Chapter 1 Communication and Patient Safety - Quia

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					Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety


                         Chapter 2

The Patient-Safe Transformational Model
           of Communication
         A framework for communicating with
         high-level competence
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety



           High-Level Communication
                  Competence
 § Demonstrate communication behaviors that
   are effective and appropriate to the situation
 § Demonstrate sensitivity to the perspectives of
   others
 § Demonstrate achieving communication goals
   in a manner that maintains or enhances
   relationships
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety



      Communication as Defined in the
         Transformational Model
 § A goal-oriented interaction between two or more
   people
 § Where verbal and nonverbal behavior is exchanged
   simultaneously to:
    § Create common meaning
    § Create desired effects
    § Achieve specific outcomes
    § Attain transformation
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety




Transformational
     Model
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety



                       Element 1:
                     Communicators
 § Communication is goal-oriented because
 § Two or more people communicate to meet
   human needs:
     §   Physical
     §   Social
     §   Identity
     §   Practical
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety



                     Element 2:
           Critical Thought Processing
 § Assess situational risk factors and context
 § Determine human needs
 § Determine desired outcomes
 § Select patient-safe communication strategies
 § Create the message using effective, appropriate, sensitive, and
   respectful verbal and nonverbal behaviors
 § Choose the best channel for conveying the message
 § Evaluate the effects of the message
 § Create common meaning
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety



                                     Element 3:
                                      Message
 §   Composed of words
      § Verbal or spoken
      § Written
      § Electronic

             Composed of nonverbal behaviors
            Gestures
            Facial expressions
            Tone of voice

     Note: Words or nonverbal behaviors themselves do not have meaning; meaning resides in the people who
        express and interpret them.
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety


                               Element 4:
                                Channel
 § Method or pathway by which messages are communicated
     § Face to face
     § Telephone
     § Mass media
         § Television
         § Newspapers
     § Written
         § Physician order sheets
         § Nursing progress notes
     § Computer-medicated communication
         § Electronic
              § E-mail
              § Instant messaging
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety


                            Element 5:
                          Assign Meaning
§ Individuals interpret messages based on meaning they have
  assigned to verbal and nonverbal behavior
§ Meaning assigned dependent on:
   §   Communicator bio-psycho-social-cultural perspectives
   §   Situational context
   §   Content of message
   §   Communicator risk factors
        § Physical and cognitive ability to:
            § Speak
            § Listen
            § Interpret
    Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
    and Promote Patient Safety



                           Element 6:
                       Effects of Message
§   All messages create effects
§   Effects are a means to an end (outcome)
§   Effects are conveyed through feedback
§   Effects may be intentional or unintentional, such as:
     § Excitement
     § Happiness
     § Anxiety
     § Disinterest
     Note: Carefully assess the effects of messages by looking for feedback
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety



                               Element 7:
                                Feedback
 § The response to a message is:
     § Verbal
     § Nonverbal
 § Feedback conveys :
     § Thoughts on the content of the message
     § Feelings associated with the message
 § Feedback may be used to:
     § Clarify the interpretation of the message
     § Validate the meaning of the message
     § Correct misinterpretations
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety



                          Element 8:
                          Validation
 § Validation is the negotiation between communicators
   to create common meaning
 § Communicators must negotiate agreed-upon meaning
   of messages using verbal and nonverbal behaviors to:
     § Mutually determine whether messages are understood
     § Verify and clarify the meaning of verbal and nonverbal
       messages
         Note: Validate both verbal and nonverbal messages to prevent
          making interpretation errors
 Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
 and Promote Patient Safety


                                             Element 9:
                                              Context
§ Tangible and intangible environment
   §   Physical
         § Nurses work environment
   §   Temporal
         § Timing of communication
   §   Gender
         § Differences in styles of communication
   §   Biological
         § Physical functioning
   §   Cultural
         § Norms, traditions, customs
   §   Psychological
         § Emotion, mood, personality
   §   Social
         § Rules relative to status and interpersonal relationships
   §   Spiritual
         § Meaning and purpose of life; includes religion
   §   Professional
         § Rules relative to professional relationships
  Note: During any communication, several contexts interact at the same time
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety


                         Element 10:
                    Communication Risk Factors
§ Risk factors potentially distort messages
    § Physical Risk Factors
        § External environment distractions
             § Background noise
             § Unfamiliar physical surroundings
    § Psychological Risk Factors
        § Emotional state of communicators
    § Physiological Risk Factors
        § Biological illness
        § Fatigue
        § Cognitive impairment
    § Semantic Risk Factors
        § Language or literacy issues
             § Illegible handwriting
             § Abbreviations
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety



                       Element 11:
                  Patient-Safe Strategies
 §   Specific patient-safe communication techniques used to overcome communication
     risk factors
 §   Examples:
       § Touch
       § Humor
       § Empathy
       § Perception checking
       § Readback-Hearback
       § Patient handoff
       § SBAR
Communication for Nurses: How to Prevent Harmful Events
and Promote Patient Safety



                         Element 12:
                       Transformation
 § Communication processes lead to changes within individuals that
   are transformational
 § Transformation is the outcome of the communication process
 § Based on the outcomes of communication, people grow and
   evolve, and transform:
     §   Biologically
     §   Psychologically
     §   Socially
     §   Culturally
     §   Spiritually

				
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posted:9/16/2013
language:English
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