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NON- PERFORMING ASSETS AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE OF KARNATAKA STATE CO-OPE

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					    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
International Journal of Advanced Research in OF ADVANCED RESEARCH
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, May - August 2013 © IAEME
                           IN MANAGEMENT (IJARM)

ISSN 0976 - 6324 (Print)
ISSN 0976 - 6332 (Online)
                                                                          IJARM
Volume 4, Issue 2, May - August 2013, pp. 11-23
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijarm.asp                                        ©IAEME
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NON- PERFORMING ASSETS AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE
    OF KARNATAKA STATE CO-OPERATIVE APEX LIMITED

                                    S.POORNIMA
                               M.COM, MBA, PGDBA, NET,
             Associate Professor, Jss College for Women, P. G. Center, Mysore


INTRODUCTION

        A strong banking sector is important for a flourishing economy. The failure of the
banking sector may have an adverse impact on other sectors. The Indian banking system,
which was operating in a closed economy, now faces the challenge of an open economy. The
main business of a banking company is to receive deposits and lend money. Receiving
deposit involves no risk, since it is the banker who owes a duty to repay the deposit,
whenever it is demanded. On the other hand, lending always involves much risk because
there is no certainty of repayment. A banker shall be very cautious in lending, because he is
not lending money out of his own capital. A major portion of the money lent comes from the
deposits received from the public. These deposits are mostly repayable on demand. Hence,
while lending money, a banker should follow a very cautious policy. The risk involved in
lending business makes it very important as it involves making prominent decisions.
Therefore while sanctioning credit the banker should appraise the project reasonably or else it
leads to the non-repayment of loans and advances. Most of the banks today in India are
facing the default risk wherein some part of the profit is reserved for covering the non-
performing assets.
        The Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) of the Indian banking sector have been
incessantly rising in the past six months. Historically, in 1997, NPAs were 15.8% of loans for
the banking sector, which nosedived to 2.4% in 2008. This figure stands at 2.94% of loans in
2012. In absolute figures, NPAs have doubled from 2009 to 2012 and assets under
reconstruction had trebled during the same period. India’s biggest lender, State Bank of India,
is experiencing an NPA level of 4.99% of total loans. According to a recently published
Credit Suisse Group AG report, 10 large industrial houses account for 13% of total assets
financed by the Banking system, which means that bank lending is getting increasingly
skewed. Further, of the total reconstructed assets, 8.24% belong to the large manufacturing
sector, 3.99% are from the services sector while 1.45% are from the agricultural sector.

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(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, May - August 2013 © IAEME

Meaning of NPA
         Loan /lease that is not meeting its stated principal and interest payments. Banks
usually classify as nonperforming assets any commercial loans which are more than 90 days
overdue and any consumer loans which are more than 180 days overdue. More generally, and
is not producing income.
In India, an asset is classified as a Non-Performing Asset (NPA) if interest or instalments of
principal due remain unpaid for more than 180 days. However, with effect from March 2004,
default status would be given to a borrower if dues are not paid for 90 days. If any advance or
credit facilities granted by a bank to a borrower become non-performing, then the bank will
have to treat all the advances/credit facilities granted to that borrower as non-performing
without having any regard to the fact that there may still exist certain advances/credit
facilities having performing status.

 Definition of NPA
        A non-performing asset (NPA) was defined as a credit facility in respect of which the
interest and or installment of principle has remained past due for a specific period of time.
An amount due under any credit facility is treated as past due, when it has not been paid
within 30 days from the due date. Due to improvement in the payment and settlement
systems, recovery climate, up gradation of technology in the banking system, etc. it was
decided to dispense with past due concept, with effect from March 31, 2001. Accordingly as
from that date a non-performing asset (NPA) shall be an advance where:
1. Interest and or installment of principal remain over due for a period of more than 180 days
in respect of a term loan.
2. The account remains out of order for a period of more than 180 days, in respect of an
overdraft/cash credit.
3. The bill remains overdue for a period of more than 180 days in the case of bills purchased
and discounted.
4. Interest and or installment or principal remains over due for harvest seasons but for a
Period not exceeding two half years in the case of an advance granted for agricultural
purpose.

Definition given by the Narasimham Committee
        The Committee has defined Non-performing assets as an advance where as on the
date of Balance e sheet:
1. In respect of terms loans, interest remains past due for s period of more than 90 days.
2. Overdrafts and cash credits accounts remain out of order for more than 90 days.
3. Bills purchased and discounted remain over due and unpaid for period of more than 90
Days.
An amount is considered past due when it remains outstanding for 30 days and beyond the
due date.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Statement of the Problem
       The main motto of co-operative banks is to serve the weaker section of the people by
providing loans and advances for the upliftment of the weaker section of the society now
days the borrowers are not repaying the amount to the co-operative banks regularly as per the
due dates; it is affecting the performance of the banks. As per the new banking regulation if


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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, May - August 2013 © IAEME

the borrower not paid the principle and interest amount within 90 days it is to be considered
as Non Performing Assets.
       The research gaps and relevant questions which strike the mind during observation of
various studies on non- performing assets that, what are the reasons for the assets becoming
non- Performing assets and what is its impact on performance of Karnataka State co-
operative Apex Limited. Hence there arises a need to address the aforesaid questions.

Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are to,
1) Understand the concept of Non-performing assets (NPA) of Apex bank
2) Study the general reasons for assets to become Non-performing assets.
3) Study the impact of Non-performing assets on Apex bank Ltd.
4) Study the measures taken by Apex bank to reduce Non-performing assets.
5) Offer suggestions based on findings of the study in Apex Bank.

Scope of the Study
The present study of Non-performing assets is confined and restricted to the boundary of
Karnataka State Co-operative Apex bank Ltd. And data will be analyzed as provided by Apex
bank Ltd.
Data Collection:
The data collected from the study is divided as
Primary data: The primary data will be obtained through interaction with the officers of the
Karnataka State Co-operative Apex bank Ltd, documents and records of Apex Bank about the
reasons becoming Non- performing.
Secondary data: secondary data will be collected from Annual reports and audited reports
of Apex bank, financial magazines, Journals, text books and websites, RBI/ IBA bulletins etc.
Tools of Data Analysis:
The data collected from the primary and secondary sources relating to NPAs has been
analyzed and tabulated and drawn the appropriate tables. Interpretations were made based on
tables. The collected data were classified and tabulated and analyzed with some of the
statistical tools used as per the requirement of the study like
    • Graphical representation and
    • Ratio analysis

Limitations of the Study:
1) The study is based on the data given by the officials and reports of the bank.
2) The study is based only on NPA section of the bank.
3) The solutions are not applicable to every bank.
4) Due to time constraint depth analysis could not be made.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

   1. Sub-standard assets
The following table shows the percentage change in sub-standard assets to Gross NPA at
KSCAB Ltd.
                              Sub-standard assets
 Sub-standard assets (%) =                          *100
                                  Gross NPA


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                                          TABLE NO. 1
                                                                             (Rs In lakhs)
    Sl.No        Year            Sub
                                 Sub-Standard                Gross NPA                Standard
                                                                                 Sub-Standard
                                    Assets                                       Assets (In %)



       1       2007-08                 9074.82                20895.3               43.43
       2       2008-09                 6438.28                 19202                33.52
       3       2009-10                 3823.42                14808.1               25.81
       4      2010-2011                9670.49                17512.4               55.22

       5      2011-2012                16057.5                26437.3               60.73


Analysis
                                                                       sub standard
        The above table depicts that, there was noticeably diminishing sub-standard assets
                         10,                   11
from 2007 -08 to 2009-10, whereas in 2010 -11 it raised to 55.22%. Again it amplified
further to 60.73% in 2011-12.

                                   sub
Graph showing percentage change in sub-standard assets to Gross NPA given at KSCAB Ltd.

                                          GRAPH NO.1


                                       SUB-STANDARD ASSETS
                        80
                        60     43.43                      55.52     60.73
                        40              33.52
                                                 25.81
                         20
                          0
                              2007 2008-09
                              2007-08
                                           2009-10       2010-11
                                                                   2011-12

                                        SUB-STANDARD ASSETS



Interpretation
                                      sub-standard
        The above graph reveals the sub standard assets in percentage wise. We can observe
              08                                                                      2008-09
that, in 2007-08 sub standard assets was 43.43%, progressively it was decreased in 2008
                                                             co operative
with percentage of 33.52 , with good recovery policy of co-operative bank, 2009  2009-10 sub-
standard assets condensed to 25.81%. But bank unable to continue the recovery policy in
efficient manner with result of that we can view that sub standard assets increased to 55.52%
                     12      2012
and 60.73% in 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively.



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   2. Doubtful Assets

     The following table shows the percentage change in doubtful assets to gross NPA.

                                                 doubtful assets
              Doubtful assets (%)        =                           *100
                                                   Gross NPA

                                          TABLE NO -2
                                                                   (Rs. In lakhs)
           SL.NO         Year        Doubtful            Gross        Doubtful Assets
                                      Assets             NPA                (In %)
              1         2007-08       11273.7           20895.3               53.95
              2         2008-09       12358.9            19202                64.36
              3         2009-10       10648.2           14808.1               71.91
              4         2010-11       7478.44           17512.4               42.7
              5         2011-12       9474.95           26437.3               35.83

ANALYSIS

                                                                                   2007
       The above table exhibits that the doubtful assets increased noticeably from 2007-08,
                 10
2008-09 and 2009-10 with percentage of 53.95%, 64.36%, and 71.91% respectively. Because
                                                                     2010 11
of good management recovery policy, doubtful assets decreased in 2010-11 and 2001120011-12
                        respectively.
with 42.70% and 35.83% respectively

Graph showing percentage change in doubtful assets to gross NPA.

                                          GRAPH NO – 2

                                DOUBTFUL ASSETS
          80.00%

          60.00%

          40.00%                              71.91%
                                64.36%
                    53.95%
          20.00%                                         42.70%     35.83%
           0.00%
                    2007-08     2008
                                2008-09       2009-10   2010-11     2011-12

                                             DOUBTFUL ASSETS


Interpretation
                                                                                    2007-08,
        The above graph shows that doubtful assets are increasing noticeably from 2007
                     10
2008-09 and 2009-10 with 53.95%, 64.36%, and 71.91% respectively. And bank took
appropriate measures to reduce doubtful assets; as a result we can also see t  that doubtful
                                  2010
assets are decreased to 42.70% in 2010-11 and 35.83% in 2011-12.

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3. LOSS OF ASSETS

The following table shows the percentage change in loss assets to gross NPA.

                        loss assets
 Loss assets (%) =                      * 100
                       Gross NPA

                                        TABLE NO -3
              SL.NO            Year        Loss     Gross NPA              Loss
                                          Assets                         Assets (In
                                                                            %)
                 1            2007
                              2007-08      546.77        20895.3           2.61
                 2            2008
                              2008-09      404.82         19202             2.1
                 3            2009
                              2009-10      336.52        14808.1           2.27
                 4            2010
                              2010-11      363.47        17512.4           2.07
                 5            2011
                              2011-12      904.88        26437.3           3.42

Analysis
        The above table reveals that the loss assets of Apex bank was decreasing considerably
           08                            2008                       10
from 2007-08 with percentage of 2.61, 2008-09 with 2.10%, 2009-10 with 2.27% and 2010  2010-
                                                           2011 12
11 with 2.07% but the loss of assets was increased in 2011-12 with percentage of 3.42%,
because bank management fail to take appropriate decisions at a right time to reduce the loss
of assets.

Graph shows the percentage change in loss assets to gross NPA

                                        GRAPH NO.3

                                        LOSS ASSETS
                      4.00%
                      2.00%                                      3.42%
                                2.61%   2.10%    2.27%   2.07%
                      0.00%
                               2007
                               2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

                                           LOSS ASSETS



Interpretation
                                                                    2007 08
        The above graph reveals the loss assets to Apex bank. In 2007-08 the loss assets of
apex bank was 2.61%. In 2008                                                   10
                              2008-09 it decreased to 2.10% and in 2009-10 it increased
                                                                         time.
marginally to 2.27% because bank fails to take proper decisions at right time. In order reduce
the loss of assets the bank have taken appropriate decision i.e. bank adopted SARFAESI act
                                                                   2010 11
to reduce the loss in assets as a result it is reduced to 2.07% in 2010-11 But the decisions
                                                   2011
taken by Bank did not serve the purpose in 2011-12 because of which loss of assets
increased to 3.42%.


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4. RATIO OF GROSS NPA TO TATAL ADVANCES

       The table shows the percentage change in Gross NPA to total advances at the KSCAB
Limited
                                            Gross NPA
             Gross NPA Ratio (%) =                             *100
                                           Total advances

                                     TABLE NO. 4
           SL.NO           Year      Gross NPA Total Advances                  Gross
                                                                              NPA (In
                                                                                %)
              1                08
                          2007-08      20895.3              280484              7.44
              2                09
                          2008-09       19202               349255              5.49
              3                10
                          2009-10      14808.1              314628              4.7
              4                11
                          2010-11      17512.4              406284              4.31
              5                12
                          2011-12      26437.3              538151              4.91

Analysis
        The above table reveals the gross NPA of Apex bank. Gross NPA reduced step by
                          08               2010-11
step from 7.44% in 2007-08 to 4.31% in 2010 11 progressively, but slightly increased to
4.91% in 2011-12

Graph shows the percentage change in Gross NPA to total advances at the KSCAB ltd..,

                                      GRAPH NO.4
                              Gross NPA in total advances
                            7.44%
                  8.00%
                                     5.49%                            4.91%
                  6.00%                             4.70%   4.31%
                  4.00%
                  2.00%
                  0.00%
                                08
                           2007-08   2008-09    2009-10     2010-11   2011-12

                                             Gross NPA



Interpretation
                                                                          2007-08 to 2011-
       The above graph reveals the total gross NPA in total advances from 2007
                                                                                      2007-
12. The total gross NPA gradually reduced because of good credit appraisal policy. In 2007
                                                                       educed
08 the gross NPA was 7.44% over its total advances. In 2008-09 it reduced to 5.49%, in
                                             2010 11
2009-10 it further reduced to 4.70% and in 2010-11 it got further reduced to 4.31% but in
     12
2011-12 it increased marginally to 4.91% over its total advances.



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5. NPA IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR

        The percentage change in NPA in Agriculture sector to total advances in Agriculture
sector at KSCAB Ltd is given in the following table

                                           TABLE NO – 5

            SL.NO              Year          NPA (Rs in            Total            NPA (in
                                               lakhs)           advance (Rs           %)
                                                                 in lakhs)
                 1            2007-08             5117.88           209012             2.44
                 2            2008-09             4765.47           272614             1.74
                 3            2009-10                0              226798              0
                 4            2010-11                0              269925               0
                 5            2011-12                0              380227              0

Analysis
       The percentage of NPA to total advance in Agriculture sector is showing as increasing
                                     2007-08 and 2008-09 and there is no NPA in the financial
trend only during the financial year 2007              09
                     11      2011-2012. It was completely recovered by the bank and it is
year 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011
noticed that all farmers who took the advances, paid very promptly to the bank within due
date. The above results reveal the effort has been taken to control NPA in agriculture sector
advances.

                                           GRAPH NO – 5
                                      NPA IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR
            3
            2
             1
             0
                     2007-08 2008-09                                             NPA (in %)
                                        2009-10
                                                     2010-11
                                                                    2011-12

                            2007-08       2008-09         2009-10      2010-11            12
                                                                                     2011-12
            NPA (in %)       2.44          1.74             0             0             0



Interpretation
                                                                                     2007-08
        The above chart reveals the NPA in agriculture sector to total advances from 2007
         12.
to 2011-12. The NPA control in agriculture is good, it reduced year by year. The specific
                                                               to
findings of the study are that, the bank took proper measure to monitor NPA in agriculture
sector.



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6. NPA IN SUGAR SECTOR

      The percentage change in NPA in sugar sector to total advance given in sugar sector
at KSCAB ltd.

                                          TABLE NO: 6
           SL.NO               Year       NPA (Rs in  Total advance                  NPA (in
                                            lakhs)    (Rs in lakhs)                    %)


              1                 08
                           2007-08          12711.8                 19627.1              64.76
              2                 09
                           2008-09           11501                  18693.5              61.52
              3                 10
                           2009-10          10755.5                 20039.5              53.67
              4                 11
                           2010-11          7511.39                 23489.1              31.97
              5                 12
                           2011-12          7392.35                 21936.8              33.09

Analysis
        The percentage of NPA to total advance in Sugar sector is shows increasing trend in
                         08, 2008                 10.
the financial years 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10. But slightly decreased during the years
                    12.
2010-11 and 2011-12. The above results reveal the efforts taken to control NPA in Sugar
sector advances were more effective in the first three years.

The percentage change in NPA in sugar sector to total advance given in sugar sector at
                    ge
KSCAB ltd is represented in the following graph.

                                          GRAPH NO – 6

                                NPA IN SUGAR SECTOR
               80       64.76     61.52
               60                         53.67
               40                                       31.97
                20                                                 33.09
                 0
                     2007-08 2008                                             NPA (in %)
                             2008-09 2009-10
                                                    2010-11
                                                                  2011-12


                                2007-08
                                2007      2008-09       2009-10     2010-11    2011-12
                  NPA (in %)     64.76     61.52          53.67      31.97       33.09



Interpretation
        The above graph reveals decreasing trend in NPA in Sugar sector to total advances
                        11                          2011 12.
from 2007-08 to 2010-11 and marginal increase in 2011-12. However, the NPA in Sugar
sector shows that is more than 30% of the total credit given, it indicates dangerous signal.
Hence the bank has to take proper measure to monitor NPA in Sugar sector in time.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
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    PA
7. NPA IN OTHER SECTORS

        The percentage change in NPA in other sector (other than Agriculture and sugar) to
total advance given by KSCAB ltd.

                                           TABLE NO – 7
           SL.NO            Year            NPA (Rs in     Total               NPA (in
                                              lakhs)    advance (Rs              %)
                                                         in lakhs)
              1                08
                          2007-08            3065.61            51844.1             5.91
              2                09
                          2008-09            2935.5             57946.8             5.06
              3                10
                          2009-10            3847.08            67790.8             5.67
              4                11
                          2010-11             10001             112869              8.86
              5                12
                          2011-12            19044.9            135684              14.03

Analysis
        The percentage of the total NPA in other sector to total credit given shows the
                                              2007-08, 2008-09 and thereafter ,it shows
decreasing trend during the financial year 2007              09
                                  2009
increasing trend during the years 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12.

                                                      advances
The percentage change in NPA in other sector to total advances given in other sector at
KSCAB ltd

                                           GRAPH NO - 7
                                    NPA IN OTHER SECTOR
                          16
                          14
                          12
                          10
                           8
                           6
                           4
                           2
                           0
                                 2007
                                 2007-08    2008-09   2009-10   2010-11   2011-12
                    NPA (in %)    5.91       5.06      5.67      8.86      14.03




Interpretation
        The above graph reveals the NPA in other sector to total advances is decreasing from
                   09.
2007-08 to 2008-09. And thereafter, there is step increase in the following four years
indicates unsafe/ dangerous signal. Hence bank has to take proper measure to monitor NPA
in other sector.



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FINDINGS, SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSIONS
FINDINGS
Following are the findings of the study on Karnataka State Co-operative Apex Bank Ltd.
    1. The Non-performing Assets of the bank stood at Rs. 26437.29 lakhs as on 31-03-2012
       as against Rs.17512.50 lakhs as on 31-03-2011. As on 31-03-2012 NPA is 4.91%.
    2. In respect of agriculture loans, the percentage of recovery as on 31-03-2012 was
       100%. For the corresponding period of the previous year also recovery percentage
       stood at 100%.
    3. The total advance given to sugar sector is very less compared to agriculture sector.
       But total NPA in sugar sector is very high compared to agriculture sector. Advances
       given to the sugar sector in which more than 30% has become NPA.
    4. Based on the observation in 2007-08 Sub standard asset was 43.43%, progressively it
       was decreased in 2008-09 with percentage of 33.52, with good recovery policy of co-
       operative bank, 2009-10 Sub standard assets condensed to 25.81%.
    5. The percentage of total NPA in other sector has continuously increasing trend during
       the year 2009-2011, and as on 31-03-2012 it was increased at 3.54%.
    6. The specific findings from the study are that, there is still a need to have controlling
       devices to monitor NPA system in the Karnataka State Co-operative Apex Bank Ltd.
SUGGESTIONS
       To control the Non–performing assets in Karnataka State Co-operative Apex Bank
Limited, some remedial measures are suggested as follows:
   1. There must be an effective and regular follow-up with the customers and need to
       watch is there any diversion of funds. This process can be taken up at regular
       intervals.
   2. A number of personal visits after sanction and disbursal of credit and close
       monitoring of the operations of the accounts of borrowed units.
   3. Between the Bankers – borrower a healthy relationship should be developed. Many
       instances reported that the banks uses force in recovery of loans, which is unethical.
   4. Managers in charge of non-performing assets should have dynamism and seal in their
       work.
   5. Frequent discussions with the staff in the branch and taking their suggestions for
       recovery of NPAs make them feel responsible.
   6. Assisting the borrowers in developing his/her entrepreneurial skill will not only
       establish a good relation between the borrowers but also help the bankers to keep a
       track of their funds.
   7. RBI need to take necessary actions against defaulters like, publishing names of
       defaulters in News papers, broad-casting media, which is helpful to other banks and
       financial institutions.
   8. Create awareness among the customers and staff about the effect of Non –performing
       assets on the performance of the banks and ultimate on the customers.
   9. The bank has to take care of recovery management in sugar and other sector.
   10. The bank should avoid the wrong selection of borrowers. The staff must be
       additionally trained to assess the borrower efficiency by proper credit appraisal.
   11. Quality of advances can be improved by using the tools and techniques of credit
       appraisal and applying the same effectively.
   12. Establish special task force for the recovery of dues, which have fallen under the
       category of Non –performing assets.

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     13. The bank should fully understand the borrowers’ financial position before issuing
         loans.
     14. The manager must take actions of recovery of loans and advances within a specified
         time frame with rational decisions.

CONCLUSION
        Finally we can conclude that the Apex bank can avoid sanctioning loans to the non
creditworthy borrowers by adopting certain measures. They are careful appraisal of the
project which involves checking the economic capability of the project.
        Apex banker must consider the homecoming on investment on a proposed project. If
the calculated return is sufficiently higher than the credit amount he can sanction the loan.
Secondly, banker can constantly monitor the borrower in order to ensure that the amount
sanctioned is utilized properly for the purpose to which it has been sanctioned. This involves
the post sanction inspection by the Apex bank.
        Thirdly, the banker should get both the formal and informal reports about the
goodwill of the customer. If he had already proven as a defaulter then there is no question of
sanctioning loan to him.
        Fourthly, the banker also has to educate the borrowers regarding the effects and
consequences of defaulting. By considering all the above factors the banker can reduce the
non-performing assets in a bank. .
        The use of technology like Core Banking Solutions in Apex bank should make more
reachable to all borrowers.
        At last the problem of NPAs has been a major issue for the banking industry. The RBI
which is the apex body for controlling level of non-performing assets have been giving
guidelines and getting norms for the banks in order to control the incidents of faults.
Reduction of NPAs in banking sector should be treated as national priority item to make the
Indian Banking system more strong, vibrant and geared to meet the challenges of
globalization

REFERENCES
1.    Aggarwal, S., & Mittal, P. (2012). Non-Performing Asset: Comparative Position of
      Public and Private Sector Banks in India, International Journal of Business and
      Management Tomorrow, Vol.2 (1).
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      and their Macro Economic Effects, IMF Working Paper series, WP/10/224.

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7.    Fainstein, G. (2011). The Comparative Analysis of Credit Risk Determinants - In the
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      at: http:// www. mbaknol. com [Accessed 20thDec 2011]
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      Loans by the Indian Public Sector Banks,
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      Indian Public Sector Banks, APJRBM Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2010.
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      Development Panorama, Vol. 1(2), 9 -22
18.   Prof. G. V. Bhavani Prasad; D. Veena (2011), “NPAS in indian banking sector- trends
      and issues,”Volume 1, Issue 9.
19.   Reserve Bank of India, Report on Trend and Progress of banking in India, Various
      issues, Bombay, India. Reserve Bank of India (2010), Trend and Progress of Banking in
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      Issue 3, 2013, pp. 1 - 7, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.

BOOKS
    Prof. H.R. Appannaiah, Dr .P.N. Reddy, Vijayendra .S (2010) Law and practice of
    banking, Himalaya publishing House.
    Jagroop Singh (2011). Law and practice of Banking, Kalyani Publishers.

WEBSITES
    http://www.karnatakaapex.com
    http://www.ebsco.com


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