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Election of 1848 Emancipation Proclamation The industrial revolution Union Victories Compromise of 1850 Chancellorsville Kansas-Nebraska Act Gettysburg Election of 1856 Vicksburg The Dred Scott Decision Chattanooga John Brown’s Raid Gettysburg Address Election of 1860 Election of 1864 Secession Battles in May and June Fort Sumter Sherman’s March More Secession Surrounded at Richmond Baltimore Raids Confederate Retreat Battle of Bull Run Abandonment Smaller Battles Appomattox Courthouse Slaughter at Shiloh Assassination Antietam Tip: Use the green stars to navigate. This issue of slavery was at the forefront of society, but the majority of the parties attempted to down-play the issue to avoid conflict. The Democrats supported a compromise called popular sovereignty, while the Whigs avoided the topic all-together. The attempt to leave slavery out of the election was spoiled by the Free-Soil Party, whose motto was “free soil, free speech, free labour, and free men.” A political cartoon mocking the election of a Whig president. 1848 1848 Proposed and put in place by Henry Clay, it stated that California would be admitted as a slave -free state, and that in the District of Columbia, slavery would be permitted, but the slave trade would not. To satisfy the South, a Industrial revolution stronger Fugitive Slave shifted the economy of the north, Law would be put in place, drastically decreasing the need for to help restrict the slaves in the north. underground railway. 1840 - 1860 1850 The disbanding of the Whigs party allowed for the emergence of the Republicans and the Americans. The Americans avoided slavery and focused on immigration, while the This act opened Kansas and Republicans supported the Nebraska for settlement. It stated that “free soil” ideology. The the issue of slavery in the new territories Democrats dodged the issue. would be decided by popular sovereignty. They won by a minority This caused a flood of people, and many violent outbursts between pro and anti vote, and Buchanan took slavery settlers. These battles, known as office. “bleeding Kansas” reached civil war proportions. 1861 1856 Dred Scott was a slave that John Brown believed was sent by heaven to he had been moved into a territory closed free the enslaved. He seized th to slavery by the Missouri e arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA Compromise. He was later brought with the intentions of arming back to his original slave-permitting and freeing the enslaved of the su state. He resided for ten years in a rrounding areas. His raid was cu state where slavery was not t short when he was arrested permitted, and on these grounds, he by Robert E. Lee. John Brown was sued for his freedom. March 6th hanged on December 2nd. The n brought the news that the court sided orth saw him as a martyr, wh against Scott. The judge, Taney, ile the south thought his punishm ruled that banning slavery in any ent was just. territory was unconstitutional. 1857 October 16, 1859 Lincoln vs. Douglas. By March 1st, the sta Lincoln believed that if slavery of the deep south voted tes for secession. were confined to its current area, South Carolina, Missi ssippi, it would eventually be abolished Florida, Alabama, Geo rgia, by the southerners themselves. Louisiana, and Texa s formed the Douglas based his political career Confederate States of America, on the idea of popular sovereignty and asked that the re maining as the best method to settle the slave states of the Un ion join slavery dispute. Lincoln won the them. The north beli eved that the election, with nearly all his votes states could not legall y secede. The coming from the north, carrying south believed it was their constitutional right every free state except new Jersey. to do so. 1860 1860 One of only two Union forts within Confederate territory that survived the secession, This was the beginning of the battles. Here, Davis, leader of the south, faced the dilemma of whether or not to allow Lincoln to send supplies to the fort. Were he to let Lincoln re-supply, then he would look as if he were agreeing with Lincoln’s policies. However, if he refused, he would need to attack to stop the re-supplying, effectively committing an act of war. On April 12th, the South Carolina Militia opened fire on the fort. The fort surrendered after 34 hours of bombardment, but zero casualties. 1861 1861 More Secession Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee left the Around 30 miles from Union, faced with the prospect of D.C., The union army Washington fighting their neighbours. , on their way to Richmond, encountere d a small number of Confederate forces. This battle was Baltimore Riots expected to bring an ea sy victory for the As Union troops marched Union, and a quick en d to the war. through Maryland on their way to However, it instead h ighlighted how D.C., they were attacked by a group untrained both army s were. Although the Union fought bett who supported the views of the pro- er, the Confederates were more organized a confederate newspapers. As a result, nd were able to effectively use the ra Baltimore was placed under Martial ilroad and telegraph to supply re Law, and the rights of the people inforcements. The Confederates won, lea ving the Union and were suspended. Lincoln could not the watching civilia ns to flee back to afford to lose Maryland, as it’s loss Washington. Confede rate General would leave the Union’s capital in “Stonewall” Jackson favored an enemy territory. offensive war, but Pre sident Davis chose to fight defensively, ef fectively giving the Union time to prep are. 1861 July, 1861 Smaller Battles Seven Day’s Battle, Second Battle of Bull Run, Fredericksburg. All Confederate victories. Shiloh In April on the Tennessee-Mississippi border, Union troops were slowed in their advances when they were surprised near Corinth by General Albery Sydney Johnson’s Confederate troops. The Union suffered losses of 13,000 of their 63,000 troops, while the Confederates lost 11,000 of their 40,000. The battle left an impression on Grant, and he later wrote that “[after Shiloh] I gave up all idea of saving the Battle of Bull Run Union except by complete conquest.” July, 1861 1862 After victory for the Confederates at the Second Battle of Bull Run, Lee decided to invade the Union. He split his forces, allowing half to vanish into the mountains in Maryland, while the other half was to follow the lead of “Stonewall” Jackson and seize the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry. McClellan was supposed to protect the capitol by staying between the enemy and the city. This move by Lee left him to chase after his enemy. McClellan then stumbled over a bit of good luck. Wrapped around three cigars, he found a copy of Lee’s plans. He realized the forces were divided, and that he could effectively destroy Lee’s army. He attacked near Sharpsburg, Maryland at a Creek called Anteitam. The Union army was, after this battle, too damaged to pursue the retreating Confederates. Union losses were greater September 17, 1862 than the Confederate losses of 11,000. September 17, 1862 Emancipation Proclamation A rallying cry for the north, Chancellorsville Lincoln redefines the war by Union general Joe Hooker proclaiming that the North lost 17,000 to an army half shall free the slaves of the the size of his own in May. South on September 22. Now the war is officially over the Gettysburg issue of slavery. On July 3rd, there were three days of battle. The south Union Victories attempted to remove the By the end of the year, New Union from their advantage Orleans had surrendered to the of higher ground. This ended Union without firing a shot. with over 50,000 casualties, There were now Union troops and the Confederacy advancing into Western retreating on July 4th. Tennessee, and Mississippi. 1862 1863 A Mississippi River victory for the Union depended on their taking of Vicksburg. On his 6th attempt, Grant began one of his most drastic campaigns. He moced his army down the west bank, and moved inland south of Viksburg. Under the impression that he was being tricked to move into the fields, the Confederate commander stayed behind the fortifications. The union forces moved to Jackson (the capitol of Mississippi), and from their, fought their way west to Viksburg. After defeating armies larger than his own five times, Grant laid siege to Viksburg. On July 4th, Viksburg surrendered. Five days later, the only remaining Confederate fort on the Mississippi (Port Hudson) also surrendered. This effectively cut off the Confederacy from their two major food suppliers, Arkansas and Texas. 1863 1863 A rail center on the Georgia -Tennessee border, In September, the Confederates gained a major victory here, however, the Union retreated into Chattanooga, where the Confederates bombarded them. The arrival of Grant with supplies and reinforcements in late October saved the Union army and pushed the Confederates out of the heights of the city. Tennessee was in Union hands by November, and the forces had moved into Georgia. At this point in time, only Georgia, the Carolinas, and Virginia had not fallen. Resulting from this, in early 1864, Lincoln gave his orders to Sherman for the west, and sent Grant out to destroy Robert E. Lee’s army. November 25, 1863 November 25, 1863 Battles in May and June Gettysburg Address The two armies (Lee and Grant) On November 19, 1863, President clash almost constantly, the Lincoln visited this battlefield numbers of Union troops at 120,000 to dedicate it, and to honour and the Confederacy at 60,000. The the deceased soldiers who were Battle of the Wilderness saw Lee stop buried there. His address Grant in a forest where the resulted proclaimed to the people that fighting lit the forest ablaze, leaving “these dead shall not have died the wounded to burn to death. in vain.” Despite heavy losses, Grant continued to pursue Lee, and they fought again in what was later called the “most Election of 1864 terrible 24 hours of (our) service in Lincoln is re-elected, as the the war,” at Spotsylvania. Less voters see safety in keeping the than a month later, Grant had same leader during difficult suffered total losses of a number times. greater than Lee’s army. Regardless, Grant knew that as long as he had a steady stream of reinforcements, he must continue to press Lee’s forces into surrender. 1863 and 1864 1864 General Sherman (Union) was ordered to move out of Tennessee and destroy the Confederates in the west. Sherman forced them into Atlanta, Georgia. Sherman burned Atlanta to the ground. Sherman continued through Georgia to Savannah, destroying 100 million dollars of property and doling out $20 million in military damage. May, 1864 May, 1864 In mid-June, Lee In March, as Lincoln retreats south of Richmond, to gave his second inaugural address, Petersburg. Grant surrounded Grant closed in on Richmond. and assaulted the city. Lee Davis was told by Lee that the attempted to sneak out a situation was hopeless, and that number of forces to attack Richmond could no longer be Washington D.C. through the defended. Lee retreated south, as Shenandoah River Valley but the Confederate government was stopped by Grant’s cavalry moved south as well. men. The valley was turned into a barren waste-land by the Union, and Grant Abandoned confirmed his attack on Richmond as successful. By April 4th, The former capitol of the Confederacy was now controlled by the Union 1864 1865 Lee’s forces are cut off as they attempt to meet up with other forces. Grant asks a surrender of Lee, asking for an end to the blood-shed. The two generals met at Appomattox courthouse, where generous terms on the part of the North were agreed to. The Confederates would be allowed to return home on the basis of never fighting again, and they would be allowed to keep their guns and horses. A Union soldier described the surrender. “[with] not a cheer, nor a word, nor whisper of vainglory, but an awed stillness rather, a breath- holding, as if it were a passing of the dead.” Despite orders from former President Davis, it took until June to subdue all other confederate generals. April 9, 1865 April 9, 1865 A Confederate radical by the name of John Wilkes Booth assassinates President Lincoln. This death was tragic to both sides, as Lincoln was considered the best person to “bind up the nation’s wounds.” This was considered by many to be a terrible blow for the South, with newspapers and diarists writing of the effects that would surely arise from having a different president mend the country’s war-torn soul. John Wilkes Booth April 14, 1865 April 14, 1865 Although the war is over, the effects of the war are to be felt long after. The South must now be re- established as part of the country once again, and old feuds must be set aside if the country is ever again to be fully unified.
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