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The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

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					Team 6 Presentation

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

Team Members & Their Role

Josh – Intro / Presentation of facts Dan – Stakeholder Analysis (Exxon Corporation) Jason - Stakeholder Analysis (Wildlife, plants, land, & Water) Melissa - Stakeholder Analysis (Surrounding Community) Luis – Spill prevention and response / Conclusion

Stakeholders

Factual Overview
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Exxon Valdez: 986 ft. vessel (2nd newest in Exxon’s 20 tanker fleet) Storage capacity: 1.4 million barrels Amount spilled: 257,000 barrels (125 Olympicsized swimming pools)

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Fortune Rank: 1988 – 6th 1989 – 110th
Clean up effort: Cost $2.1 billion

Key Players
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Captain – Joseph Hazelwood
Marine Pilot – William Murphy Third Mate – Gregory Cousins

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Time Line of Events

The Departure: March 23rd 1989
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Exxon Valdez departed from TransAlaskan pipeline @ 9:12 p.m. Loaded with 1,264,155 barrels of North slope crude oil Bound for Long Beach, California

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The Valdez Narrows: 9:35 p.m.
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Constricted harbor entrance
Supervision of Pilot Murphy Hazelwood leaves wheelhouse, violating Exxon policy

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Two Lanes of Traffic
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Western (Outbound vessels)
Eastern (Inbound Vessels) Switch lanes to avoid icebergs

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Hazelwood Returns 11:10 p.m.
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11:24 p.m. – Pilot Murphy disembarked 11:30 p.m. – Hazelwood turns ship easterly, toward the inbound lane 11:39 p.m. – Hazelwood turned ship due south bearing 180 degrees, placed autopilot on, but failed to report 2nd course change

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Eastern Boundary Crossed @ 11:47 p.m.
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11:52 p.m. - Hazelwood increases engine speed from 55 RPM to 78.7 RPM 11:53 p.m. – Hazelwood leaves and Cousins is placed in charge of wheelhouse

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Impending Disaster
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12:01 a.m. – Cousins orders right rudder command to regain desired course, disengaging the autopilot

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12:03 a.m. – Lookout Maureen Jones identifies reef ahead, Cousins orders a hard right rudder command (too late)
12:04 a.m. – Exxon Valdez runs aground on Bligh Reef

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The Nightmare Has Begun
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10.8 million gallons of North Slope Crude Oil gushed from the hull Spill covered 1,776 square miles of ocean
Covered 3,167 miles of coastline with oil

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Spill Area

Damage Report
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600,000 Birds
5,500 Sea Otters

30 Seals
22 Wales

??? Never Found

Interesting Facts
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Largest oil spill in the U.S. Not ranked in top 50 internationally

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# 1 spill in terms of damage to the environment 10.8 million gallons amounts to only ? % of the oil spilt in 1989

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Discussion
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We know that 10.8 million gallons spilt from the Exxon Valdez in 1989 How much oil was “Illegally” disposed of in 1989? 216,000,000 Gallons of Oil 10.8 million gallons amounts to only 5% of the oil spilt in 1989

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Public Outrage Mounts
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Alaskan Oil Spill Team too slow to respond A response barge maintained by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company was out of service and unavailable for use Not enough skimmers and booms available

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Dispersants deemed ineffective
New methods needed

Damage done to the Corporation
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Cleanup cost $2.1 billion Total Cost estimated to be $4 billion Cleanup Crew
workers  1,000 boats  100 planes / helicopters
 10,000

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Cleanup Methods
 Hot

/ cold water treatment  Mechanical  Chemical agents  Bioremediation

$ Settlement $
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Criminal Plea Agreement
 Fined

$150 million

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Criminal Restitution
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Pay additional $100 million to wildlife

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Civil Settlement
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Agreed to pay $900 million with annual payments over 10 years

Discussion
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Do you think that the fine imposed on Exxon was fair? Should it have been more or less?
Should The Exxon Valdez be permanently banned from Prince Williams Sound, to never return again?

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N.T.S.B. Findings
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Failure of the third mate to properly maneuver the vessel, possibly due to fatigue and excessive workload Failure of the master to provide a proper navigation watch, possibly due to impairment from alcohol The failure of Exxon Shipping Company to supervise the master and provide a rested and sufficient crew for the Exxon Valdez Failure of the U.S. Coast Guard to provide an effective vessel traffic system The lack of effective pilot and escort services

Environmental Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
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10.8 million gallons of oil spilled into the surrounding waters affecting the shoreline, animals, surrounding wilderness areas and significant archaeological sites.

Shoreline
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Approximately 1,300 miles of shoreline were impacted by the oil 200 miles were heavily/ moderately oiled 1,100 miles were lightly oiled consists of the Inter-tidal communities, Sub tidal communities and

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Inter-tidal Communities
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Area of beach between low and high tides Serves as important resources for sea and river otters and a variety of birds

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Oil impacted inter-tidal organisms such as the flora, fauna, algae, invertebrates and the common seaweed
The abundance and reproductive potential of the common seaweed was also reduced as a result

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Sub-tidal communities
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Area from the lower inter-tidal zone to depths of approximately 20 meters Serves as shallow sub tidal habitats for kelp or eelgrass that contain worms, snails, clams, sea urchins and other invertebrate life Provides food and shelter for near shore fish, birds and marine mammals

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Oil spill caused changes in the abundance and species composition of plant and animal populations
Amphipods; oil sensitive species, were mostly affected

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Sediments
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Oil penetrated deeply into the cobble and boulder beaches Chemical analysis of oil in sediments conducted
was mostly confined to uppermost 20 meters of water depths  Elevated levels of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were detected at depths of 40 meters and 100 meters
 Oil

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Animals
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Unknown number of deaths Greater than 35,000 carcasses of birds recovered Greater than 1000 carcasses of sea otters recovered Estimation of deaths:  250,000 seabirds  2800 sea otters  300 harbor seals  250 bald eagles  22 killer whales  billions of salmon and herring eggs

Common Murre
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Approximately 30,000 carcasses of oiled birds recovered Population declined by 40% in oiled areas Timing of reproduction was disrupted and productivity was reduced by spill Today recovery is well underway

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Pink Salmon
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The early life stages made the species highly vulnerable to damage from the oil spill Growth rates of juvenile pink salmon from oiled areas were reduced

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Increased egg mortality in oiled versus un-oiled streams
Returns of pink salmon to Prince William Sound:  Before spill: 23.5 million fish  After spill: 12.7 million fish Full recovery has not been achieved

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Harbor Seal
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Decline in harbor seal numbers before oil spill Population declined by 43% in oiled areas and 11% in un-oiled areas Spill also affected harbor seal habitats The harbor seals numbers are still declining in both oil and un-oiled sites

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Surrounding Wilderness Areas
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Various quantities of oil spilled into these areas Clean-up activity imposed by people, equipment and noise affected the area’s original underdeveloped and normally sparsely occupied landscape Some areas still contain residual oil despite the clean-up efforts Recovery status of designated wilderness remains unknown

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Archaeological Sites
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Oil spill area contains more than 3000 significant and historical archaeological sites Many sites were badly damaged by oil and erosion 24 archaeological sites on public lands affected by cleanup activities or looting/vandalism linked to spill Vegetation disturbed resulting in accelerated erosion of exposed sites Effect of oil on soil chemistry and organic remains reduces utility of radiocarbon dating

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The Alaskan Community
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Impact on Tourism
The people of Alaska

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Negative Effects on the Tourism Industry
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Decreased resident and non-resident vacations and services.
Severe labor shortages in the tourism industry Many local businesses suffered loss. Media exposure

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Positive Effects of The Spill
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Generated new spill related business.
Media exposure

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Declines in social relationships
Production problems at work Anxiety disorders

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Posttraumatic stress disorders
Depression

Summary / Conclusion
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Has Exxon Paid enough for this accident?
Should the ship be allowed entrance into Prince Williams Sound? First let’s consider what has been done:

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First:
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The Vessel Before, Built in 1986 … The Vessel- After, Since then …

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Second:
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Upgrades to the region

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Exxon’s payoffs
Pending case

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Questions to Consider
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Has Exxon paid enough?
Are those claiming this punitive damage, seeking to take advantage of this successful and powerful Corporation?

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Should they be allowed to go back this region and conduct normal business?


				
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