanations, and help is provided. It usually consists of video or graphic still frames. protégé An inexperienced person, usually younger, who is assigned to a mentor. psychomotor domain Involves physical movement and coordination. The Taxonomies major categori es in order of ascending difficulty are: Imitation: Observes skill and tries to repeat it. Manipulation: Performs skill according to instruction rather than observation. Precision: Reproduces a skill with accuracy, proportion and exactness. Usually performed ind ependent of original source. Articulation: Combines one or more skills in sequence with harmony and consistency. Naturalization: Completes one or more skills with ease and becomes automatic. quality Conformance to the requirements of a stated product or service attribute. quiz A short test administered by the instructor to measure achievement on material recently taught or on any small, newly completed unit of work. random sampling A portion of the target population in which there is a high degree of probability t hat it contains at least some or all of the characteristics (educational level, back ground, intelligence quotients, etc.) of the infinite target population. The selectio n of the sampling is based on proven random sampling techniques (each sampl e selected is based on pure chance). reading grade level (RGL) A number representing a person's ability to read and comprehend what they ar e reading, equating to a given level of schooling in which a student should be c apable of reading and comprehending the written matter (i.e., a RGL of 7 is repr esentative of an individual being able to read and comprehend 7th grade subjec t matter). A number representing the school grade level assigned to the comple xity of reading materials. Formulas used to calculate reading grade level are us ually based on length of words and sentences. reductionism A meaningful way to study complex subjects by dividing it up into smaller comp onents. reference-dependent task A task that requires frequent or continuous use of a reference during task perfor mance. reference-independent task A task that must be performed without the aid of references due to mission or jo b requirements. refresher training Used to reinforce previous training and/or sustain/regain previously acquired ski lls and knowledge. reinforcement Affects the tendency to make a specific response again. It is either positive (incr eases the response) or negative (decreases the response). Feedback is almost always considered external while reinforcement can be external or intrinsic (i.e., generated by the individual). reliability Yielding comparable results each time. In examinations, reliability is consistenc y; the same result is achieved on successive trials. remediation Supplemental course materials to correct a learner's understanding or to reinfor ce the learning objective. remotivation step A segment of a lesson conclusion during which the presenter reminds students why the information presented is important to the student as an individual so th at student will have a desire to retain and use what they have learned. response Any behavior that results from a stimulus or stimuli. In instruction, it designates a wide variety of behavior which may involve a single word, selection among alt ernatives (multiple choice), the solution of a complex problem, the manipulation of buttons or keys, etc. remedial loop An adjustive device that allows remedial instruction for learners. scaffold A metaphor which describes the support offered by educators in assisting learn ers to achieve learning outcomes. It is characterized by the explicit training of s kills and knowledge targeting specific individuals, small groups or, where appro priate, whole classes. Prior knowledge of the subject matter or the learning envi ronment can help the learners regulate by providing a ready scaffold (stepping stone, learning aid) for new knowledge, or by making the learning environment easier to use so it doesn't displace the subject matter as the object of study. schema In learning psychology, the way in which a human processes, store and "recreat es" information coming into the brain. segmented training Modification of existing formal courses into discrete portions. self-paced learning Learning initiated and directed by the learner. Either for leisure learning or as a result of being informed that we may need additional knowledge for a job, or sc hool. More and more training departments are developing courses that employe es go through at their own pace. The term is used by some organizations now t o include computer-based, web-based and multimedia training. self-study workbook/guide A document containing a series of lessons arranged in discrete steps with self-t est questions that allow the instructor to monitor the students' progress. It is use d to guide the student through a controlled path of study and specific job tasks with a minimum amount of supervision. An instructional document that provides the student study material in support of objectives. This document contains the objectives, sub-objectives, subject matter content, reference to adjunct reading or study material, review exercises with feedback, and directions to interact with training media including an instructor. self teaching packages Self instructional study units sent to the learner's location. sequencing Arranging the teaching points, teaching steps, and criterion steps into the most appropriate order for effective learning. sequential training The ordering of training so that the learning of new or more complex skills/know ledge is built on and reinforces previously learned material. setting Location for training a learner. Also called a site. shaping The process of gradually changing a student's behavior until it conforms to the desired behavior. simulation Any representation or imitation of reality. An instructional strategy used to teach problem solving, procedures, or operations by immersing learners in situations r esembling reality. The learners actions can be analyzed, feedback about specifi c errors provided, and performance can be scored. They provide safe environm ents for users to practice real-world skills. They can be especially important in si tuations where real errors would be too dangerous or too expensive. sitting with Nellie Discredited form of training where the learner observes an expert performing th e tasks. Six Thinking Hats A strategy devised by Edward de Bono which requires learners and trainers to extend their way of thinking about a topic by wearing a range of different ’thinkin g‘ hats: White hat thinking identifies the facts and details of a topic Purple hat thinking examines the negative aspects of a topic Yellow hat thinking focuses on the positive aspects of a topic Red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of emotions and feelings Green hat thinking requires imagination and lateral thinking about a topic Blue hat thinking focuses on reflection, metacognition (thinking about the thinking that is requi red), and the need to understand the big picture The colors help learners to visualize six separate modes of thinking and to convey something of the meaning of that thinking, for example, red as pertaining to matters of the heart, white as neutral and objective. Learners learn to reflect on their thinking and to recognize that different thinking is required in different learning situations. skill The ability to perform a psychomotor activity that contributes to the effective per formance of a job task. skill retention model A model which provides a numerical score for an individual task used in predicti ng retention on that task. Of value for determining sustainment training require ments. skills transfer An ability acquired for the performance of a task that may be used in the perfor mance of a different task. small group instruction (SGI) A means of delivering training which places the responsibility for learning on the student through participation in small groups led by small group leaders who se rve as role models throughout the course. SGI uses small group processes, me thods, and techniques to stimulate learning. small group leader (SGL) An instructor who facilitates role modeling, counseling, coaching, learning, and t eam building in Small Group Instruction (SGI). small group trial Tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the student target pop ulation to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates, criterion test performance, and time to complete the course. Also called “trials” or “tryout, small group”. soft skills Skills needed to perform jobs where job requirements are defined in terms of ex pected outcomes, but the process(es) to achieve the outcomes may vary widely . Usually, an area of performance that does not have a definite beginning and e nd (i.e., counseling, supervising, and managing). standards Describes the criterion or standards of performance which must be attained. An established norm against which measurements are compared. The time allowe d to perform a task including the quality and quantity of work to be produced. standard time The length of time that should be required to perform a task through one compl ete cycle. It assumes an average worker follows prescribed procedures and allo ws time for rest to overcome fatigue. stem The part of a test item that asks a question. stepped skills Still frames selected to show a process, such as raising an antenna, at different points of completion. stimulus Anything that provokes behavior. The event, situation, condition, signal, or cue t o which a response must be made. stimulus discrimination The correct response to a multiple choice situation stimulus instruction The part of a discrimination-type situation that tells the learner how to work the exercise, or the stem to a discrimination type exercise. stimulus nondiscrimination The undesirable response in a multiple choice stimulus. stimulus prompt The portion of a discrimination-response type program that tells the learner the t eaching point or information that she is expected to learn. storyboard A series of pictures which support the action and content that will be contained i n an audiovisual sequence. structure The complete set of relationships between parts of a learning program as displa yed in a course map or learning plan. structured question or structured response A question that can only be answered in a specific way (e.g., yes/no, true/false). student An individual who has been placed in a learning situation in order to acquire skil ls, knowledge, and attitudes. Also called “learner” or "trainee". student controlled instruction An instructional environment in which the student can choose from a variety of i nstructional options for achievement of the terminal objectives. Students can va ry their rate of learning, the media used, and other such learning factors. Also c alled "learner controlled instruction". student population baseline data Information about the current level of performance of the student population tha t can be used to confirm the need to develop new instruction or to assess differ ences between student performance before (at baseline) and after instruction. Also called “baseline data”. subject matter expert (SME) A person who can perform a job or a selected group of tasks to standards. Her experience and knowledge of the job designates her as a technical expert. She must know what is critical to the performance of the task and what is nice-to-kn ow. She must have recent job experience, otherwise, her knowledge of the task may be outdated by new procedures or equipment. suggestopedia Methodology developed by Georgi Lozanov. Sometimes called Super Learning or Accelerated Learning. In broad terms, it is a research based technology and an philosophy that uses learners' holistic natural talents to provide them the hig hest probability of maximizing their learning, retention, and performance. It is su pposed to create a stress-free, positive, joyful, psychologically and physically h ealthy environment that enhances self-esteem and focuses on the needs of the learner. system approach to training (SAT) See Instructional Systems Design (ISD) . tabletop analysis Using a facilitator, a small group of (3-10) subject matter experts convene to ide ntify the various tasks to be performed. Through brainstorming and consensus building, the team develops a sequential list of tasks. Following this process, th e team determines which tasks should be trained. Task selection is based on th e frequency, difficulty, criticality and the consequences of error or poor perform ance. target population The total collection of a population that is scheduled to enter a given instruction al program. task The smallest essential part of a job. A unit of work activity that is a logical and n ecessary action in the performance of a job. It can be described in simple terms . Has an identifiable start and end point and results in a measurable accomplish ment or product. task analysis Involves the systematic process of identifying specific tasks to be trained; and a detailed analysis of each of those tasks. Task analysis information can be used as the foundation for: developing instructional objectives, identifying and selecti ng appropriate instructional strategies, sequencing instructional content, identify ing and selecting appropriate instructional media, and designing performance e valuation tools. It is always done in the context of a specific job. It facilitates trai ning program design by providing a description of the fundamental elements of a job. task attribute A trait of an activity that is conducive to communication through a defined senso ry mode. Examples of attributes include tactile, olfactory, visual, aural, color, mo tion, and interactivity. task delay tolerance An individual critical task selection factor. A measure of how much delay can be tolerated between the time the need for task performance becomes evident and the time actual performance must begin. task fidelity The degree of correspondence of cues and responses accompanying task perf ormance on a training device to those characteristics of analogous performance on the operational system/equipment. task inventory List that itemizes all of the tasks that make up a selected job. Obtained from do cument studies, task observations, questionnaires, SME interviews or a combin ation of these. task oriented instructional system (TOIS) An instructional system in which the instruction is oriented toward what the lear ner must do as a result of the instruction and not on the presentation itself. task selection model A model used to apply statistically valid task selection models to identify critical individual tasks. There are a variety of models available for use. Some example s of task selection models are as follows: Difficulty-importance-frequency model. An individual critical task selection model that uses dif ficulty, importance, and frequency factors. Eight-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that uses percent performing, p ercent time spent performing, consequence of inadequate performance, task delay tolerance, frequency of performance, task learning difficulty, probability of deficient performance, and im mediacy of performance. Four-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that uses percent performance, and task learning difficulty. Training Emphasis (TE) model. An individual critical task selection model that uses the trainin g emphasis factor to determine if a task is critical or not. The TE factor is collected from super visors of job holders. It reflects how much emphasis the task should be given in training for a specific task. task summary A listing of the conditions, standards, performance steps, and performance mea sures, references, and proponent for each individual critical task. Information is extracted from the individual critical task analysis. The following are different typ es of task summaries: Reference-dependent task summary. A summary written for those tasks which require the trai ned individual to refer to one or more publications while performing all or part of a task in wart ime conditions. Reference-independent task summary. A summary written for those tasks that require the trai ned individual to perform the task in wartime conditions from memory, without reference to an y publications. teaching point The smallest increment of information to which a learner may be expected to re spond; a statement of fact or a procedural step in the performance of a task; the precise information you want a learner to know or respond to. technique of delivery Process or manner of delivering instruction that includes one or more methods. For example, group-paced instruction could use conference, discussion, demon stration, and practical exercise. A technique of delivery may involve a whole co urse, a phase, or a module. Also called “instructional strategy”. terminal behavior The behavior which the learner is to demonstrate after the learning experience. terminal learning objective Prescription of the conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performan ce for the training setting. A learning objective at the highest level of learning (S KA) appropriate to the human performance requirements a student will accompl ish when successfully completing instruction. test A device or technique used to measure the performance, skill level, or knowled ge of a learner on a specific subject matter. It usually involves quantification of r esults -- a number that represents an ability or characteristic of the person bein g tested. test fidelity The degree to which the test resembles the actual task performed. The closer t he resemblance, the higher the fidelity of the test. test, instructional Any device/technique used to measure the performance, skill level and knowled ge of an individual. See appropriate types listed below: Achievement test. A test for measuring an individual's attainment of knowledge/skills as the r esult of specific teaching or training. Aptitude test. A test or battery of tests designed to show a person's capacity for a particular ty pe of behavior in a single field or in several related fields. Comparative test. A test given at the completion of a major section of a course and, as requir ed, at completion of a course to measure whether the student has mastered the course learni ng objectives. Criterion-referenced test. A test that establishes whether or not a unit or individual performs t he learning objective to the established standard. Performance is measured as a "go" or "no- go" against a prescribed criterion or set of criteria - the learning objective standard. It is score d based upon absolute standards, such as job competency, rather than upon relative standar ds, such as class standings. Diagnostic test. A test used to measure performance against a criterion and to identify specifi c areas of weakness or strength in individual knowledge and skills. End-of-course comprehensive test. An end-of-course test, administered to all initial entry stud ents prior to graduation, designed to ensure a high probability that students can perform all cr itical tasks taught in the course. It provides feedback on the need for both reinforcement traini ng and course revisions. Entry skills test. A test designed to determine if a student already possesses certain knowled ge or skills needed as a prerequisite before undertaking new instruction. Field test. Tryout of any training course on a representative sample of the student target popu lation to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates, criterion test p erformance, and time to complete the course. Heuristic test. Heuristic or discovery tests will present problem-solving simulations that emula te the on-the-job environment. These tests present the student with stimulus information that i s inadequate, incomplete, ambiguous, or irrelevant to the simulated environment. The student will be required to synthesize knowledge and apply training received in order to solve the job performance simulation. Job performance test. A test used to determine whether an individual can perform a job. It ma y include all job performance measures for a job or a subset of the job performance measure s. Knowledge test. A test that measures the achievement of theory supporting skill through the use of test items written at the appropriate knowledge and training levels. Multiple-choice test. A type of selection test in which the student is asked to choose for each t est item the answer(s) that is most correct. Non-language test. Identical to the definition for "nonverbal test". Nonverbal test. A test that requires little or no speaking, reading, or understanding of languag e on the part of the examinee either in connection with comprehending directions or making r esponses. Directions may be given pictorially or in pantomime. Also called "non-language tes t”. Norm-referenced test. A test that ranks a student in relation to the performance of other stude nts in contrast to criterion-referenced testing wherein a student is measured against a prescri bed performance standard. Objective test. A test whose scoring requires no human judgment. Performance test. An evaluation of the actual performance of the task or learning objective us ing the conditions under which it will be performed and the absolute standards for acceptable performance. Post-test. A test administered to a student upon completion of a course or unit of instruction t o measure learning achieved and to assess whether a student has mastered the objectives of the course or unit of instruction. Power test. A test in which items are usually arranged in order of increasing difficulty and in w hich examinees are given all the time they need to complete as many items as they possibly can. Pretest. A test administered to a student prior to entry into a course or unit of instruction to de termine the technical skills (entering behaviors) the student already possesses in a given subj ect. Often used to identify portions of the instruction the student can bypass. Proficiency test. A test designed to measure a student's capabilities in terms of the job. It mea sures both psychomotor and cognitive skills. A performance test is sometimes understood to mean a skill demonstration, while a proficiency test is understood to be a comprehensive pro cedure used to examine the student's capability to do what the job requires. Progress test. A short test administered throughout a course to evaluate student progress. It i s administered at strategic points in a course to determine the degree to which students are a ccomplishing the learning or enabling objectives. Also called “within-course test”. Qualifying test. A test administered to determine whether a student is qualified for a task that the student has been selected or trained for, or for which the student is being considered. A q ualifying test may also be applied to tests used for selecting personnel for training, although t he usage is not so common. Simple gaming test. Presents the student with fill-in-the-blank, multiple choice, matching, com pletion, and true/false test items formatted and presented in a gaming style. Simulated part-task performance test. Measures critical sub-sets of job task performance. Si mulated part-task performance tests should meet the same construction criteria as simulated performance tests. Simulated performance test. A performance-based two dimensional simulation of the job perf ormance required. A synthetic performance test. Simulation performance test. A test that measures the student's ability to meet training objecti ves by performing whole tasks or parts of tasks using simulators or simulations. Speed test. A test in which the time limit is set so that almost no one can finish all the items o r tasks making up the test. Survey test. A criterion-referenced test used prior to the development of an instructional syste m. It is administered to a sample of prospective students to determine what knowledge and s kills should be put into the course of instruction. Also called "Threshold Knowledge Test (TKT )". Threshold Knowledge Test (TKT). Identical to the definition for "survey test". True-false test. A type of selection or alternate-response test in which the student indicates w hether each of a number of statements is true or false. Verbal test. Any test involving language. In general usage, the term is restricted to those tests in which the questions and responses are mainly expressed in language or which use langua ge to a substantial degree. Within-course test. Identical to the definition for progress test. Written test. A test in which an individual demonstrates their capabilities by responding to writ ten test items. It is not usually a performance test, and hence is usually a measure of supporti ng knowledge rather than skills. test item analysis The process of evaluating single test items by any of several methods. This usu ally involves the determination of how well an individual item separates examin ees, its relative difficulty value, and its correlation with some criterion of measur ement. test reliability The degree to which a test/test item gives consistent results each time it is used . test validity The degree to which a test measures what it was designed to measure. topic The basic organizational unit of instruction covering one or more closely related learning objectives. topical outline An outline of the topics to be included in the instructor guide. It provides course learning objectives, a listing of part, section, and topic titles and statements of r ationale to explain or justify the training. It is used by the curriculum designer to develop the instructor guides. trainer A person who directs the growth of learners by making them qualified or proficie nt in a skill or task. Uses coaching, instructing, and facilitating techniques to acc omplish the learning objectives. training Learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job. training aid An item to enhance training. May include charts, slides, and schematics training concept A summary describing how the required training is to be accomplished in terms of type of training, presentation environment, presentation techniques, presenta tion media, pipeline, location, and other considerations. training cost effectiveness Actual or predicted effectiveness in relation to life cycle cost. training fidelity The extent to which cue and response capabilities in training allow for the learni ng and practice of specific tasks so that what is learned will transfer to performa nce of the tasks in the operational environment. training program A significant long-term activity, as opposed to a project. Normally defined as a li ne item in the organization's budget. training project An endeavor with a specific objective to be met within a prescribed time and dol lar limitation. training task analysis The process of examining each unique unit of work from the job task analysis to derive descriptive information (e.g., procedural steps, elements, task conditions, standards, and other information) used in the design, development and testing of training products. transfer of training The ability of persons to effectively apply to the job the knowledge and skills the y gain in dissimilar learning situation. Also, the learning in one situation that facil itates learning (and therefore performance) in subsequent similar situations. tutorial An instructional program that presents new information to the student efficiently and provides practice exercises based on that information. A lesson design use d to teach an entire concept. Interactive instruction that asks questions based o n the information presented, requests student responses, and evaluates studen t responses. It is self-paced, accommodates a variety of users, and generally in volves some questioning, branching, and options for review. validation A process of testing the effectiveness of instruction by administering the criterio n test immediately after the instruction. Also, a process through which a course is administered and revised until learners effectively attain the base line objectiv es. validity The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Although t here are several types of validity and different classification schemes for descri bing validity there are two major types of validity that test developers must be c oncerned with, they are content-related and criterion-related validity. varied repetition Design elements that repeat a segment of a lesson differently to enhance learni ng. verbal chaining Applying the principle of chaining to a verbal skill, (e.g. memorizing a poem). vertical alignment of tasks Tasks are vertically aligned when a task identified for a specific skill or organiza tion level supports a task at the next higher skill level. Tasks in the same catego ry (subject area) must be progressive, i.e., they show an increase in performanc e required at the next higher skill level, the conditions and standard are more ex acting, or there are increased supervisory responsibilities when compared to su pporting tasks. The task should indicate the increase in required performance o r supervisory responsibilities. vertical alignment of training Training is vertically aligned when tasks for a particular skill level are built upon skills, knowledge, and behaviors gained during previous training and/or operatio nal assignments. If tasks are in the same general categories, then their training must be progressive -- they must show an increase in the skill level required to accomplish them, the conditions and standards must be more exacting, or the t asks represent increased supervisory responsibilities when compared to related tasks trained earlier. Task statements should indicate the increase in required s kill level or supervisory responsibility. vestibule training A variant of job rotation in which a separate work area is set up for a learner so that the actual work situation does not pressure the learner, (e.g. cockpit simula tor). walkthrough A test before the final acceptance or evaluation to verify that the training enviro nment is ready for learning to take place. web based instruction (WBI) Web-based Instruction is delivered over public or private computer networks an d displayed by a Web browser. WBI is available in many formats and several te rms are linked to it; on-line courseware, distance education on-line, etc. WBI is not downloaded CBT, but rather on-demand training stored in a server and acc essed across a network. WBI can be updated very rapidly, and access to the tr aining controlled by the training provider. workbook A handout that contains procedures and exercises designed to assist the learne r in achieving the learning objectives. worker efficiency A measure (usually computed as a percentage) of worker performance that co mpares the standard time allowed to complete a task to the actual worker time t o complete it. work sample The use of number of random samples to determine the frequency with which c ertain activities are performed. Performance on a work sample is frequently use d as a criterion against which prediction devices in evaluation are validated.
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