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Achieving A Total Safety Culture - Charlotte Regional Safety

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Achieving A Total Safety Culture - Charlotte Regional Safety Powered By Docstoc
					Making Safety A Culture,
 Not Just an Initiative
     Sherry R. Perdue, Ph.D.
          Safety Performance Solutions
610 N. Main Street Suite 228 Blacksburg, VA 24060
           www.safetyperformance.com
                   (540) 951-7233
                      A TSC Requires A Shift From
                     Dependence to Interdependence.
Safety Achievement




                                                                                                Interdependence


                                                               Independence                                              Leading
                                                                                           Succeeding
                            Dependence
                                                        Improving
                         Beginning
                     1                                     2                                    3                                    4
                         Dependence:                                Independence:                       Interdependence:
                         • Top-Down                                 • Bottom-Up                         • Empowerment
                         • Condition of Employment                  • Personal Commitment               • Team Commitment
                         • Safety for OSHA                          • Safety for Self                   • Safety for Others
                         • Disincentives for Outcomes               • Incentives for Outcomes           • Recognition for Behavior
                         • Environment Focused                      • Behavior Focused                  • Env./Beh./Person
                         • Fault Finding                            • Fact Finding                      • Systems Thinking
                         • Safety is Important                      • Safety is Priority                • Safety is a Value
                         • Quick Fix                                • Eventual Fix                      • Continuous Improvement         2
              A Total Safety Culture
             Has Four Characteristics.
Ø Safety is held as a value by all employees.
Ø Each individual feels responsible for the safety of their coworkers
    as well as themselves.
Ø Each individual is willing and able to “go beyond the call of duty”
    on behalf of the safety of others.
Ø Each individual routinely performs actively caring and/or safety
    behaviors for the benefit of others.




                                                                        3
     Values, Intentions, and
Behaviors Aren’t Always Consistent.
 “Employees should ...
  “I am willing to ...
   “I do ...       ...caution coworkers when observing
                   them perform at-risk behaviors.”
                               100
           Percent Agreement




                               80

                               60

                               40

                               20

                                0
                                      Values    Intentions   Behaviors
                                     (Should)    (Willing)     (Do)
                                                                         4
         A TSC Requires
Continual Attention to Three Areas.

      PERSON                                               ENVIRONMENT
Knowledge, Skills, Abilities,                            Equipment, Tools, Machines,
  Intelligence, Motives,          SAFETY                   Housekeeping, Climate,
   Attitude, Personality                                    Management Systems
                                 CULTURE


                                 BEHAVIOR
               Putting on PPE, Lifting properly, Following procedures,
                        Locking out power, Cleaning up spills,
                          Sweeping floors, Coaching peers



                                                                                       5
        Actively Caring Is
Influenced by Five Person States.
                       Self-Effectiveness
                            “I can do it”


 Personal Control                               Optimism
   “I am in control”            Actively        “I expect the best”
                                Caring


            Self-Esteem                     Belonging
        “I care about myself”         “I care about my team”



                                                                      6
  “The very things that got us here
       may be the same things
that hold us back from getting better.”




                                          7
   A ‘Call to           Establish         Develop
                                                            Align Safety          Total
    Arms’              Expectations        Safety
                                                             Systems
                                         Leadership
                                                                                 Safety
   - Assess safety      - Make safety                      - Develop & improve
       culture            everyone’s     - Improve the
                                              ability        systems using a     Culture
-- Create a sense of    responsibility                    ‘people-based’ focus
       urgency                            of leaders to
                                          drive safety




                                                                                     8
                       A “Call to Arms”

   A ‘Call to           Establish         Develop
                                                            Align Safety          Total
    Arms’              Expectations        Safety
                                                             Systems
                                         Leadership
                                                                                 Safety
   - Assess safety      - Make safety                      - Develop & improve
       culture            everyone’s     - Improve the
                                              ability        systems using a     Culture
-- Create a sense of    responsibility                    ‘people-based’ focus
       urgency                            of leaders to
                                          drive safety




                                                                                     9
  A Safety Culture Survey Measures
       Employee Perceptions.
-Perceptions are “reality”
- Although perceptions may be incorrect, they drive
  behaviors and establish the culture.




                                                      10
       A Safety Culture Survey (SCS)
         Serves Several Purposes.
Ø Identifies strengths and weaknesses in current safety systems
  to help identify and prioritize areas of focus.
Ø Provides a means to compare performance against a
  benchmark.
   ² External (overall, industry)
   ² Internal (cross-department, cross-facilities, oneself over time)

Ø Provides a performance metric of improvement initiatives
  (through repeated administration).


                                                                        11
      A SCS Provides Many Benefits.
Ø Provides a proactive measure (v. trailing indicators such as injury stats,
   workers’ comp costs and regulatory penalties)
Ø Provides a gap analysis, differentiating perceptions of management and
   employees
Ø Provides information to effectively set budget priorities and allocate
   limited funds (and avoid the shotgun approach)
Ø Opens lines of communication
Ø Enhances employee support for change (employees more likely to
   support change that’s based on their input and recommendations)
Ø Address requirements for employee involvement and annual program
   evaluations mandated by OSHA VPP

                                                                               12
      A SCS Has Benefits Over Other
       Information Gathering Tools.
Ø Gathers information from all or a representative sample.
   ² Committees, suggestion systems, and even interviews favor the vocal
     minority
   ² Results in better information, as well as “empowered” workforce.

Ø Gathers sensitive information from employees in a confidential
  manner (thus encouraging more frank, candid comments).
Ø Relatively quick, easy, and cost-effective.



                                                                      13
              A SCS Should Measure
              A Wide Variety of Issues.
Ø Management Support for Safety
  ² Genuine interest in reducing injuries (v. “keeping the numbers low”)
  ² Willingness to invest resources (i.e., time and money)
  ² Ability to balance safety with other KPI’s (e.g., productivity, schedule)


Ø Peer Support for Safety
   (“Interdependence” or “Actively Caring”)
Ø Personal Responsibility for Safety


                                                                            14
            A SCS Should Measure
            A Wide Variety of Issues.
Ø Safety Management Systems, including:
   ² Incident Reporting & Investigation
   ² Discipline
   ² Rewards & Recognition
   ² Communication
   ² Safety Accountability
   ² Training
   ² Behavior-based Observation & Feedback process
   ² Employee Involvement
   ² Facilities Audits & Inspections


                                                     15
 When Interpreting the Data, Consider These
   Particularly Interesting Comparisons.



                                 Organization
                                 vs. Time
                                 vs. Norm

    Wage
                                  Wage vs. Salary
     Mgt.
                                  vs. Wage Norm
 Mgt Norm
                                  vs. Mgt. Norm
Wage Norm


                                                16
  When Interpreting the Data, Consider These
    Particularly Interesting Comparisons.
Ø Look at the patterns shown by ‘sets’ of items:
   ² Employees should give feedback to peers for at-risk behavior…
   ² I’m willing to give feedback to peers…
   ² I do give feedback to peers…




                                                                     17
  When Interpreting the Data, Consider These
    Particularly Interesting Comparisons.
Ø Look at the patterns shown by ‘sets’ of items:
   ² Production demands don’t override Managers’ concern for safety.
             Organization




   ² Production demands don’t override Supervisors’ concern for safety.


             Organization




                                                                          18
  Following the Analysis, Leadership Must
      Set a Clear Agenda for Change.
Ø A clear vision (what the desired culture will be like) and
  objectives
Ø Agreement of the steps that must be taken

Ø A leadership team that is unified, energized, and prepared to
  lead the change
Ø A communication strategy to ensure that the message is
  consistent across the organization


                                                                  19
                   Establish Expectations

   A ‘Call to           Establish         Develop
                                                            Align Safety          Total
    Arms’              Expectations        Safety
                                                             Systems
                                         Leadership
                                                                                 Safety
   - Assess safety      - Make safety                      - Develop & improve
       culture            everyone’s     - Improve the
                                              ability        systems using a     Culture
-- Create a sense of    responsibility                    ‘people-based’ focus
       urgency                            of leaders to
                                          drive safety




                                                                                     20
     Poorly Defined Expectations
      Result In Two Problems.

Ø Leaders don’t always understand what they can
  and should do to support safety.
Ø The organization doesn’t recognize or reward
  those who perform well or help develop those who
  do not.
Ø “What Gets Measured Gets Done”.


                                                     21
          SCS Results Often Reveal
       Low Supervisor Support for Safety.
“Supervisors sometimes encourage employees to overlook hazards to get
   the job done.”


“Employees are given feedback by supervisors if they are observed working
  unsafely.”

“I am encouraged to stop a job is a safety hazard is identified.”


“Work productivity and quality usually have a higher priority than work
  safety.”

                                                                          22
Further Study Often Reveals Supervisors Have
    Poorly-Defined Safety Responsibilities.

Ø “Give monthly safety meeting talk”.
Ø “Make sure everybody’s wearing their PPE”.
Ø “Stop an employee if you see them breaking a safety rule”.
Ø “Send people to training when required”.
Ø “Help new employees or transfers learn the safety rules”.

Ø “Keep the injury rate in your group as low as
  possible.”
                                                               23
           Use Three Steps to Develop
           Supervisor Accountabilities.
Ø Step 1: Skill Set Development and Endorsement
   ² A representative team develops a list of items describing how
      supervisors can be “TSC Change Agents”.
   ² The list is reviewed, modified, and endorsed by the Senior
      Management Team as expectations for job performance.


Ø Step 2: Skill Set Communication and Training


Ø Step 3: Performance Support and Evaluation
                                                                     24
    The Skill Set Typically Contains
          Many Categories.
u   Support and reward employee participation in safety activities.
u   Set safety goals and expectations with employees.
u   Provide regular formal and informal safety performance feedback.
u   Model appropriate safety-related behaviors.
u   Solicit and encourage employee input on safety-related matters.
u   Demonstrate fact-finding rather than fault-finding for safety concerns.
u   Communicate safety-related information, focusing on process measures, to
    employees regularly.
u   Show visible support for safety policies, rules, procedures, and regulations
    (regardless of personal opinion).
u   Demonstrate appropriate balance between safety and other performance
    measures.
u   Focus on safety processes rather than outcomes.
u   Foster teamwork within the group.
                                                                                   25
   Each Category Should be Defined in
    Objective, Observable, Behaviors.
A. Support and reward employee participation in safety activities
Ø Behavioral Observation and Feedback Process (BOFP)
   ²   Work with BOFP committee member(s) to establish goals for your group.
   ²   Schedule time for observations every week.
   ²   Allow/encourage BOFP meetings.
   ²   Participate in (or lead) ABC analyses.
   ²   Request BOFP observations for specific operations or jobs and during
       outages or turnarounds.
   ²   Request BOFP observations be performed on you.
   ²   Review (or ask BOFP participant to review) BOFP progress reports at
       monthly safety meetings.
   ²   Recognize individual contributions toward BOFP (privately and publicly).
   ²   Recognize overall BOFP process accomplishments.
   ²   Keep up-to-date on pertinent BOFP data, including:
        Group members who are trained observers.

                                                                                  26
Use Three Steps to Develop Supervisor
          Accountabilities.
Ø Step 1: Skill Set Development and Endorsement
   ² A diagonal cross-sectional team developed a list of items (skill set)
     describing the ways FLSs can be “TSC Change Agents”.
   ² The list was reviewed, modified, and endorsed by the Senior
     Management Team as expectations for job performance.


Ø Step 2: Skill Set Communication and Training


Ø Step 3: Performance Support and Evaluation
                                                                             27
     Employee Engagement is Critical to
             Achieve a TSC.
Ø Employees know about unsafe conditions.
Ø Employees know when and where the at-risk behaviors occur.
Ø Employees know more about peers’ feelings, attitudes, and
  emotions which may impact safety.
Ø Employees are in the best position to use the behavior-change
  strategies on a daily basis.
Ø Peer support (“peer pressure”) is an extremely powerful motivator.
Ø Participation fosters ownership.


                                                                       28
Involvement Increases the Generalization
           of Safe Behavior.

                                Behavior
                            Target     Other
  Two Groups




                Involved    Increase   Increase


               Uninvolved                No
                            Increase
                                       Change*

                                                  29
Employees Should Contribute In Ways that
    Match Their Skills and Interests.
 ²Conducting a VHS Audit
 ²An individual achieving a “positive score” on a VHS audit
 ²A department achieving an average “positive score” on a VHS audit
 ²Achieving a positive grade on “Company Safety Directives”
 ²Attending a optional safety meeting or safety training
 ²Serving on a safety committee
 ²Passing a “knowledge check” after training
 ²Answering a series of questions correctly during a “Knowledge Check Audit”
 ²Leading a group safety meeting
 ²Conducting or reviewing a JSA, JHA, or SOP
 ²Participating in an incident investigation
 ²Reporting a “qualifying” near miss or safety suggestion
 ²Average time to safety work order closure
 ²Conducting a safety/housekeeping audit or vehicle inspection
 ²“Score” on a housekeeping audit
 ²Sharing injury/near miss at safety meeting
 ²Completing ‘Defensive Driving” course or EMT/First responder certification
 ²Conducting an Ergonomic job evaluation/modification
                                                                               30
                   Develop Safety Leadership

   A ‘Call to           Establish         Develop
                                                            Align Safety          Total
    Arms’              Expectations        Safety
                                                             Systems
                                         Leadership
                                                                                 Safety
   - Assess safety      - Make safety                      - Develop & improve
       culture            everyone’s     - Improve the
                                              ability        systems using a     Culture
-- Create a sense of    responsibility                    ‘people-based’ focus
       urgency                            of leaders to
                                          drive safety




                                                                                     31
                       Align Safety Systems


   A ‘Call to           Establish         Develop
                                                            Align Safety          Total
    Arms’              Expectations        Safety
                                                             Systems
                                         Leadership
                                                                                 Safety
   - Assess safety      - Make safety                      - Develop & improve
       culture            everyone’s     - Improve the
                                              ability        systems using a     Culture
-- Create a sense of    responsibility                    ‘people-based’ focus
       urgency                            of leaders to
                                          drive safety




                                                                                     32
                   Align Safety Systems
            All systems should accomplish their
                      primary objectives
                 in a way that fosters a TSC.

• Safety-Related Discipline         • Safety Committees
• Audits and Inspections             • Safety Communication
• Incident Reporting and Analysis    • Safety Policies & Procedures
• Observation and Feedback           • Safety Accountability Systems
• Reward and Recognition Systems     • S&H Measurement Systems

                                                                       33
  Case Study 1




 Safety and Health
Measurement System
“Visibility Boards” Are Used to Manage
      Key Performance Indicators.

                Fabrication Department


       ed ule
                                             cie ncy
    Sch                                  Effi

                       Qu ality

        get                                   fety
     Bud                                   Sa

                                                       35
The “Visibility Board” for Safety Contained
         Little Useful Information.

                       Safety
                                   Days Since Last
                                   Lost Time Injury

                                         41
        Monthly Safety Topic: Fall Protection

                                                      36
    Incident Statistics Are Not Sufficient
     Indicators of Safety Performance.
Ø Polluted (influenced by):
   ² At-risk Behaviors and Conditions
   ² Uncontrollable Events
   ² Reporting Practices
   ² Record-Keeping Practices
   ² Medical Management and Return-to-Work Practices

Ø Trailing vs. Leading

Ø Non-diagnostic: tell us how things are going, but do not
   indicate how to improve.
                                                             37
Emphasis on Outcome Measures
 Damages the Safety Culture.
Ø Encourages (and rewards) underreporting.

Ø Fosters a lack of confidence in management’s
  commitment to employee safety.
Ø Stifles employee involvement and personal
  accountability.
Ø Failure oriented: breeds “learned helplessness”.

Ø Precludes system improvements
   ² Fosters a “fix the symptom”, not “fix the system” mentality
   ² Encourages knee-jerk reactions (i.e., tampering)           38
Over-Emphasis on Outcome Measures
  Damages Employee Perceptions.
      With crippled limbs and mangled feet,
          a million man-hours we did meet;
         With records kept such as these,
         we’ll reach a zillion it’ll be a breeze;
       Rewards are for achievements met,
          but we ain’t reached a million yet;
         Their safety program is a sham,
     As for you and me? They don’t give a damn.
              - Hourly employee, Chemical processing plant
                                                             39
       Safety Process
Measures Provide Many Benefits.
 Ø Provide early identification of system
   problems.
 Ø Track genuine change, improvement.
 Ø Identify opportunities for injury prevention.
 Ø Encourage active involvement (engagement).
 Ø Foster sense of personal control.
 Ø Builds self-esteem and group cohesion.
                                                   40
  Safety Metrics Were Chosen To Reflect
  Performance of Key Safety Processes.
Ø Ergonomic job                Ø Safety suggestions / near
   evaluation/modification        miss reporting
Ø Behavioral observation and   Ø Safety training
   feedback
                               Ø Safety meetings
Ø Safety inspections
                               Ø Safety work orders
Ø Incident reporting and
                               Ø Safety committees
   analysis


                                                             41
   Process Measures Should Include
  Quantitative and Qualitative Measures.
Ø Safety Audit Process
Ø Quantitative Measures:
   ² Number of safety audits completed
   ² Percentage of audits involving managers; hourly employees
   ² Number of action items identified; completed
   ² Average time-to-closure on action items

Ø Qualitative Measures:
   ² Accuracy of audits (via second observer reliability)
   ² Significance of issues identified
   ² Effectiveness of solutions implemented                      42
     The New “Visibility
Boards” Are Information Rich.
                                Safety
Processes                   ERGONOMICS
Evaluated   Total Processes # Concerns # AIs in     # AIs      # AIs
#      %    OK      Not OK Identified Progress     Completed   Open
185 100     72% 28%             42         3          32         3

                                  Safety Suggestions                   BBS
Near Miss/Incident Analyses
Total # :      4                  # Received:    18
Closed out:    3 (75%)            # Addressable: 16
Resulting AIs: 11                 # Complete:     11
Closed out:    6 (55%)            # in Progress:   1
Avg Time       17 days            # Open:          4

Other Activities     vs. Goal   Highlighted Activities
Monthly training       74%      ______________________
Safety audit           100%     ______________________
AI Close-out           68%      ______________________
JSA Review             23%      ______________________



                                                                             43
The “Board” Is Reviewed Weekly With
   Management and Employees.




                                  44
       Case Study 2



Incident Investigation System
         Redesign
    Management Questioned the
Effectiveness of their Process Where
   Human Behavior was Involved.
        ?
             Root         ?
            Causes
      ?                       ?
                 ?
                                  46
The Current Process Revealed Several
            Weaknesses.
 Ø Little employee involvement during analysis or follow-up
 Ø No expertise or training provided in Psychology or Human Factors

 Ø No behavior analysis tools used (e.g., ABC Analysis, Task Analysis)
 Ø Root causes identified often included “Employee Action”. Therefore“Counsel
    Employee” or “Discipline Employee” were common.
 Ø Communication was less than adequate
     ² Of the incident
     ² Of the analysis results
     ² Of recommended follow-up actions
     ² Of the completion of follow-up actions

 Ø Generalization of follow-up actions was infrequent.

                                                                                47
  Incomplete Analysis Leads to
      a Feeling of Blame.
“Human Error”
  Implies…

 Incompetent
   Careless
     Lazy
 Unmotivated
  Inattentive
    Clumsy

                                 48
       Survey Results Highlighted A
            Revealing Pattern.
                                    Blame...                        Problem Solving...
          Salaried             45
  who have been involved       40
                               35
  in incident investigations   30
                               25
                               20
                               15
                               10
                                5
                                        Very   Somewhat   Neither   Somewhat   Very


           Hourly              45
  who have been involved       40
                               35
  in incident investigations   30
                               25
                               20
                               15
                               10
                                5
                                        Very   Somewhat   Neither   Somewhat   Very

           Hourly
                               45
who have NOT been involved     40
                               35
  in incident investigations   30
                               25
                               20
                               15
                               10
                                5
                                        Very   Somewhat   Neither   Somewhat   Very


                                                                                         49
        Incomplete Analysis &
          Wrong Conclusions




   Ineffective            Feelings of
Countermeasures             Blame




   Incomplete Information Disclosure


                                        50
     Negative Perceptions Leads to
           Under-Reporting.
Ø 60% of employees think they would be blamed.
Ø 47% believe they or a coworker will be disciplined.
Ø 52% believe the incident would effect them in the
  future.

Ø 60% would not report an incident if they could avoid
  doing so.
                                                        51
The Incident Analysis Process Was
 Redesigned to Meet Two Goals.
Ø Better determine the immediate causes and
  root causes (especially those influencing
  human behavior) which allowed the incident to
  occur so effective counter-measures can be
  taken to reduce future injury risk.

Ø Encourage the full and open participation of all
  employees by eliminating any fault-finding,
  adversarial atmosphere.
                                                     52
     Incident Analysis Team Training
      Focused on Human Elements.
Ø Interviewing strategies and techniques
Ø Factors influencing human performance
   ² Human error
   ² Risky behavior

Ø Analytical investigation techniques
  (including behavior analysis tools)


                                           53
Unsafe Behavior is Often the Result of
        System Influences.
                             At-Risk Behavior

                    Did operator purposefully perform
                            a behavior which
                        s/he knew to be unsafe?


                                 No      Yes
          Human Error                             Risky Behavior


System-Induced      Individual        System-Encouraged   Willful Negligence
 Human Error        Variance               Behavior        Act of sabotage




                                                                       54
                      A TSC Requires A Shift From
                     Dependence to Interdependence.
Safety Achievement




                                                                                                Interdependence


                                                               Independence                                              Leading
                                                                                           Succeeding
                            Dependence
                                                        Improving
                         Beginning
                     1                                     2                                    3                                    4
                         Dependence:                                Independence:                       Interdependence:
                         • Top-Down                                 • Bottom-Up                         • Empowerment
                         • Condition of Employment                  • Personal Commitment               • Team Commitment
                         • Safety for OSHA                          • Safety for Self                   • Safety for Others
                         • Disincentives for Outcomes               • Incentives for Outcomes           • Recognition for Behavior
                         • Environment Focused                      • Behavior Focused                  • Env./Beh./Person
                         • Fault Finding                            • Fact Finding                      • Systems Thinking
                         • Safety is Important                      • Safety is Priority                • Safety is a Value
                         • Quick Fix                                • Eventual Fix                      • Continuous Improvement         55
Questions ??

               56

				
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