Earth Science CRCT Review by hcj


									Earth Science CRCT

        Are you ready to exceed?
What process produces precipitation?

        •   Radiation
        •   Warming
        •   Condensation
        •   Evaporation
The properties of warm air are…

        •   Low pressure and low density
        •   Low pressure and high density
        •   High pressure and high density
        •   High pressure and low density
If the time it took Earth to rotate
once on its axis increased…

         •   A day would be longer
         •   A day would be shorter
         •   A year would be longer
         •   A year would be shorter
Your space ship is lost in the solar system. You
arrive at a planet and begin orbiting it. Your
instruments collect the data shown in the
table. What planet is below you ?
                     Average                                 Gravity
       Planet        distance                 Year Length                 Moons
                                (x 1000 km)                 (x earth’s)
                    from Sun

      unknown         778          143.0        11.9 y         2.53        63

                •      Earth
                •      Mars
                •      Jupiter
                •      Pluto
Which will produce the highest

        •   Wind speed of 10 km/hr
        •   Wind speed of 20 km/hr
        •   Wind speed of 30 km/hr
        •   Wind speed of 40 km/hr
Which is a nonrenewable resource?

        •   Air
        •   Water
        •   Coal
        •   Soil
As you hike through the mountains, you come
upon a U-shaped valley. A mound of rocks sit
at the bottom of the valley. What can you
conclude about how the valley formed?
           • It was formed by a glacier that
           • It was formed by a mountain
           • It was formed by an earthquake
           • It was formed by a huge storm
A comet’s tail always…

        •   Points toward earth
        •   Points away from earth
        •   Points toward the sun
        •   Points away from the sun
Global winds…

       •   Are hurricanes
       •   Blow over short distances
       •   Blow for long periods of time
       •   Blow now and then
Which object is largest?

         •   The universe
         •   A galaxy
         •   Earth
         •   The sun
What makes Uranus and Neptune
appear to glow blue-green?

       •   Atmospheric carbon dioxide
       •   Ice caps
       •   Atmospheric methane
       •   Gaseous centers
What causes the moon to appear to

        • The moon produces its own
        • The moon reflects the light from
          the Earth
        • The moon reflects the light from
          the Sun
        • The moon reflects the light from
          the stars
The theory of plate tectonics describes
movements of plates. The movement
originates in the…

          •   Inner core
          •   Outer core
          •   Mantle
          •   Crust
What is a hypothesis?

         • An idea that can be tested by
           experimentation and
         • An undisputed fact
         • A law of science
         • A speculation not based on
Galileo observes that Venus is like Earth’s
moon in one way. How are these two
celestial bodies similar?

          • They are both part of the earth’s
          • They are both planets
          • They are both stars
          • They both go through visible
Which rock group forms from the
hardening of magma?

        •   Sedimentary
        •   Obsidian
        •   Metamorphic
        •   Igneous
The Earth's surface can change either quickly or
slowly. Which of these can happen when rocks
and soil in the Earth move suddenly?

           •   Landslides
           •   Tornadoes
           •   Hurricanes
           •   Blizzards
Which planet has a fierce hurricane-like
storm that is several times the size of

          •   Mars
          •   Venus
          •   Saturn
          •   Jupiter
At which ocean feature would the
greatest amount of water pressure be

                       •   Continental shelf
                       •   Continental slope
                       •   Abyssal plain
                       •   Trench
The force that holds the planets in
orbit around the sun is called…

         •   motion
         •   friction
         •   pressure
         •   gravity
Which of these will cause the greatest
high tides?




Based on the drawing above, what is the main
reason that Venus would appear brighter at
point Q rather than at point R as seen from
the Earth?
                  •   The planet is closer to the Earth
                      at point Q than at point R.
                  •   More of the visible side of the
                      planet is illuminated at point Q
                      than at point R.
                  •   The planet appears overhead
                      against a dark sky when it is at
                      point Q but not at point R.
                  •   Light from the planet at point Q
                      is less affected by the sun's
                      gravity than at point R.
Predict the location of the Moon
during a solar eclipse.

        •   A
        •   B
        •   C
        •   D
By increasing the height of smokestacks, industries in
the Midwest reduced the local concentration of air
pollutants. However, the pollution was carried by
wind to the Northeast where it contributed
significantly to…
             •   reduced rainfall
             •   soil erosion
             •   mass wasting
             •   acid rain
Organic matter in soil is made

         •   weathered parent rock.
         •   decayed plants and animals.
         •   acid rain.
         •   carbon dioxide.
At the start of a hurricane, strong winds blew
over the ocean causing more water to
evaporate. How did this effect the hurricane?

           •   The hurricane lost heat.
           •   The hurricane lost pressure.
           •   The hurricane became weaker.
           •   The hurricane became stronger.
Solar eclipses rarely occur because…

         • the moon usually travels
           directly between Earth and the
         • the moon's orbit is tilted in
           relation to the Earth's orbit.
         • the moon usually travels
           directly behind Earth.
         • the moon is too close to the
Soils have four basic components. What
important soil component is a by-product of
the action of decomposers like bacteria and
           •   Silt
           •   Humus
           •   Minerals
           •   air space
In cold climates rocks are broken into pieces
by the action of water. This process that
breaks down rocks and helps form soil can
best be explained as
           • leaching of minerals from the
           • decomposition due to the
             action of ice crystals.
           • chemical weathering due to
             water reacting with calcite.
           • mechanical weathering due to
             alternate freezing and thawing.
During a summer vacation in Hawaii, Carlos found
several rock samples to share with his Earth Science
class. Most of the rocks were black, containing only
few light-colored crystals. All of the crystals were
large and the rocks had a coarse texture. Based on
this information which of the following statements is
true about the rocks Carlos found?

             •   The rocks were obsidian.
             •   The rocks were extrusive.
             •   The rocks were intrusive.
             •   The rocks were metamorphic
Because of the long drought, hay is in short
supply and Farmer Brown is letting his cattle
over-graze his pastures. Because of the over-
grazing, what should he predict will happen?
            • The soil will become more
            • The grass in the pasture will
              grow faster.
            • The soil will be eroded by wind
              and water.
            • The soil will become water
              soaked in the spring.
The ozone layer protects life on Earth from the sun's
harmful ultraviolet rays. This protective shield has
been depleted by man-made chemicals deposited in
our atmosphere.

How can we help slow down the ozone depletion in
Earth's upper atmosphere?
              • decrease CFC emissions from aerosol
              • decrease carbon dioxide emissions
                 from cars
              • decrease particulate pollution from
              • decrease carbon monoxide emissions
                 from combustion
Global warming is the increase in the Earth's
average surface temperature and is partly
caused by human activity. What can we do to
help slow global warming and reduce air
            • buy cars with hybrid gas-electric
            • increase the use of coal burning
                power plants
            • increase SUV use throughout the
                United States
            • replace fluorescent lights with
                incandescent bulbs
Which type of rock is most likely to be
formed by the cooling of magma

          •   sandstone
          •   limestone
          •   granite
          •   shale
Tropical seas have a high rate of
evaporation. Because of this, the water in
tropical seas will have higher:

          •   wave crests.
          •   amounts of algae.
          •   daily temperatures.
          •   salt concentrations.
Oceans contain many dissolved elements like
calcium, sodium, and chlorine and these elements
plus others combine to form the salts in the oceans.
Which of the following sources is a major source of
calcium and sodium in oceans?
             • gases from active volcanoes
             • weathering and erosion of rocks
             • pollutants from industrial
             • acid rain caused by air pollution
Only 3% of the water on Earth is
freshwater. About 60% of that water is
not available for man's use. Why is this?
          •   it is frozen
          •   it is polluted
          •   it is too salty
          •   it is in aquifers
As residents of Georgia, our weather is often
influenced by air masses that start over the
Gulf of Mexico. What type of air masses
should we expect from the Gulf of Mexico?
           •   hot and dry air
           •   warm and dry air
           •   warm and humid air
           •   cool and humid air
Most earthquakes and volcanoes occur in
areas of the Pacific Ocean called "The
Ring of Fire." What is the main reason for
          • Large numbers of people live in
            this area.
          • That area of the Earth is hotter
            than any other area.
          • Lithosphere plate boundaries
            are found in that area.
          • The weight of the ocean water
            forces magma to the surface
The average density of one of the continental
crusts is 2.8 g/cm3 and the average density of
one of the oceanic crusts is 3.2 g/cm3. If these
two plates came together, what could be
expected to happen?

             •   The two plates would push apart
                 and form a rift zone.
             •   The oceanic plate would rise up
                 over the continental plate.
             •   The oceanic plate would be pushed
                 under the continental plate.
             •   The two plates would meet head on
                 and rise up to form mountains.
Which of the following human activities
has not significantly changed Earth’s
land, oceans, and atmosphere?

          a. Reducing the amount of
             forest cover
          b. Increasing the amount and
             variety of chemicals released
             into the atmosphere
          c. Intensive farming
          d. Mountain climbing
When one of Earth’s plates plunges
underneath another the process is

         a.   Uplifting
         b.   Convergence
         c.   Subduction
         d.   Faulting
Winds are most likely found

         A. Cumulus and cirrus clouds
         B. Low and high pressure
         C. Warm and cold fronts
         D. Thunderstorms and
Excess runoff can cause…

         A.   Floods
         B.   Thunderstorms
         C.   Hail
         D.   Condensation
A weather map indicates that the city
of Raleigh is in a high pressure
system. This means that the weather
in Raleigh is most likely…
          A.   Rainy
          B.   Thunderstorms
          C.   Sunny
          D.   cloudy
A student is looking at a current model
of the Solar System. Which of these BEST
describes the model she sees?
         A.   A geocentric model, which means Earth
              is the center of the Solar System
         B.   A heliocentric model, which means Earth
              is the center of the Solar System
         C.   A geocentric model, which means the
              Sun is the center of the Solar System
         D.   A heliocentric model, which means the
              Sun is the center of the Solar System
In Georgia, summer occurs in July and
winter occurs in January. Which of these
BEST describes the difference between
January and July?
          A.   Earth is closer to the Sun in July than
               in January
          B.   Earth is closer to the Sun in January
               than in July
          C.   The Northern Hemisphere is titled
               toward the Sun in July
          D.   The Northern Hemisphere is tilted
               toward the Sun in January
Which of these is the MOST
LIKELY cause of tides?
       A. Gravitational pull of Jupiter
       B. Gravitational pull of the
       C. Movement of water in the
       D. Wind near the surface of the
Which of these BEST describes how the air
temperature of the ocean compares to the air
temperature of land next to the ocean?
           A.   The land will be cooler than the
                ocean at noon and at midnight
           B.   The land will be warmer than the
                ocean at noon and at midnight
           C.   The land will be warmer than the
                ocean at noon and cooler than the
                ocean at midnight
           D.   The land will be cooler than the
                ocean at noon and warmer than the
                ocean at midnight
A student is studying the layers of
Earth. Which of these layers is the
MOST dense?
          A.   Crust
          B.   Mantle
          C.   Outer core
          D.   Inner core
Which of these BEST describes
how an igneous rock forms?

        A.   Cooling of magma
        B.   Weathering of other rocks
        C.   Colliding of tectonic plates
        D.   Pressing together of smaller
 A student is making a poster about
conserving nonrenewable resources.
Which of these resources should she
put on her poster?
          A.   Wind
          B.   Sunlight
          C.   Oak trees
          D.   Natural gas
Which of these will be the Moon
phase during the solar eclipse?

          A.   Full Moon
          B.   New Moon
          C.   First quarter
          D.   Third quarter
A shopping mall is being built. Many plants are
removed from the area while construction is
completed. Which of these describes the MOST
LIKELY effect of removing the plants from the area?

              A.   The population of animals nearby
                   will increase
              B.   More soil will be washed away
                   during heavy rains
              C.   Animals in the area that used to
                   feed on plants will now eat other
              D.   The soil will have more nutrients
                   to grow new plants after the mall
                   is finished
Which of these features is MOST
LIKELY to affect a planet’s ability to
support life?
          A. The distance of the planet
             from the Sun
          B. The number of moons that
             orbit the planet
          C. The presence of water on
             the planet
          D. The gases that make up the
             planet’s atmosphere
Venus has the highest surface temperatures of
all the planets in our Solar System. Which is
the BEST explanation for this?
            A. Venus rotates on its axis
               very slowly
            B. Venus is very close to the
            C. Venus revolves around the
               Sub relatively quickly
            D. Venus’s atmosphere has
               thick clouds and carbon
On a hot summer day, the wind suddenly
starts to blow, clouds start to form, there is a
brief thunderstorm, and it becomes cooler.
What probably happened?

           A.   Seasonal change began
           B.   It was near sunset
           C.   A warm front passed through
           D.   A cold front passed through
Sunlight is not currently used as a
major source of energy. Why not?
          A.   Not enough sunlight reaches Earth
               to meet our energy needs
          B.   Economical ways to capture and
               store large amounts of solar energy
               have not been developed
          C.   Using sunlight for power will keep
               plants and animals from getting the
               energy they need
          D.   Our reserves of gas and oil will last
               for several thousand years so there
               is no need to change to solar
Which is the largest object in the
Solar System?
         A.   Earth
         B.   Mars
         C.   Sun
         D.   Moon
The theory of plate tectonics
attempts to explain the…

        A. Composition of earth’s inner
        B. Movement of earth’s upper
        C. Gravitational forces of earth
        D. Layering of sedimentary
An increase in which atmospheric
gas would increase the
greenhouse effect on Earth?

        A.   Oxygen
        B.   Ozone
        C.   Nitrogen
        D.   Carbon dioxide
The Atlantic Ocean is growing wider every year as
the two plates that comprise the ocean floor move
away from each other. What is happening as a result
of this widening of the ocean floor?

             A.   Earth is growing a little bit larger each
             B.   An undersea mountain range is
                  forming in the middle of the Atlantic
             C.   Continents are slowly becoming
                  smaller as the level of the ocean rises
             D.   A great rift in the center is closing up
                  as the two plates move
Which planet is characterized by thick
cloud cover, greenhouse effect, vast
plains, and high mountains?

           A.   Uranus
           B.   Saturn
           C.   Mercury
           D.   Venus
The space shuttle circles Earth in
         A.   Exosphere
         B.   Mesosphere
         C.   Troposphere
         D.   Stratosphere
The figure represents the relationship among Earth,
the Moon, and the Sun. It shows the Earth-Moon-Sun
system from a position above Earth’s North Pole. If
viewed from Earth, which position would represent a
full moon?

 A.   Position 1
 B.   Position 3
 C.   Position 5
 D.   Position 7
The crustal plates of Earth move due
to being dragged along with…

         A. Convection currents in the
         B. The rotation of Earth on its
         C. The high tides of the ocean
         D. Prevailing winds in the jet
Which current is MOST similar to
the Gulf Stream Current?

                       A. Peru
                       B. Kuroshio
                       C. North
                       D. Equatorial
An important key to
understanding and reading a
topographic map is the…
        A.   Identification of marshes
        B.   Location of state boundaries
        C.   Location of roads
        D.   Contour lines
The three basic types of rocks

         A. lava, coal, and gravel
         B. color, streak, and luster.
         C. heat, pressure, and
         D. igneous, sedimentary, and
Fossils of marine animals are
MOST often found in…

       A.   igneous rocks.
       B.   metamorphic rocks.
       C.   sedimentary rocks.
       D.   molten lava rocks.
Which form of energy is produced
from human-made materials?

       A.   Geothermal
       B.   Wind
       C.   Solar
       D.   synthetic fuel
Which is the best indication of an
approaching storm?

         A. a sudden increase in wind
         B. a decrease in barometric
         C. a clearing sky after a cold
            front passes
         D. a sudden drop in the
The ozone layer of the atmosphere protects
the earth from excessive ultraviolet radiation.
Because ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation
the ozone layer is

  A.   warmer than the layers surrounding it.
  B.   situated at the top of the ionosphere.
  C.   cooler than the layers surrounding it.
  D.   more than 100 km in thickness.
When Earth, the Moon, and the Sun
are in line as shown above, which
could occur?
                A.   An eclipse of the Sun
                     could occur.
                B.   An eclipse of the Moon
                     could occur.
                C.   The Moon could be
                     pulled closer to the Sun.
                D.   The speed of Earth's
                     rotation could be

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