Evolution Chapter Review - Baby's First Year

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					Evolution Chapter
     Review
    Pages 186-187
             Chapter Review
n   1. When a single population evolves into
    two populations that cannot interbreed
    anymore, speciation has occurred.
            Chapter Review
n   2. Darwin’s theory of natural selection
    explained the process by which organisms
    become well-adapted to their
    environment.
             Chapter Review
n   3. A group of organisms that can mate
    with each other to produce (fertile)
    offspring is known as a(n) species.
             Chapter Review
n   4. The fossil record provides information
    about organisms that lived in the past.
             Chapter Review
n   5. In selective breeding, humans select
    organisms with desirable traits that will be
    passed from one generation to another.
             Chapter Review
n   6. A(n) adaptation helps an organism
    survive better in its environment.
             Chapter Review
n   7. Populations of insects and bacteria can
    evolve quickly because they usually have a
    short generation time.
               Chapter Review
n   8. Fossils are commonly found in
    n   A. sedimentary rock.
               Chapter Review
n   9. The fact that all organisms have DNA as
    their genetic material is evidence that
    n   B. all organisms may have descended from a
        common ancestor.
               Chapter Review
n   10. Charles Darwin puzzled over
    differences in the ______ of the different
    species of Galapagos finches.
    n   b. beaks
                Chapter Review
n   11. Darwin observed variations among
    individuals within a population, but he did
    not realize that these variations were
    caused by
    n   C. differences in genes.
                Chapter Review
n   12. Identify two ways that organisms can
    be compared to provide evidence of
    evolution from a common ancestor.

    n   1)Living organisms can be compared in terms
        of body structures with other living organisms
        and with organisms from the fossil record.
        2)Also, the DNA of living organisms can be
        compared.
                Chapter Review
n   14. Why are some animals more likely to
    survive to adulthood than other animals
    are?

    n   Those animals that are better adapted to the
        conditions of their environment, including
        competition with other organisms, are more
        likely to survive to adulthood.
                Chapter Review
n   16. Outline an example of the speciation
    process.

    n   A single population of squirrels may have
        been separated by the Grand Canyon. Over
        many generations, they adapted to their
        different environments and became very
        different. Even though they look similar, they
        are no longer able to interbreed.
                 Chapter Review
n   Another example

    n   In a lizard population there was variation in leg size
        which affected climbing ability. Some lizards were
        able to climb trees while others remained on the
        ground. Over many generations, the 2 groups of
        lizards adapted to their environments and became
        different in many ways even though they still looked
        similar. Eventually, they could no longer interbreed.
               Chapter Review
n   21. Using the graphs in the book, what is
    the most common birth weight?

    n   About 7 pounds
               Chapter Review
n   22. At which birth weight is an infant most
    likely to survive?

    n   About 7 pounds
                Chapter Review
n   23. How do the principles of natural
    selection help explain why there are more
    deaths among babies whose birth weights
    are low than among babies whose birth
    weights are average?

    n   The infants who are best adapted to survive
        birth are those that weigh about 7 pounds.
                Chapter Review
n   What is ecological succession:

    n   A series of progressive changes in plant and
        animal life in an area that leads to a climax
        community
                Chapter Review
n   What is a climax community?

    n   A relatively stable community of organisms
        that results from ecological succession
              Chapter Review
n   List 3 ways primary succession and
    secondary succession are different.

    n 1)Primary succession begins with no soil;
      secondary succession begins with soil.
    n 2)They have different pioneer species.

    n 3)Secondary succession occurs faster.
               Chapter Review
n   List 1 identifying characteristic of each of the 5
    classes of vertebrates.

n   1)Mammalia: warm-blooded; hair or fur;
    mammary glands
n   2)Aves: warm-blooded; feathers; hollow bones
n   3)Reptilia: cold-blooded; scales; lay eggs on
    land
n   4)Amphibia: cold-blooded; live part of life in
    water & part on land; lay eggs in water
n   5)Pisces: cold-blooded; live in water
                 Chapter Review
n   Snowshoe hares experience a change in fur
    color from brown in summer to white in winter.
    How do you think fur color would be different if
    the snowshoe hare moved to a warmer climate
    year-round for many generations?

    n   Those hares whose genes allowed them to keep their
        brown fur longer, would be better adapted and would
        survive to reproduce. This trait would become more
        and more common. Eventually, the population would
        have brown fur all year long.
                   Chapter Review
n   Some scientists believe that leopard frogs in North
    America came from a common species. Today, leopard
    frogs from different parts of the continent can no longer
    interbreed. Which statement describes the best
    explanation for this change?
    n   A. Mating with another species of frogs causes genetic
        mutations.
    n   B. Climate changes over time cause species extinction, which
        can result in a very small gene pool.
    n   C. Mating with different populations throughout North America
        causes unique species to form.
    n   D. Geographic isolation from other populations can result in
        unique species.
         n   D
                   Chapter Review
n   Arctic foxes have thick fur on the bottom of its paws.
    Red foxes do not. Which evidence of species variation
    does the difference in feet represent?

    n   A. Parasites caused the red fox to lack fur on paw bottoms.
    n   B. Landforms can sometimes isolate animals in a population.
    n   C. Climates require different adaptations for animals to survive.
    n   D. Different diets caused the arctic fox to have fur on the
        bottom of its paws.
         n c
                   Chapter Review
n   Sometimes physical separation due to mountains or
    distance can cause organism originally of the same
    species to adapt to new environments that may cause
    them to no longer be able to interbreed. Which
    statement describes the best explanation for this
    change?

    n   A. Climate changes cause extinction.
    n   B. Mating with another species causes mutations.
    n   C. Geographic isolation from other populations can result in
        unique species.
    n   D. Mating with different species causes new species to form.
         n C
Chapter Review

				
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