Ch. 3 Working with financial
1. The statement of cash flows: a firm’s financial
statement that summarizes its sources and uses
of cash over a specific period.
In order to evaluate cash flows, we have to
understand the sources of cash (cash in) and uses
of cash (cash out).
In the balance sheet, the increase (decrease) in
assets means cash out (cash in) whereas increase
(decrease) in liabilities and equities means cash
in (cash out).
Another form of cash flow statement
• 2. Standardized financial statements
• In order to compare companies’ financial statements
without size or scale issues.
• Also standardized financial statements can be used for
• 1) Common size statement.
• Items in balance sheet are expressed by the percentage of
• Items in income statement are expressed by the
percentage of sale.
• Items in cash flow statement are expressed by the
percentage of total sources of cash supplied or as the
percentage of total uses of cash for a particular item.
• 2) Common-base year financial statement:
• A standardized financial statement presenting
all items relative to a certain base year
• 3) Combined common-size and base year
analysis. Common-base year financial
statement is influenced by size of asset.
• 3. Ratio analysis: Here ratios commonly used
• 5 categories of ratios:
• - short term solvency or liquidity ratios
• - long term solvency or financial leverage
• - asset management ratios or turnover
• - profitability ratios
• - market value ratios
3-1) Short term solvency or Liquidity ratio
Information regarding firm’s ability to pay its bills over
the short run without undue stress.
• Current ratio = current assets/current liabilities
• Quick (Acid test) ratio = (current asset –inventory)/
• Cash ratio = cash/current liabilities
• Net working capital to total assets = net working
capital / total assets
• Interval measure (how long business could keep
running) = current assets/average daily operating costs
• 3-2) long term solvency or financial leverage
Information regarding firm’s long term ability to
meet its financial obligations.
• Total debt ratio =(total assets – total
• Debt to equity ratio = total debts /total equity
• Equity multiplier = total assets/total equity
• Time interest earned = EBIT/interest
• Cash coverage = (EBIT + depreciation)/
• 3-3) Asset management
• How effectively and intensively the firm use assets to
• Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold/ inventory
• - how many times inventory was filled and empty?
• Days’ sales in inventory = 365/Inventory turn over
• - how many days it takes to reload inventory?
• Receivable turnover =sale/account receivable
• - how many times firm collected its outstanding credit
and reloaned it?
• Days’ sales in receivables = 365/ Receivable
• - how many days it takes to collect account
• Net working capital turnover = sales/ NWC
• Fixed asset turnover = sales/fixed assets
• Total asset turnover = sales/total asset
3-4) Profitability measures
• Profit margin = net income/sales
• Return on assets = net income/total assets
• Return on equity = net income/total equity
3-5) Market value measures
Information regarding market value
• Earnings per share = Net income / shares outstanding
• Price –Earnings per share (PE ratio) = price per share/ Earnings per
share. It relates to growth potential of the firm.
• Price –sales ratio = price per share /sales per share. It is used when
EPS is negative.
• Market to book ratio = market value per share / book value per
share. Here book value = total equity.
• 4. Du Pont Identity
• Decomposing ROE into three components.
• ROE = net income/total equity
• = net income / total asset * total asset/total equity
• = net income/total asset * Equity multiplier
• = net income / total asset * (1+ debt to equity ratio)
• = net income/sales * sales/total asset * equity
• = profit margin * asset turnover * equity multiplier
• 5. Why evaluate financial statements?
• Internal uses: performance evaluation and
planning for future.
• External uses: information for deciding
whether to grant credit to a new customer,
Evaluating major competitors, and
information for evaluating potential target
firms in merger attempts.
6. Choosing benchmarks.
• 1) Time trend analysis: evaluate its own historical ratios in
order to understand whether they improve.
• 2) Peer group analysis: SIC (standard industry classification)
code. But SIC code is not perfect due to firms with various
sub-businesses. Table 3.10. NAICS (North American
Industry Classification System) is intended to replace SIC.
• 3) Problems with Financial Statement Analysis
• - no guideline for value and risk
• - consolidated financial statements do not fit any neat
• - peer group or major competitors from foreign markets.
• - different accounting and fiscal times for each firm.