pub_1637_tor_ch1 by fahadpnrm


									                                                              TOURISM          PLANNING

                                             INTEGRATED TOURISM PLANNING

              The nature and scope of tourism planning continues to be contentious and somewhat nebulous,
     because most government officials and tourism industry practitioners harbour their own definitions and
     parameters of the task.    By its very nature planning is multidimensional and is purposely i.ntegrative.
     This being so, the narrow definitions and perspectives of special interest groups, particular disciplines
     and professions, and each of the various contributory industries and activities are likely to miss the
     opportunities which are inherent in planning.                                 ..

               In the special case of tourism, this is particularly evident as business leaders interpret tourismwithin
              the scope of their industry, as government officials interpret tourism according to theirdepartmen
                      responsibilities, and as various interest groups pursue an interpretation which serves their
     particular purposes.      Seldom are the interests of tourism per se revealed, that is tourism in its most
     expansive form incorporating social, cultural, environmental, economic, technological, trade, psycholo-gical,
             political and many other dimensions.        Clearly, it is extremely difficult for any consideration of
     tourism to be encyclopaedic; however, that is not really the challenge -the challenge is for the relevant
     dimensions in any case or circumstance to be considered in an integrated fashion.

               There is general concurrence that the pursuit of planning is seldom as              successful as its most
     ardent advocates would like. Perhaps this is not surprising given the complexity               of the many decisions
     of individuals, corporations, businesses and governments.    As skills in planning            have increased, it has
     become commonplace that planning should be continuous, flexible, reflective of                changing ~ocio-cultural
     aspirations, and responsible to new opportunities.

             Thus, planning has become increasingly strategic.     In addition, it has become                   increasinglyintegrated
                 The reasons for this second emphasis have included recognition of the need to:

                              different sets of values

                  respond to different sets of objectives
                 be responsive to demands           of interconnectedness   and pluralism
                  incorporate tactics to deal with ambiguity, uncertainty,      and complexity.

             Even   in the less complex circumstances      of island countries at the early phase of tourismdevelopm
                    it will be necessary for those charged with the responsibility to oversee or administertourism
             planning in the public interest to be cognisant of the two special dimensions -strategic planning
     and integrated planning.

                    approach to tourism planning should recognise that:

                  tourism is of world-wide significance,
                    planning can be used to avert the negative consequences          of tourism

                  tourism can be symbiotic with conservation

                    planning is multi-dimensional
                    planning is pluralist, serving many constituencies      and stakeholders

                    planning is political.

             In addition, the three crucial underpinnings of contemporary             tourism     planning   should   be that
     tourism must be strategic, integrative, and have a regional perspective.


        1.   Need for integrated         tourism        planning

                Although there is evidence that some tourism destinations have developed without conscious,
       strategic and integrated planning, many of them have experienced unforeseen consequences which have
       led to their deterioration.

                Many reasons are offered for tourism planning, not least the advocacy that planning is the best
       way of extending the vital life-cycle of a destination by providing a means of anticipating changes,
       adjusting to the demands of change, and exploring new opportunities.

                  Some   of the    likely consequences          of the lack of commitment          to integrated      tourism     planning

                          damage or permanent alteration of the physical environment.                   .

                          damage or permanent alteration of historical/cultural               landmarks and resources
                          overcrowding        and congestion

                          poor or deteriorating         quality of facilities and services.

                     Human impacts

                          less accessibility      to services and tourist attractions         for local residents     resulting    in local
                          dislike of tourists on the part of local residents
                          loss of cultural identities
                          lack of education          of tourism employees in skills and hospitality
                          lack of awareness           of the benefits of tourism to the destination area.


                          failure to capitalise on new marketing opportunities
                          erosion of market shares due to the actions of competitive destination                    areas
                          lack of sufficient awareness          in prime markets
                          lack of a clear image of destination area in potential markets
                          lack of cooperative         advertising among individual operators

                          inadequate     advantage taken of packaging opportunities
                          lack of sufficient attractions and events.

                     Organisational     impacts

                          a fragmented        approach      to the marketing     and development        of tourism,     often involving
                          competitive       groups
                          lack of cooperation         among individual operators

                          inadequate     representation       of the tourism industries' interests
                          lack of support from local public authoritiesfailure

                                 to act upon important issues, problems,              and opportunities     of common           interest tothe
                          poor or inadequate travel information services.


                  Few, if any, of these potential negative impacts are problems intrinsic in the nature of tourism.
          Most are directly attributable to a deficiency in the substance and implementation of tourism planning.

                  It may be claimed that strategic and integrated tourism planning has five purposes:

                         identify alternative approaches to

                          industry organisationtourism
                                       services and activities

                         adapt to the unexpected         in

                          general economic conditions
                           energy supply and demand situation
                          values and life-styles
                          fortunes of individual industries
                          the external environment

                      to maintain uniqueness       in

                                   features and resources
                           local cultural and social fabric
                           local architecture
                           historical monuments         and landmarks
                           local events and activities
                           parks and outdoor sports areasother
                                  features of the destination area


                           high levels of awareness           of benefits of tourism
                           clear and positive images of the area as a tourism destination
                           effective industry organisation
                           high levels of cooperation          among individual operators
                           effective marketing, signage, and travel information programs

                      to avoid

                           friction and unnecessary           competition among individual tourism operators
                           hostile and unfriendly attitudes of local residents towards tourists
                           damage or undesirable,           permanent alteration of natural features and historical resources
                           loss of cultural identities
                           loss of market share
                           termination     of unique local events and activities
                           overcrowding,      congestion,      and traffic problems

                           high seasonality.


                  Tourism activity is becoming more competitive, more extensive, more complicated, and more
         demanding     of host communities    and their culture and environment.   In order for the tourism
         enterprise in any destination area to respond positively to these challenges,    it is necessary for
         tourism planning to be practised in a fashion commensurate with the needs of the destination area
         and the nation.

                 Integrating     tourism   planning   into official planning -whether    economic,  social, welfare,environm
                          infrastructure, or cultural -has been slow, and remains unusual. The ideal model would
         be a national/regional/local    comprehensive planning system into which tourism is an integral component.
         This model is rare, which is not surprising, as the various component strategies within tourism are
         seldom integrated.     The important aims at two levels are

                          the various interests, requirements            and needs to be fused together   into a composite,
                     integrated strategic tourism plan

                     for tourism to be planned with the intention of being fused into the social and economic            life
                     of a region and its communities.

                 Tourism planning has been beset by a number of new challenges.

                 Among these new challenges            are:

                     a response to the threat of environmental               deterioration

                     a recognition     that tourism can be synergised with protected areas

                     the principles    of sustainable     development

                     the threats of carrying capacity violations

                     designing to be "place-specific"         and "Place-appropriate"

                     special interest tourism


                     conservation     and resource protection

                     overcoming      the exclusivity    of economic development as the only goal

                     inclination towards quality, away from quantity

                     public sector and private sector co-operation

                     destination    identity

                     a response      to "parachute     tourism"   -the   resort   enclave

                         demand for adequate data with which to make decisions

                     creativity and innovation

                     land use stewardship.

               The danger could be that tourism will become over-planned.the Rather than act as a constraint,
            new approaches to tourism planning should:

                     be open-ended

                     accommodate        spontaneous      development

                            new planning concepts and processes.

                 Planning policies, concepts and processes should be seen to be merely tools and not ends.


          Means of achieving               integrated        tourism     planning

               Experience      with tourism planning reveals that it operates at three levels:


               There can be little argument that there should be integration within each of the levels and
      across   the three levels, so as to achieve balance, aesthetic harmony, cooperation, confidence (forinvestme
                    efficiency, identity, and sensitivity.

               These aspirations of integration can be achieved through preparation of a tourism      policy,   andthrough
               the preparation of a master plan for tourism following a systematic process.

               a. Tourism policy

               To guide a government's programme of action, and to provide a frame of reference for thetourism
               industry's actions, it is essential that a distinctive tourism policy is deve10ped. Such a policyshould:

                   provide     a set of guidelines          for the actions    of

                   -the         government
                   -private           sector    organisations,    corporations,     businesses
                   -interest           groups
                   -host         communities

                   specify the broad objectives to be achieved
                   specify programme              actions
                   nominate responsibilities            for implementation.

              Various policy formulation models are readily available in the basic literature on tourism planning
      and in case studies of practice by agencies at different levels of government.

               The broad objectives present the first opportunity for integration within tourism and with the
      linkages across to other responsibilities of the government.    It is crucial that tourism objectives not be
      set in isolation, and that they should be consistent with other, related arenas of government action andresponsib
                        The tourism objectives should be set in the context of (and contribute positively to the
      achievement of) the broad economic, social, cultural and environmental objectives of the nation/region/locality.
                Each objective should be tested for its general applicability and contribution to broad objectives
      related to:

                   energy conservation

                   economic growth

                   government          operations
                   environmental         and resources conservation
                   urban revitalisation
                   heritage conservation
                   consumer          protection
                   community          welfare
                   business viability.


              In a commitment to the achievement            of a satisfactory     tourism   policy   it is common     for sets of
    objectives to focus on the following issues:


                      -To       optimise    the contribution of tourism and        recreation to economic prosperity, full
                            employment,      regional economic development,        and improved international balance of

                            To contribute to the personal growth and education of the population                 and encourage
                            their appreciation of the local geography, history, and ethnic diversity.

                            To avoid encouraging activities that have the potential to undermine or denigrate                   the
                            social and cultural values and resources of the area and its traditions and lifestyles.

                      Market Development

                      -To        encourage the free entry of foreign visitors, while balancing this goal with the
                            need to monitor persons and goods entering the country with laws protecting public

                      Resource    Protection and Conservation

                            To protect and preserve the historical and cultural foundations as a living part of
                            community life and development and to ensure future generations an opportunity to
                            enjoy the rich heritage of the area.

                            To ensure the compatibility of tourism, recreational, and activity policies                with other
                            broader interests in energy development and conservation,   environmental                  protection,
                            and judicious use of natural resources.

                      Human Resource        Development

                      -To      ensure that tourism has an adequate             supply   of professionally-trained     skilled   and
                            managerial staff to meet its future needs.

                      -To      ensure that the education     and training programmes          and materials     are available     to
                            meet the needs of tourism.

                      Government     Operations

                            To coordinate   government activities related to tourism

                            To take a leadership   role

                            To support the needs of tourists,      residents     and tourism    businesses     with appropriate
                            legislation and administration.

             It is likely that as the statements of objectives become refined and interpreted for implementa-
    tion, some will be found to be in conflict, not only within the domain of tourism, but also in the linkages
    across broad social, cultural and other objectives.      For example, the facilitation of casino development
     may be consistent with an economic objective, but may be in conflict with a socio-cultural objective
    which intends to safeguard the local community.

              Most Pacific Island countries will have developed their own style of policy-making.          It is
    important that the policy for tourism be consistent in its general aim and orientation and be readily
    integrated with other policy areas. Lateral (with other policy areas) and vertical (internal) linkages must
    be integrated.

                  A policy process progresses   to strategies,  plans, programmes,    legislation        and regulations.       It is
    important       that each stage at whatever    level (national/regional/local) be carefully        integrated   laterally   and


              b. Tourism planning process

              The basic tasks of planning are

              .to        set goals and objectives
              .to        analyse the past and the present
              .to        prepare for the future
              .to        select the best course of action.

               The complexity of tourism activity decision-making    in general and the interconnectedness       oftourism
               with other areas of policy and planning have rendered obsolete the traditional mechanistic, finite
      plan style.   Such a style was usually very ambitious, inflexible, and target-driven.  A companion style
      rests on the adoption of performance standards, whereby, after determining the likely amenities/facilities
      and services needed for a projected future level of visitors, the performance standards are applied to
      reveal the necessary level of accommodation and other services.

              A collaborative, integrated process style, combining elements of the corporate management
      process used in business and the systems process often adopted by government agencies, may be
      used. Such a process usually consists of seven phases: (See figure 1.)

                       study preparation(ii)
                       determination       of objectives(iii)

              (iv)     analysis and synthesis
              (v)      formulation      of policies and plans
              (vi)     preparation      of the final, preferred plan
              (vii)    determination       of means of implementation              and means of monitoring.

              A brief description         is given here of these seven principal steps.

               Study preparation
                      realisation     of the need for planning and for the systematic preparation               of a tourism plan

                      preliminary      interpretation     of:

                      -current         tourism     circumstances-pending
                                        tourism      development
                      -latent        tourism      opportunities-potential
                                         problems       for and because      of tourismdecision

                                    to undertake      systematic      assessment

                      preparation      of terms of reference

                      specification     of the problem to be addressed

                      specification      of preferred      end-product (e.g. set of guidelines,     comprehensive     tourism plan, or
                      specialist plan).

               Determination           of objectives

               (the objectives expressed early in the study process will be provisional,                      and may be modified as
      experience and information is gained)

                      derived from:

                            general government objectives
                            consultation       process (mainly involving government and tourism industry)


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                 usually referencing such matters as:-principal

                                    targets to be achieved-principal
                                    safeguards        (especially culture, community and environment)                            to be imposed-principal
                                    opportunities        to be seized

                 objectives      set in two categories:
                 -those          which are essential            (quantities       of visitors,    protection       of environment,            or limits to
                        carrying capacity)
                 -those         which are discretionary.


                 each study will determine its own spectrum of surveys
                 surveys will cover such matters as

                 -existing         tourist profiles
                 -assessment              of tourism features
                 -assessment              of complementary             features
                 -assessment              of investment sources and capability (including entrepreneurship                                      and local
                  -assessment         of government structures                        and organisations,                and     their   involvement        in
                       activities which interact with tourism.

                           and synthesis

                  market assessment            of demand, supply and feasibility of matching demand and supply

                  integrated analysis of environmental,                  social and economic factors, to reveal

                        tourism opportunities
                          problems to be addressed
                          needs for tourism

                  interpretation of potential environmental, social and economic impact, and the determination
                  of management strategies to overcome any potentially detrimental impact

                  assessment of the impact of prevailing government policies and organisations and industry
                  bodies on the achievement of the set objectives -including   assessment of the suitability of
                  existing tourism organisations, legislation and regulations.

              Formulation       of policies         and plans

                                   of a series        of integrating      policies    concerned       with-economic


                                   resources         development-environmental


                  cross-referencing          with    preliminary       objectives      -perhaps        necessitating           review   and     revision   in
                  the     light of further    experience

                  preparation       of integrated        development         options      (not a single         plan,        but a number       of alterna-
                  tives    which    may      be tested     against     the reformulated          objectives).

                   Preparation    of final plan

                       this may be either of the previously considered             options, or a new hybrid with a mix of the
                       best compatible features from these options

                       finalisation   of the plan in respect of:

                            tourism development         regions/zones
                            transportation     links
                            infrastructure    systemstourism
                            labour skills
                            investment levels and sources
                            environmental      and cultural conservationorganisation

                                             (including legislation)

                   Means of implementation and monitoring

                                of an agency or agencies               with the responsibility   to ensure     the finalised    plan is
                       implemented and monitored,

                       preparation of a schedule         of tasks to be completed within prescribed time frames and periodfor
                           review and revision

                                 of an agency          or agencies     for on-going   supervision   to ensure     the plan remains
                       relevant and feasible

                   The accurate and precise definition of the terms of reference is crucial, because it will set the
           parameters of the study. As the preparation of the plan will contribute to the general economic strategy
           of most island countries, it is important that the terms of reference are prepared at a senior level of
           government, with cabinet endorsement.

                   Recent plans prepared by TCSP have followed a successful formula in which the framework                          has

                       a general term of reference which links the tourism               strategy   to the government's        general
                       economic development strategy

                       specific terms of reference which include:

                            linkage of new plans with any existing- strategy (to provide continuity)

                                        of the services tourism resources, including
                            inventory transport country's and infrastructure systems                existing   attractions,    plannedfacilities,

                            analysis of international,     regional and domestic tourist markets

                            preparation of a nation-wide tourism plan within which tourism areas or zones are
                            designated, tourism activity types and levels of development for each area or zone will
                            be determined,    local detailed plans are prepared, and development will be set in
                            designated time periods

                            preparation of an economic analysis of the present and projected levels -sl tourism,
                            especially in terms of GNP, foreign exchange earnings (and possible leakages), and
                            employment and an indication of how economic benefits may be optimised

                            estimate of investment requirements           and potential sources of investment

                            preparation      of an assessment     of socio-cultural   impact and the need for local awareness


                    preparation of an environmental impact assessment, especially              recommending     measures
                    to mitigate any potentially serious detrimental impact

                     assessment       of human resources needs and training programmes

                     assessment of the relative participation and contribution of the government                   agenciesand
                         private sector businesses and agencies in the implementation of the plan

                     assessment of the traditional land tenure patterns, and recommendations                 on means to
                     bring benefits of tourism development to indigenous land owners

                     assessment of the efficiency           of the data collection    and compilation    systems    and of
                     marketing and promotion.

             It may be considered appropriate to include the requirement             of sets of guidelines   or models for
    tourism facility design, financing and operation.

             One of the early stages of assessment will be of the resources available to conduct the requiredstudy.
             The nature of the task, the sources of sponsorship and level of funding, the timescale allowed
    for the study, and the availability of the necessary skills will influence the composition of the study team.

            Study teams could include:

                   chief technical advisor/team     leader

                specialists   in:

                     economic and financial analysis

                     environmental      analysis

                     socia-cultural    analysis

                     marketing and promotion

                     human resources development and training

                     transportation    and infrastructure    planning

                     statistics and forecasting

              Some team members may cover more than one area of specialisation.       In addition, particular
    specialists may be co-opted for short periods to cope with such matters as architecture, resort design,
    land tenure and land strategy.

             The nature of the task is such that, in order for the plan to be produced in a suitable timeframe,
    it will be necessary to select a specialist team rather than attempt to complete the task "in house" -unless,
             of course, the government has an extensive and suitably qualified staff. This latter case will be
    rare; it will be more usual for a special team to be established for the duration of the study so that thework
          can proceed without distraction and interruption from routine business.

             There are planning manuals which provide descriptions of complex tourism planning processes,
    especially providing systems linkages to/from other policy areas.

    3. Master plan for tourism

                                                                      Potential variation
            There is no single model of a master plan for,                                exists for content,
          approach and emphasis.

            a. Alternative emphases
                                                                                  Such a
             A master plan is the principal instrument of planning for tourism.comprehensive plan                   may be
                   and wide-ranging, or it may focus on one or a combination of:


                    physical/environmental            issues
                    economic       issues
                    promotion and marketing

                    conservation        (of environment or heritage resources)
                    socio-cultural      issues
                    human resources development.

                  On a temporal scale, the master plan may focus on a short-term time scale (of five years,
        perhaps to coincide with the cycles of the national economic strategy), or it may focus on an
        indeterminate   scale with indications of preferred end-states or achievements, not associated with
        particular time periods.

                       differences      of emphasis may be on:

                    attitudes to spontaneous              development          (strict or flexible planning)

                    degree of incentives and technical assistance

                    apportionment           of benefits
                    integration with tourism-related              activities

                    certainty    of site prescription

                    regulation and strategy support.

                An important element in any tourism plan is the degree to which it is integrated with the nation-
        wide or region-wide economic, welfare and physical development plan.

                 Master plans for tourism prepared                in recent years, and those to be prepared,             can be expected
        to include specific references to:

                    ecological sustainability
                    environmental        conservation

                    heritage     (built environment)          conservation
                    cultural heritage conservation

                    special interest tourism (to maxi mise the advantage                         of the "unique selling point" or USP)
                    human resources development.

                Plans excluding such matters may be considered to be incomplete.

                b. Content

               The content of these guidelines                   is indicative       of the nature and scope       of the content   of any
        master plan for tourism

                It may be that for any particular island nation, the plan could adopt a particular focus, perhapsfor
           only one of the review phases. However, a generalised prospectus of contents would include:

                    the institutional       or organisational       framework,        setting    out:

                    -the        principal     organisations
                    -the        principal     responsibilities
                    -the        legislative     framework
                    -the        roles   and functions         of the private        and public    sectors


                       principal plan elements, such as:-infrastructure-facilities

                                   and services
                  -visitor       attractions
                  -integrated         resorts

                  development       implications -economic,      environmental,     and socio-cultural

                  the principal means of securing implementation,            including:

                  -financing        and investment
                  -tourism         information systems
                  -tourism        awareness       programmes
                  -human          resources development.

              The plan of any island nation may refer to regional cooperation in the various aspects of tourismplanning
               and development, and the contribution which can be made to the regional circumstances.

              In some cases, the emphasis of the plan may direct the considerations away from the physicaldimension
                   of the tourism development.     This would be unfortunate, because no matter what form the
      development takes, the tourism experience of the visitor will take place in a region, in a destination, at asite.
            Therefore, it is important that these particular aspects of tourism planning are given due attention.

                  Form and structure

               Tourism planning may focus on the nation, the region, a destination, or a site. Integration of all
      these will achieve the most satisfactory outcome.        In the context of physical development,    tourism
      planning at the three lower levels can be conducted with attention to spatial form and structure.        For
      island countries composed of many islands, these levels may not be too useful. However, the principles
       of form and structure are generally applicable, and they are considered here.

                Regional scale. Often, the basic approach is to attract a new hotel or resort development and
      then expect that a comprehensive regional tourism zone will ensue. Planning for tourism at the regional
      scale is:

                   amenable to integrated planning
                   aimed      at achieving      a harmonious   balance   of facilities,   services,   infrastructure   and tourism
                   able to facilitate    companion sectoral plans at the regional scale, such as regional transpor-
                   tation plans.

              In the establishment of defined "tourism destination zones", it becomes possible for investment
      and development to proceed with confidence.          Such zones will be the physical framework or unit within
      which tourism facilities, services, resorts, attractions and urban centres will be concentrated. If there are
      to be zones of increased levels of visitation, these will attract expanded capacity of existing plant (such
      as hotels) and increased numbers of establishments, which will be dependent upon the presence of:

                   abundant natural and cultural resources
                   usable service communities
                   ease of access and circulation


                   good image and reputation

                   host acceptance
                   suitable government        planning controls

                   available land

                   available human resources

                   willing investors.

               Regional studies which precede the plans are characterised                by:

                   extensive      resource inventories

                   projections      of demand

                   assessments        of economic      cost-benefit

                   consideration       of critical issues, deficiencies    and opportunities

               Among the principal issues at this level are:

                   inter-agency      cooperation

                   public-private     cooperation
                   identification    of potential

                   inter-destination     cooperation

                   environmental       conservation

                   promotion,       and image-building

                   transportation      linkages.

               These various operational issues are linked to the principal determinants of regional form andstructure.
                   Experimentation is ongoing, but there are some constant principles.     The basic options

                   using existing developments           as magnets and regional control factors

                   creating    new developments

                   creating a hierarchical         network of tourism destinations

                   devising a balanced strategy

                   developing       a region-wide strategy,     eliminating those areas/islands       which have scarce tourism
                   devising a destination-focused          strategy

                   devising a tour or circuit strategy (linking destinations,           or islands)

                   developing         a strategy of complementary            tourism    destinations,    with   each   destination
                   specialising      in focus or market segment.

               The basic form and structure patterns include:

                   concentration       of tourism development and corridors linking these

                        major resorts
                        tourism destination areas
                        "base camps" on the threshold             of a tourism region

                   gateways or points of entry into the destination areas

                   non-tourism       areas which may be expanses of ocean.


               Variants on this basic spatial formula exist in tourism planning literature and in many case
      studies world-wide.    The dilemma for the Pacific region is to re-interpret the land-based concepts of
      regional form and structure to what is basically a water-based region, with non-continuous transportcorridors.
                    The translation from a land-based to a water-based arena of operation has not been
      demonstrated well so far.

                Destination  scale. This is an important tourism planning scale. The destination area contains
      the critical mass of resources, facilities and amenities which contribute to the satisfaction of tourists.

                   basic elements       of a tourism destination area or zone are:

                   one or more communities          to supply the utilities, services and facilities

                   one or more attraction complexes

                   transportation    linkages to and between the communities          and the at,tr,actions

                   an entrance or "gateway"         at the destination

                   a non-tourism area.

                 It is an important principle in the planning and design of tourism destination that they; be
      distinctive places, with unique internal relationships between the various parts (both other places and the
      various facilities and services).

              The destination is what attracts the tourist.         To be successful,    the tourism destination    should be
      planned so as to maximise

                   the locational advantage

                   the product advantage         (in comparison   with competitor   destinations)

                   the advantage      of proximate cultural resources and natural resources

                   transport    linkages
                   hospitable     host attitudes.

              There is not one successful formula for destination tourism, although there is increasing
      evidence that clustered tourism development at definite destination locations provides a high probability
      of success at the destination and conservation of the surrounding area.

              As with the regional scale, form and structure, concepts of: concentration, linking communicationnetworks,
                 clustered services, and clustered attractions are sufficiently flexible to facilitate manipulationfrom
           land-based to water-based situations.  A critical organisational tool is that of the critical mass.

               There are some peculiarities at this level which             may influence    the systems-driven     form and
      structure concepts. These peculiarities include:

                       transport linkage between the points need to be scenically attractive or interesting

                   ambiguity (or, worse,        monotony) is possible in the basic tourism development
                   the transport corridor linkages need to be secure and consistent

                   the historic resources may not be concentrated;           a strategy of interpretative     linkage becomes

                   the cultural resources will need protection.

              Among the planning and design principles appropriate to the destination scale are:

                   destination    should be integrated into a region-wide strategy

                   destinations     should attract (or create) a distinctive image

                   successful     destination   planning will involve


                            public-private     partnership
                            progressive      accumulation    of the critical mass of attractions,       services,amenities,
                                           and transport linkages -all within carrying capacity limits.

                  Site scale.    This scale of tourism planning provides a particular challenge, because this is the
          scale at which a single, functionally or aesthetically unviable form of development can seriously disrupt
          the image of a tourism destination.     If the tourism business on any site fails, it becomes a monument
          to bad decision-making       that may affect an entire destination    by association.     The independentattraction
                      facility or service may be operated by an individual or family, a private company, a
          government agency.

                  At this level "place" takes on a particular important meaning. This is not only the contribution
          each place makes to the entire destination, but also as a geographical reference point and landmark.
          Place has meaning as:

                         site of conservation      or developmenta
                         supportive      habitat
                       an urban fabric artefacta
                         contribution     to a spatial system
                       evidence       of wealtha
                         site of historical associationan
                           item of urban aesthetics.

                    There is increasing evidence of a transition from a traditional, conformist, conservative design
          ethic   at site level towards a new paradigm of creativity, site sensitivity and individuality,        andsustaina
                           This new paradigm is being subjected to public scrutiny as the organs of decision-making
          subject plan designs at the site level to public adjudication. Although this is not happening everywhere,
          it is a design-influencing   process which is provoking greater awareness of and compliance with good
          principles of design such as:

                       integration with adjoining sites and with the wider district
                       visitor satisfaction


                       commu n icabil ity /inte rpretation
                       resource protection
                       feasibility (financial, environmental,   and social).

                    It is at the site scale that regional and destination tourism planning yield concrete outcomes, and
          it is at this level that the projections and predictions of demand for facilities, services and experiences
          are materialised.       Therefore,   special understanding     of the site characteristics, their potential andconstrain
                          and the contribution of the site to the wider destination area becomes crucial.         It is also
          critical that the planning, management and monitoring processes be efficient at this scale.             So as to
          avert the repetition of inappropriate design and development,             post-development    evaluation should
          become an integral part of the planning process, especially to determine the validity of the pre-
          development design decisions.


         Land use strategy

               In order to implement the tourism development proposals examined at the various levels
     (national, regional, destinational, and site), it is necessary to provide a suitable context. This is the land
     use strategy. An important element is the conduct of land use (town) planning. There are basically four
     different approaches to land use (town) planning:

                  blueprint planning
                  regulatory planning
                  market-driven planning
                  systems-driven planning.
              Blueprint planning is based upon the expectation that the full plan as prepared will be
     implemented exactly and in its entirety. Such an expectation is unrealistic, because no plan ever starts
     with complete information and functions within a completely controlled operational environment. Such a
     plan type is too inflexible.

               Regulatory planning is that approach which relies upon the application of development perform-
     ance standards, with the possibility of all development eventually conforming to previously-set model
     codes and standards.      While easy to implement, the built environment may become monotonous and
     repetitive. Even so, some form of regulatory planning is inevitable.

             Market-driven planning is best suited to individual projects,       rather than to planning strategies   forentire
           communities or regions.

             The systems-driven   approach to planning is becoming more common, especially as planningfunctions
               are needed to address increasingly complex situations involving threats to the environment andas
        development is becoming increasingly scrutinised in accordance with ecologically sustainable principles.This
          approach provides for review, monitoring and adjustment as circumstances in the plan change.

             The most likely land use planning system will be one which combines the compatible               elements
     of the systems-driven methodology and the regulatory approach to planning.

             a. Basic elements of land use planning control

              In many cases the system of land use (town) planning control is derived from standard
     European codes of planning practice, modified to meet the needs of national governments              and
     administrative systems.   The usual case where a land use planning control system is in force is for the
     planning system to be backed by appropriate legislation which provides for: control over land use anddevelopme
                    specified administrative procedures, and necessary infrastructure development.

              It may be that the preparation of a land use strategy with accompanying regulations is optional
     in a particular Pacific island situation; another case may be where the preparation is a government
     responsibility with local communities delegated the responsibility of overseeing implementation.

             As far as tourism development        is concerned,    the most important issues in land use planning and
     development will include:

                  location of tourism uses
                  accessibility   to and travel within tourism districts/zones
                  development      standards
                  design standards
                  traffic problems
                  quality of the built environment
                  landscaping     of tourism developments
                  precinctisation -especially      if certain hotels and retail stores are assumed      to be targeting
                  particular visitor groups


                   free-standing     major developments
                   tourism attractions      in rural environments
                   location of the major transport interchanges          such as airports, and bus/coach terminals;
                    impact of tourism development on local architectural           styles and areas of heritage importance.

                   achieve a good standard of land use development,             the planning system will attempt to:

                   coordinate    development
                   relate infrastructure     requirements     to needs
                   define the responsibility for necessary works
                   apportion costs of those works
                   pursue consistency, fairness, and propriety
                   secure optimal advantage for all parties'                                     .

                   implement appropriate        concepts and ideas
                   achieve acceptable, conventional standards             of aesthetics,   health, convenience    and diversity
                   (of interest, experience, and culture)
                   promote development         where and when appropriate
                   provide prior knowledge        of the requirements     of development to the developer        (in the form of
                   performance standards)
                   prevent prejudicial      development     (by type, location, timing, or quality)

                   prevent pre-emption
                   retain control in the public domain
                   reflect changing acceptable standards and fashions
                   facilitate innovation.

                Although it may be claimed that the best plans and developments have been the outcome of
      deliberate planning using a systematic planning and decision making process, there are examples of
      successful plans and developments which have not emerged from the application of a systematicprocess.
                   Such development may be considered to have been fortuitous or fragile, or both. In any
      case, the pursuit of a systematic process should offer the best chance of successful and harmonious
      tourism development.

              b.   Statutory    land use planning         tools

               The peculiarities of tourism, and the difficulties which are presented in incorporating this land use
      in a statutory planning framework are evident in the varieties of approach to and content of tourism issues
      in land use planning schemes.       The principal differences are geographical, temporal, and administ~ative.

               In the section on the Master Plan for Tourism, there is a discussion of the basic elements of
      geographical or spatial planning; they are not repeated here.    This section will consider the various
      administrative elements of land use planning for tourism.   In some cases, the discussion may be too
      detailed for the planning circumstances encountered in some Pacific island countries.      However, the
      general discussion highlights those matters which are relevant to the circumstances where tourism
      development will become or is becoming a vital element in the overall land use strategy.     Among the
      important issues are:

                        definition   of tourism land usesthe
                        categorisation      of those uses into land use zones
                   the prescription      of performance     standards to guide development
                   the determination       of land use strategic issues, including setting objectives
                   companion       statutory requirements.


         The definition of tourism land uses     is problematical, because many such uses are for both
tourists and residents -such      as shopping     centres and restaurants -while  others are for tourism
purposes -such        as beaches.    It is the    multiple-use nature of so many of the facilities which
pose problems for definition, especially for      the inclusion in a plan, and for inclusion in particularzones.

        In many cases, special zone types have been created for tourism land uses.

         The matter of performance standards is difficult in the context of land use planning.      In general,
with non-tourism-specific    development, the prescribed performance standards will refer to such matters
as parking standards,        site development dimensions and rations, and landscaping            requirements.
However, it may be that special performance standards should be set to differentiate tourist-type land
uses, although the differences in areas of accommodation, shopping, entertainment, and recreation may
be difficult to justify, especially if the same facilities and land spaces are used by both tourists and local

        The   most common elements which are prescribed              by   performance    standards    are   sitedevelopmen
              environmental conditions, services and infrastructure.

        Site development standards refer to the site and/or building dimensions,. site coverage (as a
percentage of the total developable site), and dimensions.    These standards are set so as to effect
some measure of control over density of use on the site, the demand for infrastructure services, the
bulk of buildings, and the provision of access to the site and circulation within it. Creative design can
achieve a flexible use of the available site so that the necessary development (such as a required
number of hotel rooms) is achieved within a design which has an attractive setting with ancillaryfacilities.

        Controls of environmental conditions refer to heights of buildings, landscape requirements, and
response to environmental sensitivity. These controls are necessary to limit noise, atmospheric pollution
and visual pollution.  Creative design can achieve privacy, exposure, and environmental sensitivity.    In
the current climate of concern with sustainable development, most major developments will be approved
subject to the outcome of an environmental impact assessment.

         The planning controls in the category of services and infrastructure refer to such matters as the
establishment   of the necessary infrastructure capacity (road systems, water reticulation systems,
stormwater drainage systems, and waste disposal systems) as part of the planning approval process.

          It is common for these matters to take one of two forms.         Either the proposed development is
required to assume responsibility for any necessary road works, and installation of new or modification
of existing utility infrastructure systems (water, drainage, and electricity); or the government will require a
contribution from the development calculated on the basis of the necessary work being undertaken by or
on behalf of the government.

         For major developments, the tourism developer may be required to provide or contribute a
proportion to the costs of installing a range of community facilities, such as open space, footpath
systems, parking, street and road maintenance,        and security in those areas where the tourism
development would generate increased usage of existing facilities, or would be likely to create a
heightened demand for those facilities and amenities.

          There are two problems.     Firstly, if the tourism development embodies facilities and amenities
which will be available to the local community, might there not be a double penalty payment if the
developer is required also to make a money payment or undertake prescribed public works to meet
the needs of the community? Secondly, as the tourism development is likely to be contributing to the
local community by creating jobs, paying local rates and taxes, and contributing to the image of the
district, is it not already paying its way in the community? There are strong arguments put by both
developers and governments on such matters, and many cases of dispute have to be resolved in

         The matter of land use strategy preparation insofar as it involves tourism development      has been
described in the sections on Master Plan for Tourism and Planning Process.

                  In order for tourism development to be integrated with other forms of development in a
          comprehensive land use strategy, often prospective and actual tourism activity is required to take notice
          of what may be described as companion legislation.      Thus, tourism development is confronted with a
          range of legislation and derived regulations concerned with:

                  .macro-economic               policy, including foreign investment
                  .land         leasing and occupation
                  .management               of marine habitats
                  .harbour            controls and coast issues
                  .beach          protection
                  .marine             park and offshore conservation
                  .national           parks and protected areas
                  .operation            of casinos and amusement parks
                  .general      legislation affecting agriculture and forested areas (especially                if they form part of the
                       aesthetic resources).

                  In addition, some Pacific island countries have adopted the practice of countries around the
          Pacific Rim and have created legislative provisions for special types of integrate.d resorts, golf courses,
          and theme parks or have made arrangements administratively for some forms of tourism developme'nt to
          receive dispensation from usual town planning controls.

                   These various issues render the preparation and eventual implementation of a land use strategy
          involving tourism a complex administrative task.    However, if tourism development is to be integrated
          harmoniously into the general land use strategy, such issues have to be addressed.

          5.   Implementation            of the master      plan

                  There is an inherent danger in separating the step of creating the master plan for tourism from
          the step of implementation.   It is preferable to consider the planning process as a continuum, integrating
          the steps of plan creation with its implementation.

                  The stage of implementation            will include:

                  .preparing             and putting into practice         such     guidelines.   regulations   and   policies   as   are
                       necessary         to bring the plan to fruition
                  .undertaking            development     in accordance     with the plan
                  .supervising            that development
                  .preparing            the community for the impact of tourism development
                  .preparing            and providing    training facilities for those intending to work in the tourism/travel/
                          hospitality industry
                  .collecting           information   so as to monitor the progress of the plan as it is put into practice
                  .undertaking    the tasks of marketing and promotion to ensure that the tourism destination                           is
                       known and appreciated for what it has to offer.

                  Even within a set of "implementation"              activities,   there will be cross-referencing     as new circum-
          stances emerge.

                 A master        plan for tourism       is a tool for the guidance         of development.             if anything,   will
          happen without:

                       a suitable legislative and administrative           structure
                          suitable sources of finance
                          suitable entrepreneurial      interest
                          evidence      of demand for the tourism product at the destination
                          certainty    of access by visitors.


               In addition, a tourism plan at any level, and especially at national and regional levels, will need
     disaggregation so that the various resource needs -land/water,           labour and capital -are  seen in their
     spatial, temporal, financial, infrastructural, and social inter-relationships.   An additional consideration is
     the likely impact of forces external to the destination area, and especially the impact of the decisions of
     the international airlines which service the region, and the international tour operators who facilitate the
     arrival of tourists.

         Principles      for integrated          tourism     planning

             Integrated tourism planning is an exercise in good management.   To be effective and contribute
     to the overall management of a nation's welfare, tourism development should:

                     conform to a special-purpose          master plan
                     be coordinated     with other activity and policy areas
                     be supported and promoted by the government
                     be considered      as a good risk for investment
                     be conducted      by a well-informed      and well-trained tourism industry.

               It is important that tourism does not become isolated, and that it is not considered in a vacuum.
     Even if tourism activity is or may become the dominant economic sector, it will still need to be
     interpreted and operated within a broader context of the national welfare.      In addition, no Pacific island
     nation is so completely unique that the experience of other island countries cannot be drawn upon to
     help solve common problems.

             For most island countries,           the prospectus    of aspirations for tourism will include action to:.match

                               demand with supply (or vice versa)
             .maxi        mise economic benefits
             .minimise           social dislocation
             .mini       mise environmental          disturbance
             .achieve           sustainability   (of the environment,     economy, society, and culture)
             .maintain           flexibility (to respond to market changes)
             .achieve           a well-trained    labour force
             .ensure           efficient planning,     management and monitoring.

              The basis of integrated tourism planning is derived from generic planning theory, a domain of
     theory which has undergone a series of paradigm revolutions. At the present stage of theory development,
     integrated tourism planning is more expansive than physical or land use planning.  It includes:

                     economic planning (principally          at the macro level)
                     human resources        development planning (including education and training)
                     social and community         planning
                     environmental     planning
                     business planning and corporate           management
                     public administration
                     infrastructure   planning


                The complexity of approaches, interests, operational frameworks, resource demands, resource
     inter-linkages,  community aspirations,    and competence needs render a simple, integrated tourism
     planning model virtually impossible.    Therefore, in this section, a set of principles for integrated tourism
     planning are suggested.      Implementation and application of any, some or all of these principles will
     depend upon the stage of development of tourism activity in each particular Pacific island nation.


            a. Principles

            The set of principles presented here are to be considered bearing in mind that the integration of
    planning at all levels and across all levels is essential. Such a principle needs constant repetition and
    should be incorporated into all negotiations on tourism planning and development.

            In the following paragraphs,      the principles discussed are set into five categories:

                 the creation of a master plan for tourism

                 the incorporation    of determining    characteristics

                 the incorporation    of special emphases

                 the principles    of implementation

                 the principles    of administration   and training.

              The principles considered are not of equal weight and significance.  However, they represent the
    types of principles appropriate to a master plan which is both comprehensive            and integrated.       In
    particular, the pursuit of integration will ensure the desired outcome of all of its forms -economic,
    environmental, spatial, management, social, cultural, technological and political-ar.e explicitly incorporated
    into a decision-making framework and open to participation by stakeholders appropriate to each decision.

             Basic   principles.     A number     of universal    principles    can be identified.      These     principles   are
    as follows:

                 A tourism master plan should be prepared to provide direction, provide a framework for
                 development    and operation,   achieve integration of the various complementary factors
                 involved in tourism development, set targets for achievement.

                 Tourism should be sustainable

                 Long range planning and "public interest" planning should be paramount.

                 Tourism should reflect and enhance the special qualities and characteristics of the communi-
                 ties and the destination, the special nature of attractive places should be maintained, and
                 planning and design should reflect the special characteristic of the places.

                 Tourism planning should respond appropriately either to the mass tourism                    market or to the
                 particular requirements of the special interest market.

                 Tourism development should be pursued to contribute positively to the general economic,
                 environmental,   social and cultural improvement of the nation as a whole, of particular
                 destinations, or at particular sites.

                 Tourism development should accommodate                the principles   of land stewardship       maintained   by
                 traditional land owners.

                 The master plan should respond to the need to be competitive in the region and to
                 accommodate competition between destinations within the nation (alternatively, in the case
                 of the commitment to tourism development within the confines of the nation's boundaries,
                 the plan should seek complementarity between destinations within the nation.)

                 Tourism development at all levels (national, regional, destination,              site) should be integrated
                 and coordinated spatially, temporally, economically.

                 Tourism      development   and activity should           be   symbiotic   with   the   natural    environment,communitie
                                  and indigenous culture.

              Principles of emphasis and focus.  In addition to the basic principles of good practice listed
    previously, master plans (in order to achieve a special identity and competitive advantage) should
    incorporate the following principles:


                Tourism achieves its level of highest efficiency             if all the components   of supply are brought
                within the scope of the tourism plan.

                The tourism plan should reflect diversity of tourism experience opportunities               by incorporating

                urban tourism attractions, facilities, services, and amenities-similar

                                features for non-urban a,reas-integrated
                                    resort developments
                -isolated         attractions
                -natural         and cultural environment features.

                The approach to the development of the basic vision for tourism development should be
                responsive to changes in market demand by adopting a flexible conceptual paradigm and
                organisational framework.

                The design criteria used, especially at the scales of the destination             and of site development,
                must be responsive to

                -site     and location appropriateness
                -requirements           of land-use association and compatibility
                -needs           of users
                -market          demands.

                An attempt should be made to maintain low levels of impact, especially in respect of

                -access          to natural, cultural and heritage attractions
                -interaction         of visitors with traditional settlements and sites
                -the          adoption of low-impact technology

            The adoption of the principle of low-impact need not mean low economic benefit.

            .Where     special features or attractions exist they should become                   the foundation    for niche
                market tourism as "unique selling points".

             Principles of implementation.  In order for development to take place, the principles of intent
    and vision and focus, need to be supported by principles of implementation.   If this set of principles is

                development        may not take place
                integration,     of any kind, may not be achieved
                uncontrolled tourism            activity   may cause     degradation   of the   resources   which    originally
                attracted tourism
                performance        (in terms of economic benefit) may become sub-optimal
                competitive       advantage     may be lost
                community        involvement may be by-passed.

            The basic principles       of implementation      are as follows:

                The tourism product available is dependent                  upon foresight   guidance   and organisation       of
                leadership at each level of decision-making.
                The formulation         of the tourism       master     plan is the outcome     of an appropriate    planning
                The proposals for tourism development and activity are constituent elements of the national/
                regional/local strategy to achieve improved levels of welfare and resource use.


                 The tourism strategy is responsive to entrepreneurial initiative and partnerships involving
                 private enterprise -corporate or individual, traditional communities, and the government.

                 The various sectors of decision-making        (corporate,   individual, traditional,   and governmental)
                 operate in a negotiated framework.

                 Tourism development          takes place within a basic        framework     of appropriate      form     and
                 structure, infrastructure,    and complementarity.

               In order for tourism activities to take place       at all, and certainly    to be sustained,       important
     principles of implementation include the following;

                 The government          should introduce appropriate        mechanisms,      including    legi~lation
                 regulation, facilitation, incentive, and promotion.

                 The government and private enterprise should ensure that suitable                        opportunities     for
                 education and training accompany any growth of tourism activity.' .

             b. Concluding     comments

             The important characteristics     of integrated tourism planning should include:

                 a decision-making    structure    designed   to link tourism   with other sectors        of economic      and
                 infrastructure development

                 an approach which is strategic and goal-oriented        rather than being re-active and preventative

                 a structure which can accommodate inputs and influences from the tourism industry,                       other
                 sectors of government, and the affected community

                 a process which is purposive and deliberate,        but which is also flexible to adjust to changing

                 a process which is guided by principles of good management.

         Land tenure

             One of the crucial determinants of implementation is the availability of land for the development
     to take place. This matter is influenced particularly by the special land ownership issues which prevail
     across the Pacific island region.

               In the Pacific island region much land is in communal ownership.   There is ancedotal evidence
     that the complications of land tenure and land ownership in many of the Pacific Island countries has
     proved to be an impediment to tourism development.            Such evidence suggests that the traditional
     patterns of land ownership are problematical in other ways, being the cause of disputes among
     indigenous peoples, villages and tribal groups.        In the case of many island countries, land -is not
     individually owned, but rather held in trust for future generations by communal lineage. Faced with this,
     any need for land for tourism development by a private entrepreneur can be expected to require a
     compensatory payment, which may be ongoing, to the communal land owners.

            Some traditional societies are responding to the interest in their land by major developers
     by progressively  modifying their conventional approach to accommodate leasing, arrangements        of
     land amalgamation,    partnership in enterprise development,   and retention   of traditional kinshiprelations.

             The allocation of particular sites for tourism development may be at risk if the land concerned is
     subject to customary ownership.      In many cases, this may mean the land will not be easily at the
     disposal of the tourism industry, and it may mean that protracted and at times inconclusive negotiations
     for land leases may prejudice the financing capability of the project. Some Pacific Island governments,
     cognisant of the impact of land ownership issues and their potential to delay development,             are
     endeavouring to cope with the matter by:


                instituting statutory mechanisms

                supplementing        existing legislation
                providing extensive negotiation             and     management      responsibilities   for   native   land   boards
                (or similar agencies)
                providing mechanisms          to deal with boundary disputes,              adoption rights, land transfers,     and
                providing guarantees        and security

                promoting partnership arrangements
                setting recommendations          on terms of negotiation,       including periods of leasing.

               Even so, for many potential foreign investors and developers, the uncertainty attending the
    availability and use of specific sites is interpreted as an obstacle to tourism development. If land cannot
    be offered as security in the conventional mode of financing common to societies with which most
    developers are familiar, it is difficult for developers to convince financing sources of the soundness of
    the proposal because of the lack of security to repay any debt caused by failure of the project.

              It may be that the complications and diversity of land tenure positions across the Pacific island
    countries act as convenient brakes on tourism development~ curbing the rampant expansion into tourism
    activity which might otherwise ensue.

             A contrasting view is that there is a need for each Pacific Island government to consider whether
    or not to intervene in the traditional land tenure system by various structural and institutional means so as
    to render it more conducive to increased levels of tourism development.     A system is needed which:

                addresses     and overcomes the problems of protracted land lease negotiations

                ensures the availability of appropriate sites for tourism development

                protects the traditional rights and privileges of the customary                land owners

                 provides opportunities for local groups, if they so wish, to become involved                           in tourism
                 enterprises on their own or in partnership with foreign developers/financiers.

            Initiatives being explored in the Pacific island region include:

                the option of long leases:
                -agreed           rental to the custom land owners
                -agreed         compensatory payments
                -profit-sharing      initiatives
                 -predetermined           periods (with options for renewal)
                 -use      conditions.

                 the option of joint ventures
                 -participation         in development and sharing of benefits
                 -equity          in projects being the land
                 -joint     partners providing the finance and expertise for development
                 -opportunities         to "learn by doing", as preparation for independent operations                in the future.

                 the option of self-development
                 -best       pursued at the small-scale           level (at least until experience     has been gained)
                 -best       for remote or isolated ventures
                 -may        contribute positively to culture-related        activities.

           If the option of self-development   is pursued, almost certainly it will be necessary for the
    government to create a special tourism development fund upon which land-owning groups could draw to
    become involved in tourism as developers.


          In most cases, no matter which of the options is used, the requirement in any leasing
arrangement should include provisions for creating jobs, providing training programmes,    establishing
investment programmes,     and providing opportunities for the transfer of technology and management
skills for members of the land owning community.

         It seems to be incumbent upon governments to institute appropriate mechanisms,           provide
opportunities   for indigenous    entrepreneurship, and undertake   necessary   programmes     of tourism
awareness so that indigenous involvement in tourism planning, development and activity is conspicuous,successful,
              not prejudicial to any party and capable of ensuring the long-term viability of the tourism
industry and the involvement of indigenous communities in it.

       There are two matters in respect of indigenous        participation   in tourism   development   which have
been proven by experience to be crucial.

          One is to be sure that negotiations with native land owners            are conducted     by government
officials in whom the land owners have confidence, because. of:                      ..

        (a)   the respect they show the community and its leaders,

        (b)   the sympathy they have for the local leadership        who might find it difficult to assess     the
              impact of engaging in a tourism venture, and

        (c)   the sensitivity they demonstrate   towards local cultures.

        A second matter is that any documentation to be discussed with local communities and their
leaders must be expressed simply and the negotiators must be able to express the intent of the official
documents in a language which is readily grasped by local communities.

         The importance of communication     is critical so that each party to the negotiation can be
confident that the matter is being dealt with completely and accurately.   It is important that the native
land owners do not feel they are being taken advantage of, and that they feel instead, that all of their
genuine concerns are addressed.

                                  B. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

           There is considerable evidence of the need for an effective institutional framework if tourism
development is to be coordinated,       efficiently supervised, monitored and integrated into the overall
scope of national economic, environmental and social planning.          It is important that the institutional
framework encompasses organisations from both the public and the private sectors.              A coordinated
framework is necessary because of the fragmented nature of the tourism industry.         This diverse nature
and its susceptibility to pragmatic decision-making within particular industry sectors, coupled with the
possibility that different government policies for tourism may not always be synchronised, creates the
need for a coordinated institutional framework.

        The tourism planning process provides the catalyst for the inputs of the various stakeholders in
the outcome of decisions affecting tourism development.       Even after the preparation of a tourism
development plan, the final outcome is dependent upon the integrated realisation of a series of
independent development decisions based upon the pursuit of individual opportunities.

         Important roles in tourism planning and development are played by the public sector, the privatesector,
        non-profit organisations, the community, and tourists.

          In each case, there will be particular perspectives on tourism development and on the need
for tourism planning and the shape of that planning.       The principal perspective of the public sector is
to manage development so as to achieve community goals within the public interest.            For the private
sector, the principal function is to provide facilities and services to tourists while maximising returns on
the investment.        The private sector has come to accept that it has social and environmental
responsibilities.     It is also recognised that entrepreneurial    flair may create tourism development
opportunities     beyond those identified in the prepared tourism plan.         The formal plan should be

    composed with sufficient latitude and flexibility to accommodate such initiatives, especially if it is
    responding to shifts in tourist preferences. Some of these changes in preferences may be identifiedthrough
             the constant monitoring and evaluation of tourism activity by consultants,     market researchinvestigators
                 design professionals and project managers.   Particular interest in the changes of fashion
    and the dictation of the tourism market will be paid by financial institutions and corporate lendingagencies.

             The World Tourism Organisation (WTO) has described the distinctiveness of the roles of the
    public and private sectors by the principle that governments should not seek to do what the private
    sector is able and willing to do. However, in many cases of large scale development the private sector
    and government may work in a partnership.    Other partnerships may develop where governments assist
    indigenous land owners with the commencement         of an enterprise to be managed eve~tually by
    indigenous communities.

             The perspective of the tourist on tourism planning is different from the other stakeholders.        The
    interests of every tourist cut across the various independent decisions made' by governments and the
    private sector; the tourist is concerned with the experience which can be gained.           In most cases, the
    tourist is little concerned with who provides the service, who built the facility, who owns the land, or
    which regulations were applied.    In the conduct of tourism planning, the interests of the tourist must be
    considered with those of the host community.     If that is not the case, the sustaina1;>ility of tourism actiyity
    at that destination may be in jeopardy.

             One of the principal purposes of tourism planning is to bring into harmonious balance the
    different interests of the various stakeholders.   This balance may be achieved through the establishment
    of an appropriate multi-faceted institutional framework.

             In some tourism development plans, an effective institutional framework is considered to be one
    of the principal determinants    of successful tourism development.      This section considers the most
    important elements of an institutional framework related to the special needs of Pacific island countries.
    Consideration will be given to the following:

                  public sector organisations
                  structure      of national tourism offices (NTO)
                  legislative framework
                  private sector organisations
                  facilitation    systems and procedures.

    1.   Public   sector      organisations

            a.    Reasons        for public   sector   involvement    in tourism

             There are three groups            of reasons for public sector        involvement   in tourism:   political,   environ-mental,
             and economic.

             International tourism involves the crossing of national boundaries, a matter which necessitates
    policies and procedures regarding the entry and exit of travellers.    The encouragement of international
    tourism raises the international profile of the host nation, and promotes international agency support in
    the development of infrastructure systems and services which are of benefit also to national residents.
     It is becoming apparent that one of the potential debilitating aspects of tourism development is the
     impact on the environment, the history and cultural heritage, and even the routine quality of life and life-
    styles of the resident community.        The protection and conservation of the natural environment and
    heritage is a responsibility of the national government.      As tourism generates employment, income,
    economic diversification,    export earnings and foreign exchange, it is incumbent upon governments to
    ensure that'the maximum benefit accrues to the national economy and the welfare of the host nation
    through the development of policies and practices which achieve the retention of high levels of benefit
    within the nation.


            There is considerable diversity in the type and degree of government involvement in tourismactivity,
             but generally there is evidence that levels of government involvement parallel the degree of
    importance which is attached to tourism as a generator of social and economic benefit and as a potential
    cause of debilitation of natural and heritage resources. Another important determining factor is the political
    system; the range extends from considerable involvement in governmental systems of highly centralisedeconomies
                to very loose involvement in systems of a predominantly free-enterprise philosophy.

             A third important determinant is the level of socio-economic development.        In general, the
    greater  the level of economic development, the less the need for government involvement, and viceversa.
            An aspect of this level of socio-economic development is the maturity and financial capabilities of
    the private sector; the greater the competence of the private sector, the less need there is for public
    sector involvement.   In the cases of many of the Pacific island countries, there is a strong rational for
    high levels of government involvement in tourism because of all three of these factors.      .

              The principal public sector roles and functions are as follows:
              .the       preparation     and administration      of tourism policy                '.:'    ,

              .the       preparation,     administration    and monitoring of the tourism plan
              .the       coordination     of public and private sector groups
              .the       preparation     and administration      of tourism-related   legislation and regulation
              .the       provision and maintenance           of infrastructure   services
              .the       stimulation     of investment and development
              .the       conduct of promotion and marketing strategies
              .the        provision of education           and training      programmes     to support    the tourism,   travel   and
                     hospitality industries
              .the       collection    of tourism-related     data.

              In addition to these overt roles and functions,              public sector roles include:

                     supervising    immigration    procedures
                     maintaining    quarantine    regulations
                     supervising    and coordinating       tourism-related    activities across different levels of government
                     coordinating     private sector initiatives
                     coordinating     policies and programmes
                     monitoring     and enforcing building, planning and health regulations
                     administration     of national assets (such as national parks and heritage buildings)
                     coord!nating     off-shore borrowing for tourism development
                     supporting     indigenous cultures and land ownership systems.

             Without a clearly defined role for involvement of the public sector in tourism planning and
    development, there is the possibility of a destination being developed in a haphazard and potentially
    negative manner, possibly neutralisig the original attractiveness. For a tourism policy and plan to be
    brought into effect, it is necessary to have an organisation responsible for its implementation. This is
    the principal justification for public sector involvement.

             The precise nature of the public sector organisation in tourism in any Pacific Island nation will
    be determined by the significance attached to tourism by the government, the political system, the
    maturity of the private sector, and the perceived need for government involvement.

             Not all Pacific island countries have a separate department and ministerial portfolio which is
    responsible for policy, planning and administration in tourism. In many island countries, the tourism function
    is handled as one activity within a department or portfolio concerned with Commerce,                 Economic
    Development, Transport, Trade, Industry, or any combination of these. Sometimes, the word "tourism"
    occurs in the departmental title, a factor which gives it some visibility and status.     In some cases, the
    tourism function is performed by a specially-created bureau, agency, authority or commission. This diversity
    of the tourism function in governments may be indicative of a degree of ambivalence about that function.


             In some Pacific island countries, especially those in which the significance of tourism is only
    emerging slowly, it may be that tourism is not accorded a high governmental profile.            What is
    important is the degree of serious attention given to the policy-forming and planning processes, the
    systems of administration and supervision, and the degree of government support given to the tourism
    development function.     It will be recognised that a distinct government department and portfolio for
    tourism is indicative of the degree of significance attached to tourism as an aspect of national policydirection.

    2.   National     tourism     offices     (NTO)

             In general, a national tourism organisation responsible for planning, coordination, regulation,information,
                 and promotion and marketing, with the status of a statutory body, but located outside the
    conventional civil service structure, is indicative of a government's   commitment to serious tourismadministratio
                    promotion, marketing and legislation.                         '.

              A particular hazard of an NTO structure that is outside but part of the government structure is
    the potential for under-funding and the under-development         of suitable professional tourism expertise.
    Alternative  designations    include tourism/visitors  bureau, tourist authorities, tol,Jrism offices, tourismcommission
                    tourism promotion authorities, or national tourism offices.

             a. Principal functions

             Among the principal functions performed               by a NTO are:

                    planning and development

                    marketing and promotion

                    manpower development,          tourism education and training

                    compilation   of research and statistics

                    visitor information     services

                    industry regulation,     inspection and licensing

                    public education and awareness.

              The nature and size of many NTOs is such that the discrete functioning of these activities is not
    possible.    In many cases, organisational principles of flexibility and multi-functional staffing are adopted.
    No matter what the adopted structure is, the principal activities will remain:

                    to achieve an increase in visitor numbers

                    to achieve an expansion            of the tourism plant by attracting   investment

                    to develop the destination's          product base

                    to develop the necessary           human resources

                    to ensure idle capacity is taken up and new opportunities               created.

             The size, scope, configuration,             staffing complement,   skills, and the functions   required of a NTO
     will be determined     by the:

             .tasks        allocated to it by the government

             .degree          of significance    accorded tourism planning and development
              .degree         of autonomy or integration within conventional          government structures

              .professional         competence
              .budget         allocation.


                 b. Sources of financing

              There is little consistency    across the various    models of NTO in the funding procedures.       The
      options include:

                    full funding by the national government    by grant
                    partial funding from information,   publications and advisory services
                    revenue from fees charged for registration and licensing
                    revenue from taxes, including airport taxes, taxes levied on accommodation, and entertain-
                    ment, funding from regional agencies, and development grants from international agencies.

                    Organisation   at sub-national level

              For some Pacific island countries, it may be necessary to implement an organisation at the sub-
     national level.   It is unlikely that provincial governments could be able to support the development of
     their own, independent tourism offices.        The NTO may need to consider providing support services,
     including professional staff.

                Some Pacific island countries operate under processes of government devolution to provinces or
     states, with these devolved units empowered to develop and promulgate their 'own tourism strategies
     and to pursue independent administrative practices.        Such discretion may lead to problems, especially of
     competition, lack of consistency and integration.        As tourism is an international activity, it is necessary
     for governments to deal with international airlines, cruise lines, and tour wholesalers, each of which is
     more likely to acknowledge the total national entity rather than its component parts. Essentially, tourism
      development in any nation is indivisible, irrespective of the different degrees of geographical concentra-
     tion or dispersion.      Unilateral action by any province or sub-national unit will have repercussions on the
     entire nation.     If it is the governmental preference that regional autonomy should be practised, then it
     becomes incumbent upon the NTO to facilitate coordination, integration, consistency and compatibility of
     policies and practices.       It may be necessary to establish a nation-wide tourism consultative committee to
     facilitate liaison and coordination.

             d.    International and regional affiliations

              To achieve regional coordination and cooperation, it is appropriate for NTOs to become affiliated
     with appropriate international and regional organisations such as the Tourism Council of the South
     Pacific (TCSP), Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), or World Tourism Organization (WTO).             In
     addition, to pursue efficient tourism strategies in the context of sustainable development the NTO should
     become affiliated in a suitable way with and draw on the services of other international and regional

         Legislative framework

              The role of the public sector in setting and enforcing various forms of legislation and regulation
     is both essential and controversial,     especially in free-enterprise driven tourism destinations.    The
     controversy arises because governments may consider it essential to introduce legislation and regula-
     tions because the private sector cannot be relied upon to regulate and control its operations effectively,
     and the private sector considers governments may go too far in their interference, involveme:nt and

              It is not unusual for the tourism industry to allege that the optimisation of its contribution to the
     national economy is impeded by the degree and range of intervention from all levels of government.           In
     large economies, there is often an extensive range of government agency programmes and regulations,
     some of which directly affect tourism and others which indirectly affect tourism.

              The description which follows here may not be strictly relevant across all Pacific island countries.
     The range and scope of legislation and regulation will depend on the scale of the tourism activity.
     However, there are some basic health, safety, environment and facilitation regulations which may be
     considered necessary for every island nation which is a tourism destination.


            a.    Legislation     and regulation     taxonomy

             Even if the government and the tourist industry agree that the government should avoid
    unnecessary regulation of the industry, there remain crucial areas of government responsibility for which
    suitable forms of regulations may be necessary.    These include, protection of the environment, economic
    development, border controls, public health and safety, and planning and building codes.        In addition,
    there are cases which can be made for government regulation of classification, and grading of hotels,
    and restaurants, licensing of liquor sales, consumer protection, visitor liability, employment conditions,
    taxes and tariffs, and weights and capacities of vehicles.
            These     matters      may be controlled      by regulation    generally   or by particular   tourism   sectors   -accommoda
                      restaurant and catering, transport, entertainment, and so on.      In addition,               there may
    need to be specific regulations which will apply to retailing, car rental, commercial attractions               and themeparks.

            b. Specific legislation for tourism bureaux

             Some governments have enacted legislation specifically to encourage a preferred model of
    public sector tourism operation and organisation. Such legislation establishes the bureau, commission,
    or authority and confers nominated powers and responsibilities.

            c.    Complementary          Regulations

            A number of spheres of complementary regulations will influence the conduct of tourism planning
    and development, and if not within the control of the NTO or tourism agency, will at least need input
    and advice from that source. Such complementary regulations may include:

                   review processes for tourism development             project proposals

                   applications    for loan financing for tourism projects

                   applications    for building permits
                   licensing and regulation of hotels, restaurants and other tourism businesses

                   consumer       protection
                   licensing and regulation of tour guides, tour wholesalers,             travel agents, transport operators,
                   and tourism business operators.

             In addition, some agencies may be empowered to impose levies on hotels in order to raise
    revenue for nominated tasks such as tourism marketing and promotion, or for tourism facility construc-
    tion (such as airport expansion).

             Of particular significance         is legislation and regulation of land           use planning,   infrastructureservicing,
               building and construction,        and building and heritage conservation.

             d.   Multinational       regulations   affecting   the tourism    industry

             In addition to national, provincial, regional or local legislation and regulations affecting tourism,
    either directly or indirectly, there are agreements which have been reached between various countries,
    and many island countries are signatories to some which have a direct impact on travel and tourism.
    One of the most significant agreements, relating to travel between countries, is referred to as the "fivefreedoms".
                   These are the:

                    Right of transit (The freedom to fly over another country without stopping.)

                    Right of technical stop (The right to stop at another country's airport for fuel and servicing.:

                    Right to discharge passengers         at another country's airport
                    Right to pick up passengers from another country's airport and return them to their homes

                    Right to discharge passengers         at another country's airport and to then load passengers.


              Such agreements     have been facilitated by the formation of the International Air Transport
     Association (lATA), which represents international airlines) and the International Civil Aviation Organiza-
     tion (ICAO), an organisation of national governments.    The objectives of ICAO are:

                   to adopt international      standards and recommended                practices for regulating air navigation

                   to recommend        installation    of navigation facilities by member countries

                   to set forth proposals for the reduction of customs and immigration formalities

                   to seek the development             of airways,    airports,     and air navigation   facilities   for international
                   civil aviation

                   to provide for safe, regular, efficient, and economical air transportation

                  to discourage       unreasonable      competition

                  to ensure that the rights of contracting countries are fully respected and that every member
                  country has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines'    .

                  to discourage       discrimination     between contracting countries.

             Other regulations       of general applicability cover:

             .liability      for passenger injury and damage or loss to luggage (the Warsaw Convention,                         Hague
                    Protocol, and Montreal Agreement)

             .classification         of tourist accommodation

             .travel        procedures.

             In addition,      some countries are signatories to bi-lateral agreements.

                 Concluding         comments

             The general purposes         of the legislative framework            include:

                  the protection of the general interests             of the citizens of the host country and of visitors to
                  the tourism destination
                  the protection and conservation           of the destination's       natural, historical and cultural resources
                  the assurance       of health and safety of visitors
                  the protection      of visitors from unscrupulous        tourism practices.

              There may be a danger that the decision-making process and the system of regulations will
     become over-bureaucratised,    and the pace of decision-making too slow. Such a situation may be the
     outcome of a lack of coordination and cooperation between government agencies.          The key should be
     the adoption of a legislative system which facilitates suitable and sustainable tourism development, while
     allowing the tourism industry to be innovative.

         Private sector organisations

               In order to balance the attention given to tourism by government agencies, it is necessary for
     there to be an effective private sector organisation.        There is a view that it is the initiative of the
     private sector which creates the need for public sector involvement.              In a developing country,
     especially one in which there are limited human and financial resources committed to tourism by thegovernmen
                     a national, regional, or local government may benefit considerably from tapping the private
     sector for skills, especially in marketing.     At the embryonic stage of policy and planning by the publicsector,
              it is the private sector organisations which may be responsible for raising the profile of tourismactivity.

               A distinctive feature of the private sector is its organisation by industry, so that the interests                    of
     particular industrial sectors -hotels,  restaurants, transport, and so on, become clearly articulated.


               In Pacific island countries where the level of tourism activity is low and visitor numbers are small,
     there may not be a need for a comprehensive range of private sector organisations.           In these cases, the
     alternatives include umbrella organisations such as Chambers of Commerce, at which tourism-related
     businesses will be represented among non-tourism businesses, and National Travel Industry Associations,
     which are composed of representatives and members of tourism-related businesses.

            If there is sufficient interest and resources, an umbrella organisation such as a Chamber of
     Commerce may incorporate a specialised unit which is composed of tourism-related business represen-tation.
              This may become necessary, particularly if one of the tourism sectors such as tourism
     accommodation or tour wholesaling achieves particular prominence.

              There will be benefit to the tourism industry, and eventually to the national economy, if the
     private sector becomes organised so as to encourage the government into improving its policy and
     planning competence.       To assist tourism development with infrastructure services, and to undertake
     regulation and policing in those areas where industry self-re~ulation proves to be difficult, it may be the
     private sector organisations which prompt the improvement of the processes of promotion and marketing.
     As tourism is basically an industry dominated by small business firms, it is necessary for organisations
     to be established to coordinate and represent the views and interests of these important components of
     the total business community and to ensure that government decisions are made to reflect wide

          Facilitation    systems    and procedures

             Using various  international   agreements   and bilateral arrangements,          governments      endow
     themselves with means to facilitate cooperation and to facilitate the flows of travellers and goods.

              Many bilateral arrangements   on cooperation refer specifically to tourism and tourism-related
     activity and encourage travel between the signatories, set out documentary needs, designate types of
     visits and regulations which are relevant to each, and specify privileges and concessions available to
     international travellers.

              One of the principal international forces behind the progressive liberalisation of travel has been
     the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This agency has sought through
     a number of initiatives, to persuade governments to remove unjustified impediments to international
     travel and improve international cooperation.

              Among its initiatives and recommendations on tourism policy is a code of practice concerned
     with the process of facilitating international travel by avoidance of measures which distort competition,
     avoidance of measures which impede traveller movement, removal of measures which treat travellers
     unequally, and adoption of measures to ease the passage of tourists.      Its general advocacy is for the
     harmonisation of rules regulating entry into and move~ent within nation states.

                  a. Regulations on entry and passage

            Of particular concern to travellers are the processes which facili~te          entry and free passage.
     These processes are entry formalities and passenger processing.

                  The entry formalities include presentation of a current passport, possession of a valid visa
      (where      necessary) appropriate to the nature of the visit, and possession of any required healthcertificates.

                The purposes of setting visa constraints on entry include: limiting visitor numbers, restricting
      visitor types, and maintaining security. The selectivity of the visa process is patently discriminatory, and
      needs very careful adjudication, perhaps with bilateral arrangements of reciprocity.     Visa restrictions for
      business travellers and if linked to work permits, should be related to maintaining opportunities for ttfe
      resident community.    Any system of visa requirement may cause irritations to potential visitors.       Some
      governments see the issuance of visas and the imposition of departure taxes as revenue-generating


            A matter of potential irritation to travellers,   especially if there is simultaneous   arrival of a large
    number of visitors, is the passenger processing           system, especially at airports.       Most irritation is
    occasioned at:

                 points of entry, with presentation   of passports and the checking of visas
                 retrieval of baggage after arrival

                 clearance   of baggage through customs and quarantine

                 points of departure,   with payment of departure tax

                 points of check-in

                 inadequate information.

             In some Pacific island countries, the points of entry and departure are enlivened with indigenous
    music presentations and welcome ceremonies.           While these are appreciated, they should not take
    precedence over efficient and streamlined arrival and departure processes.            It should be remembered
    that the visitors' first and last impressions of a country will be of the facilitation processes.    To a large
    extent, the matter lies in the scope of management and organisation.                A report on the need for
    improvements to facilitation processes in one country of the Pacific Rim suggested the keys were
    promptness, courtesy, and efficiency.

            Although these matters cannot be legislated, the encompassing          system can be designed     so that
    entry and departure are facilitated.



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