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Chemical and Physical Properties of Seawater - Lovett's Marine

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Chemical and Physical Properties of Seawater - Lovett's Marine Powered By Docstoc
					 Chemical and Physical
Properties of Seawater
       Chapter 3, p 44 - 68
              Specifics
Properties of water

Ocean Circulation

Waves and Tides



Brainstorm with a partner!
    Unique properties
        of water
All 3 states of matter on Earth

Very polar molecule

Weak hydrogen bonds
               Evaporation

Liquid à Gas

Hydrogen bonds broken

Density and temperature
Temperate and State
Less dense as a solid than a liquid.
   Habitat and insulation for organisms

H+ bonds result in higher melting and freezing temp.
Latent heat of melting
Latent heat of melting – the amount of heat required
to melt a substance
   Absorbs A LOT of heat when it melts –
   Hydrogen bonds break, but motion of molecules does
   not speed up until all of the ice melts.
   It takes A LOT of energy to break hydrogen bonds!
         Heat Capacity
Water is able to absorb a lot of heat with a relatively
small increase in temperature

HIGH heat capacity – amount of heat needed to raise
a substance’s temperature by a given amount

Important for marine organisms
   Not exposed to rapid changes in temperatures
        Latent heat of
         evaporation
One of highest of all substances on Earth

Only fastest moving molecules can break hydrogen
bonds and evaporate

Molecules left behind in the liquid phase have a
lower temperature – evaporative cooling
Water Cycle
 Properties of Seawater
   Water is the universal solvent




Ion dissociation
                 Seawater
Salinity – total amount
of salt dissolved in
seawater
Not just Na+ and Cl-
Lots of salts!
See p. 48, Table 3.1
Where do the salts
come from?
Where might ion concentrations of seawater differ from the
normal amounts?
Salinity, Temperature,
        Density
More salty = More dense

Lower temperature à more dense

Measuring temperature and salinity at specific points
in the ocean – Niskin bottles



Let’s take a look!
       Temperature Profile

Temperature and
salinity at several
depths at once; above is
a temperature profile
or thermocline (zone of
rapid temperature
change).
     SST
Satellite Images




Current Conditions
Temperature and Salinity
SST of NE coast of the United States. Do you know the current?
       Dissolved Gases
Oxygen (O2) – not very soluble
   Most released through photosynthesis
   Amounts also dependent upon respiration

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) – more soluble
   80% of dissolved CO2 is in ocean

Nitrogen (N2)
Dissolve at surface of water or gases released into air
Gas dissolves best in cold water
Oxygen Content of Ocean
High oxygen content near
the sea surface

Low oxygen at mid-depth

Increase in oxygen in the
water ~ 1 km water below
sea level
     CO2 in the Ocean




How is the fact that 80% of the world’s CO2 is found in
the ocean affecting our oceans?
              CO2 Emissions




CO2 is much more soluble than oxygen because it reacts chemically
when it dissolves

CO2 makes up more than 80% of the dissolved gas in the ocean,
compared to less than 0.04% of air

Ocean stores more than 50x as much total CO2 as the atmosphere.
    Light Conditions
CO2 + H2O + sun energy à C6H12O6 + O2

C6H12O6 + O2 à CO2 + H2O + energy



Must have the right light conditions to fuel
photosynthesis!

Light levels change with depth.
Visible Light Spectrum
Colors of the Ocean




       Photos courtesy of www. science.nasa.gov
Depth of 30 m: Only blue light remains:
(a)Under natural lighting this sea star appears light blue, with the
tips of the arms almost black.
(b)A flash reveals the sea star’s true colors.
                  Light Zones




1. Photic zone – sunlit, 200 meters below the surface of the ocean
2. Twilight zone - from about 200 - 2000 meters below the surface.
3. Abyssal zone – no sunlight, from 2000 - 5000 meters below the
surface to the bottom of the ocean.
Light Penetration of
 Surface Waters
Gathering Data
Pressure in the Ocean
Organisms on land are under 1 atm (14.7 lbs/sq in or
psi) at sea level. The weight of all the air above them.
Marine organisms are under the weight of water as
well as the atmosphere.
Since water is much heavier than air, marine
organisms are under much more pressure than those
on land.
As the pressure increases, gases are compressed. Gas
-filled structures inside organisms like air bladders,
floats, and lungs shrink or collapse.
   Limits depth range of organisms
   We need special equipment to go deep or special
   instruments that can withstand pressure
Pressure in the Ocean
    Ocean Circulation
Currents move ocean waters around the world’s
oceans at different depths

Currents circulate heat, nutrients, pollution, and
organisms

Great affects on earth’s climate




                                New Gulf Current
         The Coriolis Effect




                                     www.oceanservice.noaa.gov


If the Earth did not rotate on its axis, the atmosphere
would only circulate back and forth between the
poles and the equator
         The Coriolis Effect




                                    www.oceanservice.noaa.gov

Because the Earth rotates on its axis, circulating air is
deflected toward the right in the Northern Hemisphere
and toward the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This
deflection is called the Coriolis effect.
         Wind Patterns
Winds in atmosphere are driven by heat energy from
the sun.
Equator is warmer than poles – more heat energy
absorbed here
Less dense hot air rises
Cooler air replaces it
Wind is formed!
Remember, winds to not travel straight, they are
bent by Coriolis Effect
                  Trade Winds
                               30°N




             Doldrums




                             30°S


Air near equator is warmed by solar heating and rises. Air from
higher latitudes moves in over the Earth’s surface to replace the
rising air, creating winds. The TRADE WINDS are deflected by the
Corliolis effect and approach the Equator at an angle of about 45°.
             Ekman Transport




If the ocean current is regarded as layered, then each deeper layer
moves more slowly than the overlying layer.
        Global Wind Patterns




The major wind patterns are created by the rising of sun-warmed air
and the sinking of cold air.
           How do the continents effect the wind patterns?
Major Surface Currents
              Ocean Gyres




Created by wind-driven surface currents
Moderate climate by bringing warm water north and cold
water south
Thermoclines
 Depth profiles for salinity,
 temperature, and density
 What is a thermocline and
 how does it develop?
 Seasonal vs. permanent
 thermoclines
Temperature Profile
 Stable water column = less dense shallow
 and more dense deeper

 Unstable water column = surface water
 sink and mixes with deeper water
   DOWNWELLING
   Polar regions in winter
        Ocean Mixing
These two water masses originate at the surface in the
extreme North and South Atlantic, then sink and spread
along the bottom.
Thermohaline Circulation
 The movement (circulation) of water in the ocean
 over great distances that is driven by changes in
 density

 Changes in density determined by temperature and
 salinity.

 “Fingerprint” of the water mass is how currents are
 tracked
Circulation of the Ocean
The Great Ocean Conveyor – Global current pattern
Deep circulation of the oceans is part of the global
pattern known as great ocean conveyor. This constantly
replenishes the oxygen supply to the depths.
                       Waves




Water particles do not move along with a wave but instead move in
circles. When under the crest they move up and forward with the
wave, then they are pulled back down. As wave after wave passes,
the water and anything floating in or on it moves in circles.
                           Waves

Fetch - the span of open water
over which the wind blows

Fetch is important in
determining the size of waves

Wind starts the wave which
eventually settles out into a
swell as it gets farther from the
source of wind.
What kind of waves
are these?
                       Waves



-Storm winds generate seas, peaked with waves with relatively
flat troughs.
- When the waves reach shallow water, they get higher and
shorter (closer together). They become unstable and break,
expending their energy on the shoreline.
- Water particles under swells have the ideal circular motion.
- In shallower water the influence of the bottom causes the
particle motion to flatten out into a back and forth movement
known as surge
                           Tides
Gravitational pull of the moon and
sun and by the rotations of the
earth, moon, and sun.
The moon and earth are held
together by gravitational attraction.
The moon’s gravity is strongest on
the side of the earth closest to the
moon.
Centrifugal force produced by the
earth’s motion causes water to
bulge outward, away from the
moon.
On the side of the earth closest to
the moon, the gravitational pull
overcomes the centrifugal force and
pulls the water into a bulge toward
the moon.
How does a grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) use the tide?
                          Tides




Because the moon moves while the earth is rotating, a full tidal
cycle takes 50 minutes longer than the 24 hrs it takes the earth
to make a complete rotation.
                           Tides




1. Spring Tide - The tidal bulges are largest, and therefore the tidal
range is greatest, when the moon and sun are in line - new and full
moon.

2. Neap Tide - Tidal ranges smallest when moon and sun are puling
at right angles, which occurs when the moon is in quarter.
                          Tides



    Semidiurnal tides – 2 high tides and 2 low tide per day

Bay of Fundy

How tides work: great demo
                          Tides




Worldwide distribution of semidurinal (2H, 2L), mixed semidiurnal
(2H and 2L of different heights), and diurnal (1H, 1L) tides.

				
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