Timeline by wufengmei007


									Election of 1848
                            Emancipation Proclamation
The industrial revolution
                            Union Victories
Compromise of 1850
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Election of 1856
The Dred Scott Decision
John Brown’s Raid
                            Gettysburg Address
Election of 1860
                            Election of 1864
                            Battles in May and June
Fort Sumter
                            Sherman’s March
More Secession
                            Surrounded at Richmond
Baltimore Raids
                            Confederate Retreat
Battle of Bull Run
Smaller Battles
                            Appomattox Courthouse
Slaughter at Shiloh
Antietam                                Tip: Use the green stars to navigate.
                                                  This issue of slavery
                                         was at the forefront of society,
                                         but the majority of the parties
                                         attempted to down-play the
                                         issue to avoid conflict. The
                                         Democrats supported a
                                         compromise called popular
                                         sovereignty, while the Whigs
                                         avoided the topic all-together.
                                         The attempt to leave slavery
                                         out of the election was spoiled
                                         by the Free-Soil Party, whose
                                         motto was “free soil, free
                                         speech, free labour, and free
       A political cartoon mocking the
        election of a Whig president.
1848                                                                1848
                                                 Proposed and put in
                                        place by Henry Clay, it
                                        stated that California
                                        would be admitted as a slave
                                        -free state, and that in the
                                        District of Columbia,
                                        slavery would be permitted,
                                        but the slave trade would
                                        not. To satisfy the South, a
           Industrial revolution        stronger Fugitive Slave
  shifted the economy of the north,     Law would be put in place,
  drastically decreasing the need for   to help restrict the
  slaves in the north.                  underground railway.

1840 - 1860                                                      1850
                                                         The disbanding of
                                                the Whigs party allowed
                                                for the emergence of the
                                                Republicans and the
                                                Americans. The
                                                Americans avoided
                                                slavery and focused on
                                                immigration, while the
             This act opened Kansas and
                                                Republicans supported the
  Nebraska for settlement. It stated that       “free soil” ideology. The
  the issue of slavery in the new territories   Democrats dodged the issue.
  would be decided by popular sovereignty.      They won by a minority
  This caused a flood of people, and many
  violent outbursts between pro and anti
                                                vote, and Buchanan took
  slavery settlers. These battles, known as     office.
  “bleeding Kansas” reached civil war
1861                                                                   1856
           Dred Scott was a slave that               John Brown believed
                                            was sent by heaven to            he
 had been moved into a territory closed                             free the
                                            enslaved. He seized th
 to slavery by the Missouri                                        e arsenal
                                           at Harper’s Ferry, VA
 Compromise. He was later brought                                  with the
                                           intentions of arming
 back to his original slave-permitting                           and freeing
                                           the enslaved of the su
 state. He resided for ten years in a                             rrounding
                                           areas. His raid was cu
 state where slavery was not                                       t short
                                           when he was arrested
 permitted, and on these grounds, he                             by Robert E.
                                           Lee. John Brown was
 sued for his freedom. March 6th                                  hanged on
                                          December 2nd. The n
 brought the news that the court sided                          orth saw
                                          him as a martyr, wh
 against Scott. The judge, Taney,                               ile the south
                                          thought his punishm
 ruled that banning slavery in any                              ent was
 territory was unconstitutional.
1857                                                            October 16, 1859
            Lincoln vs. Douglas.                    By March 1st, the sta
  Lincoln believed that if slavery        of the deep south voted            tes
                                                                   for secession.
  were confined to its current area,      South Carolina, Missi
  it would eventually be abolished        Florida, Alabama, Geo
  by the southerners themselves.          Louisiana, and Texa
                                                                s formed the
  Douglas based his political career     Confederate States of
  on the idea of popular sovereignty     and asked that the re
  as the best method to settle the       slave states of the Un
                                                                ion join
  slavery dispute. Lincoln won the      them. The north beli
                                                               eved that the
  election, with nearly all his votes   states could not legall
                                                                 y secede. The
  coming from the north, carrying       south believed it was
                                        constitutional right
  every free state except new Jersey.                         to do so.
1860                                                                         1860
                One of only two Union
       forts within Confederate
       territory that survived the
       secession, This was the beginning
       of the battles. Here, Davis,
       leader of the south, faced the
       dilemma of whether or not to
       allow Lincoln to send supplies to
       the fort. Were he to let Lincoln
       re-supply, then he would look as
       if he were agreeing with
       Lincoln’s policies. However, if he
       refused, he would need to attack
       to stop the re-supplying,
       effectively committing an act of
       war. On April 12th, the South
       Carolina Militia opened fire on
       the fort. The fort surrendered
       after 34 hours of bombardment,
       but zero casualties.
1861                                 1861
           More Secession
          Virginia, Arkansas, North
 Carolina, and Tennessee left the
                                                 Around 30 miles from
 Union, faced with the prospect of          D.C., The union army
 fighting their neighbours.                                          , on their way to
                                            Richmond, encountere
                                                                     d a small number
                                            of Confederate forces.
                                                                    This battle was
             Baltimore Riots                expected to bring an ea
                                                                     sy victory for the
           As Union troops marched         Union, and a quick en
                                                                     d to the war.
 through Maryland on their way to          However, it instead h
                                                                   ighlighted how
 D.C., they were attacked by a group       untrained both army
                                                                   s were. Although
                                           the Union fought bett
 who supported the views of the pro-                               er, the Confederates
                                           were more organized a
 confederate newspapers. As a result,                              nd were able to
                                          effectively use the ra
 Baltimore was placed under Martial                              ilroad and
                                          telegraph to supply re
 Law, and the rights of the people                                inforcements. The
                                          Confederates won, lea
                                                                  ving the Union and
 were suspended. Lincoln could not        the watching civilia
                                                                ns to flee back to
 afford to lose Maryland, as it’s loss    Washington. Confede
                                                                  rate General
 would leave the Union’s capital in      “Stonewall” Jackson
                                                                 favored an
 enemy territory.                        offensive war, but Pre
                                                                 sident Davis chose
                                         to fight defensively, ef
                                                                  fectively giving
                                         the Union time to prep
1861                                                                    July, 1861
                                      Smaller Battles
                             Seven Day’s Battle, Second Battle
                             of Bull Run, Fredericksburg. All
                             Confederate victories.

                             In April on the Tennessee-Mississippi
                             border, Union troops were slowed in
                             their advances when they were
                             surprised near Corinth by General
                             Albery Sydney Johnson’s
                             Confederate troops. The Union
                             suffered losses of 13,000 of their 63,000
                             troops, while the Confederates lost
                             11,000 of their 40,000. The battle left
                             an impression on Grant, and he
                             later wrote that “[after Shiloh] I
                             gave up all idea of saving the
        Battle of Bull Run   Union except by complete conquest.”

July, 1861                                                     1862
                               After victory for the
                     Confederates at the Second Battle of
                     Bull Run, Lee decided to invade the
                     Union. He split his forces, allowing
                     half to vanish into the mountains in
                     Maryland, while the other half was to
                     follow the lead of “Stonewall” Jackson
                     and seize the federal arsenal in
                     Harper’s Ferry. McClellan was
                     supposed to protect the capitol by
                     staying between the enemy and the
                     city. This move by Lee left him to chase
                     after his enemy. McClellan then
                     stumbled over a bit of good luck.
                     Wrapped around three cigars, he found
                     a copy of Lee’s plans. He realized the
                     forces were divided, and that he could
                     effectively destroy Lee’s army. He
                     attacked near Sharpsburg, Maryland
                     at a Creek called Anteitam. The
                     Union army was, after this battle, too
                     damaged to pursue the retreating
                     Confederates. Union losses were greater
September 17, 1862   than the Confederate losses of 11,000.
                                       September 17, 1862
     Emancipation Proclamation
   A rallying cry for the north,           Chancellorsville
   Lincoln redefines the war by     Union general Joe Hooker
   proclaiming that the North       lost 17,000 to an army half
   shall free the slaves of the     the size of his own in May.
   South on September 22. Now
   the war is officially over the             Gettysburg
   issue of slavery.                On July 3rd, there were three
                                    days of battle. The south
           Union Victories          attempted to remove the
   By the end of the year, New      Union from their advantage
   Orleans had surrendered to the   of higher ground. This ended
   Union without firing a shot.     with over 50,000 casualties,
   There were now Union troops      and the Confederacy
   advancing into Western           retreating on July 4th.
   Tennessee, and Mississippi.

1862                                                          1863
                 A Mississippi River victory for
       the Union depended on their taking of
       Vicksburg. On his 6th attempt, Grant
       began one of his most drastic campaigns.
       He moced his army down the west bank,
       and moved inland south of Viksburg.
       Under the impression that he was being
       tricked to move into the fields, the
       Confederate commander stayed behind
       the fortifications. The union forces
       moved to Jackson (the capitol of
       Mississippi), and from their, fought
       their way west to Viksburg. After
       defeating armies larger than his own
       five times, Grant laid siege to Viksburg.
       On July 4th, Viksburg surrendered.
       Five days later, the only remaining
       Confederate fort on the Mississippi (Port
       Hudson) also surrendered. This
       effectively cut off the Confederacy
       from their two major food suppliers,
       Arkansas and Texas.

1863                                     1863
                             A rail center on the Georgia
                    -Tennessee border, In September, the
                    Confederates gained a major victory
                    here, however, the Union retreated
                    into Chattanooga, where the
                    Confederates bombarded them. The
                    arrival of Grant with supplies and
                    reinforcements in late October saved
                    the Union army and pushed the
                    Confederates out of the heights of
                    the city. Tennessee was in Union
                    hands by November, and the forces
                    had moved into Georgia. At this
                    point in time, only Georgia, the
                    Carolinas, and Virginia had not
                    fallen. Resulting from this, in
                    early 1864, Lincoln gave his orders
                    to Sherman for the west, and sent
                    Grant out to destroy Robert E. Lee’s

November 25, 1863                     November 25, 1863
                                           Battles in May and June
        Gettysburg Address
                                     The two armies (Lee and Grant)
  On November 19, 1863, President    clash almost constantly, the
  Lincoln visited this battlefield   numbers of Union troops at 120,000
  to dedicate it, and to honour      and the Confederacy at 60,000. The
  the deceased soldiers who were     Battle of the Wilderness saw Lee stop
  buried there. His address          Grant in a forest where the resulted
  proclaimed to the people that      fighting lit the forest ablaze, leaving
  “these dead shall not have died    the wounded to burn to death.
  in vain.”                          Despite heavy losses, Grant continued
                                     to pursue Lee, and they fought again
                                     in what was later called the “most
           Election of 1864          terrible 24 hours of (our) service in
  Lincoln is re-elected, as the      the war,” at Spotsylvania. Less
  voters see safety in keeping the   than a month later, Grant had
  same leader during difficult       suffered total losses of a number
  times.                             greater than Lee’s army. Regardless,
                                     Grant knew that as long as he had a
                                     steady stream of reinforcements, he
                                     must continue to press Lee’s forces
                                     into surrender.
1863 and 1864                                                        1864
                    General Sherman
            (Union) was ordered to move
            out of Tennessee and destroy
            the Confederates in the west.
            Sherman forced them into
            Atlanta, Georgia. Sherman
            burned Atlanta to the ground.
            Sherman continued through
            Georgia to Savannah,
            destroying 100 million dollars of
            property and doling out $20
            million in military damage.

May, 1864                         May, 1864
             In mid-June, Lee
                                             In March, as Lincoln
   retreats south of Richmond, to
                                    gave his second inaugural address,
   Petersburg. Grant surrounded
                                    Grant closed in on Richmond.
   and assaulted the city. Lee
                                    Davis was told by Lee that the
   attempted to sneak out a
                                    situation was hopeless, and that
   number of forces to attack
                                    Richmond could no longer be
   Washington D.C. through the
                                    defended. Lee retreated south, as
   Shenandoah River Valley but
                                    the Confederate government
   was stopped by Grant’s cavalry
                                    moved south as well.
   men. The valley was turned
   into a barren waste-land by
   the Union, and Grant
   confirmed his attack on
   Richmond as successful.                   By April 4th, The former
                                    capitol of the Confederacy was
                                    now controlled by the Union

1864                                                              1865
                          Lee’s forces are cut off as
                they attempt to meet up with other
                forces. Grant asks a surrender of Lee,
                asking for an end to the blood-shed.
                The two generals met at Appomattox
                courthouse, where generous terms on
                the part of the North were agreed to.
                The Confederates would be allowed to
                return home on the basis of never
                fighting again, and they would be
                allowed to keep their guns and horses.
                A Union soldier described the
                surrender. “[with] not a cheer, nor a
                word, nor whisper of vainglory, but
                an awed stillness rather, a breath-
                holding, as if it were a passing of the
                dead.” Despite orders from former
                President Davis, it took until June to
                subdue all other confederate generals.
April 9, 1865                             April 9, 1865
           A Confederate radical
  by the name of John Wilkes
  Booth assassinates President
  Lincoln. This death was tragic
  to both sides, as Lincoln was
  considered the best person to
  “bind up the nation’s wounds.”
  This was considered by many to
  be a terrible blow for the South,
  with newspapers and diarists
  writing of the effects that would
  surely arise from having a
  different president mend the
  country’s war-torn soul.            John Wilkes Booth

April 14, 1865                                 April 14, 1865
Although the war is over,
the effects of the war are
to be felt long after. The
South must now be re-
established as part of the
country once again, and
old feuds must be set aside
if the country is ever
again to be fully unified.

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