ca73419dd7984eb6b37db4dd3446e4d4 by gstec


									Small-Scale Solar-Biopower Generation For
Rural Central America

   Project support from:
   US Department of State, Western Hemisphere Affairs
   Energy & Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA)

   Dana Kirk, Ph.D., P.E.
   Michigan State University
   Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Project Partners
Core Project Team

  —    PI – Ajit Srivastava, MSU BAE
  —    Co PI – Wei Liao, MSU BAE
  —    Co PI – Dawn Reinhold, MSU BAE
  —    Educational coordinator – Luke Reese, MSU BAE
  —    Project manager – Dana Kirk, MSU BAE
  —    Francisco Aguilar – UCR AE
  —    Daniel Baudrit – UCR AE
  —    Alberto Miranda – UCR AE
  —    Lorena Lorio – UCR Micro
  —    Lidieth Uribe – UCR Micro
Project Objectives

   1.  Optimize local thermophilic anaerobic microbial
   2.  Implement a solar-biopower generation system
   3.  Evaluate the technical and economic
   4.  Establish an outreach program in Central
Facts of solar energy

                                    Central America

v  Advantages                                                  v  Disadvantages
  §  Theoretical: 1.76 x 105 TW                                  §  Sun does not shine
      striking Earth, Practical: 600 TW                               consistently.
  §  It is the cleanest energy source                            §  Solar energy is a diffuse
      on the Earth.                                                   source.
  §  Solar energy reaching the earth                             §  It is difficult to collect, covert,
      is abundant.                                                    and store solar energy.
Facts of Biogas Energy from Wastes

 v  Advantages                             v Disadvantages
    §  A biological process                    §  Low efficiency of organic
                                                  matter degradation
    §  Reducing greenhouse gas
      emission                                  §  Difficulty of power
                                                  generation for small-medium
    §  Enhancing nutrient

    Completely Stirred Tank    Anaerobic Sequence Batch         Plug-flow digester
       Reactor (CSTR)              Reactor (ASBR)

Agricultural residues available in Costa Rica

        Residues        Total amount (metric ton dry             Current treatment practices
                               matter per year)
                            2006          Projection 2012
   Cattle manure             1,530,000           1,679,900 Only 20% of producers treat wastes, dried
                                                           and composted
   Swine manure                 95,000             110,000 0.68% for production of energy and rest in
                                                           agriculture, fertilizer (45.5%) food
                                                           animal (53.1%) or other uses (0.7%).
   Banana residues             158,000             132,000 Not used as energy source,100% discarded
                                                           or composted organic
   Coffee residues       (pulp) 251,000     (pulp) 262,000 Pulp is used for composting, and husk is used
                         (husk) 25,000     (husk) 26,300 for combustion
   Sugarcane bagasse         1,290,000           1,518,200 95.3% dried and used as combustion, 4.7% non
   Pineapple residues        6,351,000           8,452,000 Combusted and soil improvement

  §  More than 600 MW electricity per year could be potentially generated
    from this amount of waste streams through anaerobic digestion

Solar-biopower concept

  Integrating wastes utilization with solar and biological
  technologies will create a novel self-sustainable clean
  energy generations system for small-medium scale

   Animal Manure              Energy

    Other Organic
       Wastes                                     Reduced GHG
                       Anaerobic      Post-
                       Digestion   treatment
                                                  Clean Water
Solar-biopower concept
                        Benefits of system integration
   v Overcome the disadvantages of individual technologies
     §  Unsteady energy flow for solar power generation
     §  Low efficiency of mesophilic anaerobic digestion on degradation
       of organic matter
     §  Higher energy requirement of thermophilic aerobic digestion

   v Provide sufficient and stable energy for small-medium
      sized rural community
     §  Solar energy utilization
     §  Improved efficiency of anaerobic digestion on degradation of
       organic matter
     §  Biogas energy as chemical storage – steady energy flow
Mass balance

      Predicted mass balance for the integrated solar-bio system on 1,000 kg of
      mixed sludge and food wastes
                                                       Biogas production from
                                                       anaerobic treatment                                       Amount: 684 MJ/day
                                                       Methane: 18,000 L/day

        Mixture of feedstocks:                            Thermophilic CSTR                                 Liquid effluent
        Total amount: 1,000 kg/day                        Reaction temp.: 50°C
                                                                                                            Amount: 595 kg/day
        Total solid: 10%                                  Retention time: 15 days                                                           To wetland
                                                                                                            Total solid: 10 g/kg effluent
        COD: 90 g/kg                                      COD reduction: 50%
                                                                                                            COD: 45 g/kg effluent
                                                          Total solid reduction:40%

                                                    Solid residue accumulated
                                                    from the CSTR
                                                    Amount: 360 kg/day wet solid
                                                    Dry matter: 15%

      §  Generating 66 kWh electricity per day
      §  Producing 5 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) renewable fuel per day
a.    The calculation of mass balance was based on the expected results that will be achieved by this project.                                 10
b.    A kg COD destroyed produces 350 L methane gas.
Solar-biopower system

                                          Power unit

      Solar unit


Construction site

                         Solar Bio-Reactor Site
                    Fabio Baudrit Experiment Station
Major system components

  —  16 – 2 m2 flat-plate solar collector with support
  —  22 m3 anaerobic digester
  —  50 m3 gas bag
  —  2 – 10 kW electric generators
  —  4 – 144 m2 wetland/sand filter cells

           Solar Bio-Reactor                 Sand Filter / Wetland
Solar thermal system

      Solar collectors,
   hot water tank (white),
 & hot water storage (green)
Anaerobic digester

      Poly tank anaerobic digester

                                     Official ribbon (digester in background clad in

           Field engineering
Feedstock & digestate handling

                                          Digestate solid-liquid separator

    Feedstock grinder, auger & mix tank
            (pump not shown)
Biogas storage

  Gas bag, foam interceptor, & scrubber

             Biogas sampling              Full gas bag, May 2, 2013
Sand filter & wetlands

             Sand filter 1     Vertical wetland (sand filter 2)

           Surface wetland 1         Surface wetland 2
Solar-biopower system performance

  —  Feedstock:
     §  Beef manure (950+ kg/d)
     §  Food waste
     §  Chicken litter (20 kg/d)
  —  Temperature:
     §  Currently 45oC±2oC
     §  Target 50oC±1oC
  —  Biogas production: ≈20 m3/d
  —  Biogas quality: 60+% CH4
  —  Volatile solids destruction: 39% to 44%
Water reclamation

           Organic    Anaerobic            Sand filter          Sand filter    Reclaimed
            waste      digester              No. 1                No. 2          water

     Original waste         The effluent              The water                The water
         stream             from solar-              from the 1st             from the 2nd
                             bioreactor              cell of post-            cell of post-
                                                      treatment                 treatment

May 2013
Outcomes to date

  —  Pilot system
     §    Biogas production at 70% of goal
     §    Biogas quality and solids destruction have achieved goals
     §    Install biogas flow meter
     §    Connect electrical generators to the experiment station power
     §    Begin sand filter/wetland research
  —  Bioenergy support lab at UCR – capable of carrying
      out BMP’s and other analysis
  —  Utilization of local manufacturing – coffee equipment &
      solar panels
  —  Study abroad “Ecological Engineering in the Tropics”
      completed in December of 2012
Next steps

  —  Finalize microbial consortia papers
  —  Continue to operate pilot system until Sept. 2014
  —  Operate portable unit at second location – wastewater
      or food processor
  —  Complete economic and policy evaluation
  —  2013 study abroad planned for December
  —  Expand bioenergy capabilities to address commercial
Other announcements
  —  August 13, 2013 – MSU Waste to Resource Field Day
     §  Highlights:
         w  South Campus Anaerobic Digester (500 kW from 130 cows)
         w  Research digester, compost facility, student organic farm,
             recycling center, power plant, ADREC
     §  For more information go to :

  —  October 15 to 17 – Anaerobic Digester Operator
      Training (East Lansing, MI)
     §  Highlights
         w  System commissioning
         w  Maintaining biological health
         w  Safety
         w  Operational troubleshooting
     §  For information contact

                   Dana M Kirk, Ph.D., P.E.
           Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
      Anaerobic Digestion Research and Education Center
                       P: 517.432.6530

To top