Docstoc

ASTM - An Overview of the Society and Its Procedures

Document Sample
ASTM - An Overview of the Society and Its Procedures Powered By Docstoc
					                                 ASTM International



    Globalization of Standards Development and
      Application
    ---- Analysis on ASTM International Standardization


    Presented by LIU Fei
    ASTM Chief Representative, China Office


    Shenzhen, June 13, 2008




1
                                           Topics

n Standardization System in the U.S.
n Globalization of ASTM International Standards
  Development
n Globalization of ASTM International Standards
  Application
n International Standards – Offspring of
  Globalization

     2
                                     Backdrop

n Market Economy – the U.S. are practitioners of
  classical economics
n Economic globalization
  • GE/Microsoft

  • Haier/Lenovo




    3
        Common Understanding on Market


n No one organization controls the system




    4
         Standardization System in the U.S.


n The system is open
n There are various methods for developing standards
n The system is coordinated by both the public and
  private sectors
n The resulting standards are voluntary
n The system is oriented to the market and technological
  advances

     5
                                           Standards Development
                                          Organizations in the U.S.

n More than 400 SDOs
n   Many different types of organizations develop standards
     •   Standards development organizations (e.g. ASTM International)
     •   Professional societies (e.g. ASME)
     •   Trade associations (e.g. NEMA)
     •   Consortia (e.g. World Wide Web consortium)
n Some of the most frequently cited SDOs with large portfolios of standards include:
     •   ASTM International
     •   API
     •   ASME
     •   IEEE
     •   SAE




         6
                                    ASTM International

n Provides a global forum
     • Independent, private, not-for-profit

     • Developing and revising standards, not involved in
       certification and accreditation

     • The development and distribution of international voluntary
       consensus, and related technical information, which
       demonstrate a high degree of technical quality and global
       market relevance
                                    Paddling its own canoe,
                                    being self-independent
 7
                               ASTM International

                     n 34,000 members, 170 staff
                     n 138 TCs: 2,200 SCs,
                       thousands of task groups
     Stage:
  Actor and staff
                     n More than 12,000 standards –
                       81 volumes available in print
Standardization is
     like drama
                       or electronic format



 8
                                                        Consensus

    n Membership – Balance of interests:
       • Voting members from the manufacturing organizations
         cannot outnumber those from users and general interest
         categories

    n 1908 – “Procedures Governing the Adoption of
      Standard Specifications”
       • New standards, revisions, re-approvals:
          • 60 % return from voting members
          • 2/3 majority vote at subcommittee; 90% vote at main committee

       • Negative votes: must be given consideration and resolved
         before the standard can be approved

9
     ASTM’s Balloting Process


        COS      Ensures due process is afforded to
                 all participants
      SOCIETY                     Society - Final level of
                                  approval
      and MAIN               Main Committee
                             60% return; 90% affirmative

     Subcommittee      Subcommittee
                       60% return; 2/3 affirmative

         TG      TG – draft development;
                 no formal balloting



10
                                     1898

n IATM – International
  Association of Testing and
  Materials
n IATM America
n Two issues:
   • Materials standards promoting
     industry development

   • Consensus between
     manufacturers and users


    11
                                           1902

     n Members: 70 à 168
     n ASTM: the fifth committee meeting
     n The 1st President: Dr. Charles Dudley




12
                        Extension of Standards

     n 1902: cement, lime        n 1951: nuclear
       and clay                    technology
                                   application
     n 1903: roads and
       paving                    n 1962: medical
                                   devices, Space
     n 1910: petroleum           n 1970: environment
       products
                                 n 1978: consumer
     n 1914: textiles              goods
     n 1928: vehicle rubber      n 1985: bio-technology
     n 1938: aviation non-       n 2000: property
       destructive testing         management system
     n 1950: construction        n 2003: pharmaceutical
                                 n 2005:
13                                 nanotechnology,
      Soul of ASTM international standards


n High technology quality
n Global market relevance




 14
     Standards Application in the U.S.

     n Many standards developed by various
       international and national SDOs are used
       in the U.S. market
     n The National Technology Transfer Act
       encourages the federal agencies
       • To cite the standards developed by private sectors
         where it is practical

       • To participate in standards development


15
                Application of ASTM International
                                       Standards

n Citation and adoption - by U.S. federal
  government
      • ASTM standards are most cited by the U.S. federal agencies,
        2586 standards cited into technical regulations

n By other nations’ governments
      • 3,032 ASTM standards adopted by 75 countries worldwide

      • More than 500 ASTM standards adopted into the Chinese GB
        standards



 16
            Illustration of Adoption of ASTM
                standards by Other Countries

     n Columbia – 848
     n Germany – 36
     n India – 247
     n Russia – 300
     n Singapore – 67
     n Viet Nam – 769

17
                 Application of ASTM International
                                        Standards

n Use
      • Almost all countries in the world use ASTM international
        standards

      • China
         • 1950s

         • 1960s

         • Now




 18
                             Copyright

     n Illegal duplication
     n Unauthorized use




19
           Common Inappropriate Uses

     n Individual purchases a standard and
       emails it to colleagues
     n ASTM standard posted to a public
       internet site
     n Companies purchase standard and post
       to an internal website without permission



20
       How ASTM Addresses the Issue

     n Intellectual property and logo policies
        • Policies readily available on ASTM website

        • Clear guidelines on use and protection of ASTM IP
          and proper use of ASTM logo

     n Digital rights management
        • Electronic watermarking of all downloaded standards

        • Program locates inappropriately posted ASTM
          documents on the internet

21
       How ASTM Addresses the Issue

     n Licensing Policy
       • Applies to electronic downloads of ASTM standards

       • Users must agree to terms and conditions of license
         before purchasing an ASTM standard

       • ASTM grants limited, nonexclusive, non-transferable
         license

       • Licenses available for WAN and Internet use



22
        How ASTM Addresses the Issue

n Education
     • Creating an awareness

n Partnership
     • Monitored by partners in China who are authorized to
       supply product

n Multiple product options for cost effectively
  meeting your needs

23
     ASTM International




24
                                   Principles applied in
                                           development
n ASTM International principles     n WTO/TBT principles
   • Transparency                      • Transparency

   • Openness                          • Openness

   • Impartiality and consensus        • Impartiality and consensus

   • Effectiveness and relevance       • Effectiveness and relevance

   • Coherence                         • Coherence

   • Consideration of developing       • Consideration of developing
     nations’ views and concerns         nations’ views and concerns




    25
                    ASTM Standards Are International

n Members composition
  • Individuals and/or corporate from various countries, representing
       different nations


                    Do you feel like you are in an international debate when facing and
                    sitting together with experts from the Germany, Korea, Brazil, Egypt,
                    China and the U.S. to discuss the standards
                    development or revisions?




  26
                   ASTM Standards Are International

n Technical resources
  • ASTM standards are developed by experts from everywhere in
       the world




                                         Sourcing from …



  27
                    ASTM Standards Are International

n Application
  • ASTM international standards used in regulations by more than
       70 countries and as the basis of the contents for their national
       standards

  • More than 500 ASTM international standards have been adopted
       into the GB standards in China


                                                   Going to …

  28
         Internationalization of Standardization

n ASTM standards are de facto international
  standards, as recognized by many experts and
  officials
n In the U.S. market, ASTM International is a
  leading organization among other 400 SDOs on
  the globalization of standards development
n In the world, this momentum is ongoing or will be
  ongoing
  29
         Standards without Boundary


     n Technology does not recognize national
       boundaries; ideas are shared across boundaries
     n Standards do not recognize national boundaries;
       standards are developed and applied across
       boundaries
     n Internationalization of standards development
       comes possible




30
                  Questions?

     n ASTM website – www.astm.org
     n Contact
       • Liu Fei, Chief Representative - China
         • Email: fliu@astm.org

         • Tel: 86 10 5109-6033




31

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:1
posted:9/13/2013
language:English
pages:31