Ch. 12 Cros s Cultural Exchanges o n the Silk Roads Silk Roads Started by large Empires (ex. Roman, EAST Han, Kushan) WEST Asia, India, China Mediterranean area & Roman Empire Exported spices, fruits silks EXPORTED: glassware Jewels, art, decorative items Religions Provided rational Explanation of on the Silk Good vs. evil High ethical Roads standards Manichaeism Merchants, missionaries, & others took advantage of the roads to spread Started by Mani Dualism their beliefs Christianity Buddhism Light Dark Hinduism Mediterranean SW Asia Merchants Iran, C & SE Basin Merchants SE Asia Spiritual Asia, & China Material & Mariners (Vietnam & Cambodia) World Missionaries Very Devout, Strict Effected culture Paul of Gregory (ex. Rajas) Tarsus The Wonderworker Epidemic Disease Small pox, measles, bubonic plague Han Dynasty Roman Empire Population decline Population decline in 2nd In 400ce Economic Century C.E. And Social Change Trade declined & Became regional China after Han Cultural Change Epidemic Disease Political Problems Confucian Lost ability Factions Tradition Nomads migrated Population declined To maintain within Land Lost Into China order ranks holdings credibility (marriage Took up alliances) Took Agriculture Chinese Married & settled Central gov’t names Chinese dissolves spouses Left Confucianism toward Buddhism & Daoism Generals ruled regions Attracted by Becomes more migrants religious than already familiar philosophical w/it from India Rome didn’t Byzantine on the East The Fall of the Entirely fall Roman Empire External Threats Intermittent Barracks Internal Decay Hostilities Emperors w/Sasanids Visigoths Huns (Scandi- Possble 26 Generals Diocletian Constantine navia & Ru- Cousins ssia) Of Xiogn Died Violently Divide Rome Son of Co-ruler Attila East & West Warrior king Adopted many Threatened Anatolia, Syria Gaul, Spain New capital Roman cultures others Egypt & Greece Britain Constantinople Agriculture N. Africa army laws Christianity Forced to Move into Reunited Eastern Roman Four Official Tetrarchs & Western Rome Boundaries Still faced external threats Moved around Stabilize Economy at will Cultural Change in Institutional Christianity Roman Empire Church Prominent Constantine Theodosius St. Augustine New Hierarchy survivor of Testament Rome Official Religion Had more Pope & Patriarchs Converted Bishop of Hippo in power To Christianity Africa Under Roman Bishops Became Edict of Milan turmoil officials legitimate Converted to wanted to Claim to Took care of diocese religion Christianity standardize be the descendant Disputes teachings Arise, de- of St. Peter Allowed Christianity Made Christianity cide official in Rome openly intellectually After several doctrine respectable against debates other philosophies Became spiritual & religions leader of Christian Council of 4th c.-27 short community Nicea and writings were Helped change a Chalcedon recognized as religion to a authoritative church Discuss Jesus’ nature Both human New Testament & divine Christianity survives Imperial authority & will serve a cultural Unification from many lands Inquiry Questions (4-5 sentence response per question) 0 In what ways did the network of trade routes called the silk roads make life during the classical era significantly different from life in the pre-classical era? 0 The textbook states “Christianity was perhaps the most prominent survivor of the Western Roman Empire.” What does this statement mean? How did Christianity manage to survive and thrive after the collapse of the empire? 0 How did the nomadic peoples of Eurasia (Visigoths, Huns) impeded and/or contribute to the development of the silk roads?
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