Docstoc

ca73419dd7984eb6b37db4dd3446e4d4

Document Sample
ca73419dd7984eb6b37db4dd3446e4d4 Powered By Docstoc
					Small-Scale Solar-Biopower Generation For
Rural Central America


   Project support from:
   US Department of State, Western Hemisphere Affairs
   Energy & Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA)

   Dana Kirk, Ph.D., P.E.
   Michigan State University
   Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
   kirkdana@anr.msu.edu
Project Partners
Core Project Team

  —    PI – Ajit Srivastava, MSU BAE
  —    Co PI – Wei Liao, MSU BAE
  —    Co PI – Dawn Reinhold, MSU BAE
  —    Educational coordinator – Luke Reese, MSU BAE
  —    Project manager – Dana Kirk, MSU BAE
  —    Francisco Aguilar – UCR AE
  —    Daniel Baudrit – UCR AE
  —    Alberto Miranda – UCR AE
  —    Lorena Lorio – UCR Micro
  —    Lidieth Uribe – UCR Micro
Project Objectives


   1.  Optimize local thermophilic anaerobic microbial
       consortia
   2.  Implement a solar-biopower generation system
   3.  Evaluate the technical and economic
       performance
   4.  Establish an outreach program in Central
       America
Facts of solar energy




                                    Central America




v  Advantages                                                  v  Disadvantages
  §  Theoretical: 1.76 x 105 TW                                  §  Sun does not shine
      striking Earth, Practical: 600 TW                               consistently.
  §  It is the cleanest energy source                            §  Solar energy is a diffuse
      on the Earth.                                                   source.
  §  Solar energy reaching the earth                             §  It is difficult to collect, covert,
      is abundant.                                                    and store solar energy.
    From: http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/solar.html
                                                                                                   5
Facts of Biogas Energy from Wastes


 v  Advantages                             v Disadvantages
    §  A biological process                    §  Low efficiency of organic
                                                  matter degradation
    §  Reducing greenhouse gas
      emission                                  §  Difficulty of power
                                                  generation for small-medium
    §  Enhancing nutrient
                                                  operations
      management




    Completely Stirred Tank    Anaerobic Sequence Batch         Plug-flow digester
       Reactor (CSTR)              Reactor (ASBR)


                                                                                     6
Agricultural residues available in Costa Rica


        Residues        Total amount (metric ton dry             Current treatment practices
                               matter per year)
                            2006          Projection 2012
   Cattle manure             1,530,000           1,679,900 Only 20% of producers treat wastes, dried
                                                           and composted
   Swine manure                 95,000             110,000 0.68% for production of energy and rest in
                                                           agriculture, fertilizer (45.5%) food
                                                           animal (53.1%) or other uses (0.7%).
   Banana residues             158,000             132,000 Not used as energy source,100% discarded
                                                           or composted organic
   Coffee residues       (pulp) 251,000     (pulp) 262,000 Pulp is used for composting, and husk is used
                         (husk) 25,000     (husk) 26,300 for combustion
   Sugarcane bagasse         1,290,000           1,518,200 95.3% dried and used as combustion, 4.7% non
                                                           energetic
   Pineapple residues        6,351,000           8,452,000 Combusted and soil improvement



  §  More than 600 MW electricity per year could be potentially generated
    from this amount of waste streams through anaerobic digestion
    technology.



                                                                                                   7
Solar-biopower concept


  Integrating wastes utilization with solar and biological
  technologies will create a novel self-sustainable clean
  energy generations system for small-medium scale
  operations


                                                  Bioenergy
                               Solar
   Animal Manure              Energy
                                                  Fertilizers

    Other Organic
       Wastes                                     Reduced GHG
                       Anaerobic      Post-
                       Digestion   treatment
                                                  Clean Water
Solar-biopower concept
                        Benefits of system integration
   v Overcome the disadvantages of individual technologies
     §  Unsteady energy flow for solar power generation
     §  Low efficiency of mesophilic anaerobic digestion on degradation
       of organic matter
     §  Higher energy requirement of thermophilic aerobic digestion


   v Provide sufficient and stable energy for small-medium
      sized rural community
     §  Solar energy utilization
     §  Improved efficiency of anaerobic digestion on degradation of
       organic matter
     §  Biogas energy as chemical storage – steady energy flow
                                                                        9
Mass balance

      Predicted mass balance for the integrated solar-bio system on 1,000 kg of
      mixed sludge and food wastes
                                                                                                                                            Boiler
                                                       Biogas production from
                                                                                                                 Bioenergy
                                                       anaerobic treatment                                       Amount: 684 MJ/day
                                                       Methane: 18,000 L/day
                                                                                                                                            Generator


        Mixture of feedstocks:                            Thermophilic CSTR                                 Liquid effluent
        Total amount: 1,000 kg/day                        Reaction temp.: 50°C
                                                                                                            Amount: 595 kg/day
        Total solid: 10%                                  Retention time: 15 days                                                           To wetland
                                                                                                            Total solid: 10 g/kg effluent
        COD: 90 g/kg                                      COD reduction: 50%
                                                                                                            COD: 45 g/kg effluent
                                                          Total solid reduction:40%



                                                    Solid residue accumulated
                                                    from the CSTR
                                                    Amount: 360 kg/day wet solid
                                                    Dry matter: 15%


      §  Generating 66 kWh electricity per day
      §  Producing 5 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) renewable fuel per day
a.    The calculation of mass balance was based on the expected results that will be achieved by this project.                                 10
b.    A kg COD destroyed produces 350 L methane gas.
Solar-biopower system



                                          Power unit




      Solar unit
                             Bioreactor




            Post-treatment


                                                       11
Construction site




                         Solar Bio-Reactor Site
                    Fabio Baudrit Experiment Station
Major system components


  —  16 – 2 m2 flat-plate solar collector with support
  —  22 m3 anaerobic digester
  —  50 m3 gas bag
  —  2 – 10 kW electric generators
  —  4 – 144 m2 wetland/sand filter cells




           Solar Bio-Reactor                 Sand Filter / Wetland
Solar thermal system




      Solar collectors,
   hot water tank (white),
 & hot water storage (green)
Anaerobic digester




      Poly tank anaerobic digester




                                     Official ribbon (digester in background clad in
                                                            tin)




           Field engineering
Feedstock & digestate handling




                                          Digestate solid-liquid separator




    Feedstock grinder, auger & mix tank
            (pump not shown)
Biogas storage




  Gas bag, foam interceptor, & scrubber




             Biogas sampling              Full gas bag, May 2, 2013
Sand filter & wetlands




             Sand filter 1     Vertical wetland (sand filter 2)




           Surface wetland 1         Surface wetland 2
Solar-biopower system performance


  —  Feedstock:
     §  Beef manure (950+ kg/d)
     §  Food waste
     §  Chicken litter (20 kg/d)
  —  Temperature:
     §  Currently 45oC±2oC
     §  Target 50oC±1oC
  —  Biogas production: ≈20 m3/d
  —  Biogas quality: 60+% CH4
  —  Volatile solids destruction: 39% to 44%
Water reclamation


           Organic    Anaerobic            Sand filter          Sand filter    Reclaimed
            waste      digester              No. 1                No. 2          water




     Original waste         The effluent              The water                The water
         stream             from solar-              from the 1st             from the 2nd
                             bioreactor              cell of post-            cell of post-
                                                      treatment                 treatment



May 2013
Outcomes to date

  —  Pilot system
     §    Biogas production at 70% of goal
     §    Biogas quality and solids destruction have achieved goals
     §    Install biogas flow meter
     §    Connect electrical generators to the experiment station power
     §    Begin sand filter/wetland research
  —  Bioenergy support lab at UCR – capable of carrying
      out BMP’s and other analysis
  —  Utilization of local manufacturing – coffee equipment &
      solar panels
  —  Study abroad “Ecological Engineering in the Tropics”
      completed in December of 2012
Next steps


  —  Finalize microbial consortia papers
  —  Continue to operate pilot system until Sept. 2014
  —  Operate portable unit at second location – wastewater
      or food processor
  —  Complete economic and policy evaluation
  —  2013 study abroad planned for December
  —  Expand bioenergy capabilities to address commercial
      needs
Other announcements
  —  August 13, 2013 – MSU Waste to Resource Field Day
     §  Highlights:
         w  South Campus Anaerobic Digester (500 kW from 130 cows)
         w  Research digester, compost facility, student organic farm,
             recycling center, power plant, ADREC
     §  For more information go to :http://events.anr.msu.edu/adrec/


  —  October 15 to 17 – Anaerobic Digester Operator
      Training (East Lansing, MI)
     §  Highlights
         w  System commissioning
         w  Maintaining biological health
         w  Safety
         w  Operational troubleshooting
     §  For information contact kirkdana@anr.msu.edu
Questions?




                   Dana M Kirk, Ph.D., P.E.
           Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
      Anaerobic Digestion Research and Education Center
                  E: kirkdana@anr.msu.edu
                       P: 517.432.6530

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:9/19/2013
language:English
pages:24