Earth Science CRCT Review Are you ready to exceed? What process produces precipitation? • Radiation • Warming • Condensation • Evaporation The properties of warm air are… • Low pressure and low density • Low pressure and high density • High pressure and high density • High pressure and low density If the time it took Earth to rotate once on its axis increased… • A day would be longer • A day would be shorter • A year would be longer • A year would be shorter Your space ship is lost in the solar system. You arrive at a planet and begin orbiting it. Your instruments collect the data shown in the table. What planet is below you ? Average Gravity Diameter Planet distance Year Length Moons (x 1000 km) (x earth’s) from Sun unknown 778 143.0 11.9 y 2.53 63 • Earth • Mars • Jupiter • Pluto Which will produce the highest waves? • Wind speed of 10 km/hr • Wind speed of 20 km/hr • Wind speed of 30 km/hr • Wind speed of 40 km/hr Which is a nonrenewable resource? • Air • Water • Coal • Soil As you hike through the mountains, you come upon a U-shaped valley. A mound of rocks sit at the bottom of the valley. What can you conclude about how the valley formed? • It was formed by a glacier that retreated • It was formed by a mountain river • It was formed by an earthquake • It was formed by a huge storm A comet’s tail always… • Points toward earth • Points away from earth • Points toward the sun • Points away from the sun Global winds… • Are hurricanes • Blow over short distances • Blow for long periods of time • Blow now and then Which object is largest? • The universe • A galaxy • Earth • The sun What makes Uranus and Neptune appear to glow blue-green? • Atmospheric carbon dioxide • Ice caps • Atmospheric methane • Gaseous centers What causes the moon to appear to glow? • The moon produces its own light • The moon reflects the light from the Earth • The moon reflects the light from the Sun • The moon reflects the light from the stars The theory of plate tectonics describes movements of plates. The movement originates in the… • Inner core • Outer core • Mantle • Crust What is a hypothesis? • An idea that can be tested by experimentation and observation • An undisputed fact • A law of science • A speculation not based on observation Galileo observes that Venus is like Earth’s moon in one way. How are these two celestial bodies similar? • They are both part of the earth’s orbit • They are both planets • They are both stars • They both go through visible phases Which rock group forms from the hardening of magma? • Sedimentary • Obsidian • Metamorphic • Igneous The Earth's surface can change either quickly or slowly. Which of these can happen when rocks and soil in the Earth move suddenly? • Landslides • Tornadoes • Hurricanes • Blizzards Which planet has a fierce hurricane-like storm that is several times the size of Earth? • Mars • Venus • Saturn • Jupiter At which ocean feature would the greatest amount of water pressure be exerted? • Continental shelf • Continental slope • Abyssal plain • Trench The force that holds the planets in orbit around the sun is called… • motion • friction • pressure • gravity Which of these will cause the greatest high tides? • • • • Based on the drawing above, what is the main reason that Venus would appear brighter at point Q rather than at point R as seen from the Earth? • The planet is closer to the Earth at point Q than at point R. • More of the visible side of the planet is illuminated at point Q than at point R. • The planet appears overhead against a dark sky when it is at point Q but not at point R. • Light from the planet at point Q is less affected by the sun's gravity than at point R. Predict the location of the Moon during a solar eclipse. • A • B • C • D By increasing the height of smokestacks, industries in the Midwest reduced the local concentration of air pollutants. However, the pollution was carried by wind to the Northeast where it contributed significantly to… • reduced rainfall • soil erosion • mass wasting • acid rain Organic matter in soil is made from… • weathered parent rock. • decayed plants and animals. • acid rain. • carbon dioxide. At the start of a hurricane, strong winds blew over the ocean causing more water to evaporate. How did this effect the hurricane? • The hurricane lost heat. • The hurricane lost pressure. • The hurricane became weaker. • The hurricane became stronger. Solar eclipses rarely occur because… • the moon usually travels directly between Earth and the sun. • the moon's orbit is tilted in relation to the Earth's orbit. • the moon usually travels directly behind Earth. • the moon is too close to the earth. Soils have four basic components. What important soil component is a by-product of the action of decomposers like bacteria and fungus? • Silt • Humus • Minerals • air space In cold climates rocks are broken into pieces by the action of water. This process that breaks down rocks and helps form soil can best be explained as • leaching of minerals from the rock. • decomposition due to the action of ice crystals. • chemical weathering due to water reacting with calcite. • mechanical weathering due to alternate freezing and thawing. During a summer vacation in Hawaii, Carlos found several rock samples to share with his Earth Science class. Most of the rocks were black, containing only few light-colored crystals. All of the crystals were large and the rocks had a coarse texture. Based on this information which of the following statements is true about the rocks Carlos found? • The rocks were obsidian. • The rocks were extrusive. • The rocks were intrusive. • The rocks were metamorphic Because of the long drought, hay is in short supply and Farmer Brown is letting his cattle over-graze his pastures. Because of the over- grazing, what should he predict will happen? • The soil will become more fertile. • The grass in the pasture will grow faster. • The soil will be eroded by wind and water. • The soil will become water soaked in the spring. The ozone layer protects life on Earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. This protective shield has been depleted by man-made chemicals deposited in our atmosphere. How can we help slow down the ozone depletion in Earth's upper atmosphere? • decrease CFC emissions from aerosol cans • decrease carbon dioxide emissions from cars • decrease particulate pollution from factories • decrease carbon monoxide emissions from combustion Global warming is the increase in the Earth's average surface temperature and is partly caused by human activity. What can we do to help slow global warming and reduce air pollution? • buy cars with hybrid gas-electric engines • increase the use of coal burning power plants • increase SUV use throughout the United States • replace fluorescent lights with incandescent bulbs Which type of rock is most likely to be formed by the cooling of magma underground? • sandstone • limestone • granite • shale Tropical seas have a high rate of evaporation. Because of this, the water in tropical seas will have higher: • wave crests. • amounts of algae. • daily temperatures. • salt concentrations. Oceans contain many dissolved elements like calcium, sodium, and chlorine and these elements plus others combine to form the salts in the oceans. Which of the following sources is a major source of calcium and sodium in oceans? • gases from active volcanoes • weathering and erosion of rocks • pollutants from industrial wastes • acid rain caused by air pollution Only 3% of the water on Earth is freshwater. About 60% of that water is not available for man's use. Why is this? • it is frozen • it is polluted • it is too salty • it is in aquifers As residents of Georgia, our weather is often influenced by air masses that start over the Gulf of Mexico. What type of air masses should we expect from the Gulf of Mexico? • hot and dry air • warm and dry air • warm and humid air • cool and humid air Most earthquakes and volcanoes occur in areas of the Pacific Ocean called "The Ring of Fire." What is the main reason for this? • Large numbers of people live in this area. • That area of the Earth is hotter than any other area. • Lithosphere plate boundaries are found in that area. • The weight of the ocean water forces magma to the surface The average density of one of the continental crusts is 2.8 g/cm3 and the average density of one of the oceanic crusts is 3.2 g/cm3. If these two plates came together, what could be expected to happen? • The two plates would push apart and form a rift zone. • The oceanic plate would rise up over the continental plate. • The oceanic plate would be pushed under the continental plate. • The two plates would meet head on and rise up to form mountains. Which of the following human activities has not significantly changed Earth’s land, oceans, and atmosphere? a. Reducing the amount of forest cover b. Increasing the amount and variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere c. Intensive farming d. Mountain climbing When one of Earth’s plates plunges underneath another the process is called… a. Uplifting b. Convergence c. Subduction d. Faulting Winds are most likely found between… A. Cumulus and cirrus clouds B. Low and high pressure systems C. Warm and cold fronts D. Thunderstorms and hailstorms Excess runoff can cause… A. Floods B. Thunderstorms C. Hail D. Condensation A weather map indicates that the city of Raleigh is in a high pressure system. This means that the weather in Raleigh is most likely… A. Rainy B. Thunderstorms C. Sunny D. cloudy A student is looking at a current model of the Solar System. Which of these BEST describes the model she sees? A. A geocentric model, which means Earth is the center of the Solar System B. A heliocentric model, which means Earth is the center of the Solar System C. A geocentric model, which means the Sun is the center of the Solar System D. A heliocentric model, which means the Sun is the center of the Solar System In Georgia, summer occurs in July and winter occurs in January. Which of these BEST describes the difference between January and July? A. Earth is closer to the Sun in July than in January B. Earth is closer to the Sun in January than in July C. The Northern Hemisphere is titled toward the Sun in July D. The Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun in January Which of these is the MOST LIKELY cause of tides? A. Gravitational pull of Jupiter B. Gravitational pull of the Moon C. Movement of water in the ocean D. Wind near the surface of the ocean Which of these BEST describes how the air temperature of the ocean compares to the air temperature of land next to the ocean? A. The land will be cooler than the ocean at noon and at midnight B. The land will be warmer than the ocean at noon and at midnight C. The land will be warmer than the ocean at noon and cooler than the ocean at midnight D. The land will be cooler than the ocean at noon and warmer than the ocean at midnight A student is studying the layers of Earth. Which of these layers is the MOST dense? A. Crust B. Mantle C. Outer core D. Inner core Which of these BEST describes how an igneous rock forms? A. Cooling of magma B. Weathering of other rocks C. Colliding of tectonic plates D. Pressing together of smaller rocks A student is making a poster about conserving nonrenewable resources. Which of these resources should she put on her poster? A. Wind B. Sunlight C. Oak trees D. Natural gas Which of these will be the Moon phase during the solar eclipse? A. Full Moon B. New Moon C. First quarter D. Third quarter A shopping mall is being built. Many plants are removed from the area while construction is completed. Which of these describes the MOST LIKELY effect of removing the plants from the area? A. The population of animals nearby will increase B. More soil will be washed away during heavy rains C. Animals in the area that used to feed on plants will now eat other animals D. The soil will have more nutrients to grow new plants after the mall is finished Which of these features is MOST LIKELY to affect a planet’s ability to support life? A. The distance of the planet from the Sun B. The number of moons that orbit the planet C. The presence of water on the planet D. The gases that make up the planet’s atmosphere Venus has the highest surface temperatures of all the planets in our Solar System. Which is the BEST explanation for this? A. Venus rotates on its axis very slowly B. Venus is very close to the Sun C. Venus revolves around the Sub relatively quickly D. Venus’s atmosphere has thick clouds and carbon dioxide On a hot summer day, the wind suddenly starts to blow, clouds start to form, there is a brief thunderstorm, and it becomes cooler. What probably happened? A. Seasonal change began B. It was near sunset C. A warm front passed through D. A cold front passed through Sunlight is not currently used as a major source of energy. Why not? A. Not enough sunlight reaches Earth to meet our energy needs B. Economical ways to capture and store large amounts of solar energy have not been developed C. Using sunlight for power will keep plants and animals from getting the energy they need D. Our reserves of gas and oil will last for several thousand years so there is no need to change to solar energy Which is the largest object in the Solar System? A. Earth B. Mars C. Sun D. Moon The theory of plate tectonics attempts to explain the… A. Composition of earth’s inner regions B. Movement of earth’s upper layers C. Gravitational forces of earth D. Layering of sedimentary rock An increase in which atmospheric gas would increase the greenhouse effect on Earth? A. Oxygen B. Ozone C. Nitrogen D. Carbon dioxide The Atlantic Ocean is growing wider every year as the two plates that comprise the ocean floor move away from each other. What is happening as a result of this widening of the ocean floor? A. Earth is growing a little bit larger each year B. An undersea mountain range is forming in the middle of the Atlantic ocean C. Continents are slowly becoming smaller as the level of the ocean rises D. A great rift in the center is closing up as the two plates move Which planet is characterized by thick cloud cover, greenhouse effect, vast plains, and high mountains? A. Uranus B. Saturn C. Mercury D. Venus The space shuttle circles Earth in the… A. Exosphere B. Mesosphere C. Troposphere D. Stratosphere The figure represents the relationship among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. It shows the Earth-Moon-Sun system from a position above Earth’s North Pole. If viewed from Earth, which position would represent a full moon? A. Position 1 B. Position 3 C. Position 5 D. Position 7 The crustal plates of Earth move due to being dragged along with… A. Convection currents in the mantle B. The rotation of Earth on its axis C. The high tides of the ocean D. Prevailing winds in the jet stream Which current is MOST similar to the Gulf Stream Current? A. Peru B. Kuroshio C. North Pacific Drift D. Equatorial Counter- current An important key to understanding and reading a topographic map is the… A. Identification of marshes B. Location of state boundaries C. Location of roads D. Contour lines The three basic types of rocks are… A. lava, coal, and gravel B. color, streak, and luster. C. heat, pressure, and weathering. D. igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Fossils of marine animals are MOST often found in… A. igneous rocks. B. metamorphic rocks. C. sedimentary rocks. D. molten lava rocks. Which form of energy is produced from human-made materials? A. Geothermal B. Wind C. Solar D. synthetic fuel Which is the best indication of an approaching storm? A. a sudden increase in wind speed B. a decrease in barometric pressure C. a clearing sky after a cold front passes D. a sudden drop in the humidity The ozone layer of the atmosphere protects the earth from excessive ultraviolet radiation. Because ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation the ozone layer is A. warmer than the layers surrounding it. B. situated at the top of the ionosphere. C. cooler than the layers surrounding it. D. more than 100 km in thickness. When Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are in line as shown above, which could occur? A. An eclipse of the Sun could occur. B. An eclipse of the Moon could occur. C. The Moon could be pulled closer to the Sun. D. The speed of Earth's rotation could be increased.
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