13 Colonies Review - TeacherWeb

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					13 Colonies
0 A colony is an area under control by a country and
  occupied by settlers from the Mother Country
0 The Mother Country is the country that “owns” the colony
0 In the era of history we are studying:
        the 13 colonies in North America belonged to the
        Mother Country, England

The Colonial Period in American history: 1607-1776

Settlers came to the 13 colonies for a variety of reasons:
make money, practice their religion freely, to “start over” in
life, etc.
0 The 13 British colonies can be categorized in 3 regions:
  New England, Middle and Southern

0 New England colonial region: Massachusetts, Rhode
  Island, New Hampshire and Connecticut
0 The rocky soil and hilly land of New England made it
  suitable only for small, family farms
0 The growing season was short due to the long, cold winters
0 People in New England worked on small farms, or in the
  lumber, fishing or shipbuilding industries
0 The Middle Colonies included: New York,
  Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware (sometimes
  Maryland gets classified as a middle colony)
0 People from many different European countries (not
  just England) settled in the Middle Colonies
0 Settlers in the Middle Colonies were able to grow a
  variety of crops in the milder weather and raise
0 In addition to farming, people in the Middle Colonies
  worked in the lumber and shipbuilding industries
0 The Southern Colonies included: Maryland, Virginia,
  North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia
0 Fertile soil and a warm, moist climate combined to
  make an ideal setting for growing crops– especially
  cash crops (tobacco, rice, indigo, etc.)
0 Wealthy colonists in the Southern Colonies
  established large farms (plantations) where only 1 or
  2 cash crops were grown
  Main Ideas for 6 of the 13
0 Virginia (southern colony)
v began as the early settlement of Jamestown in 1607
v the success of Jamestown, and later Virginia, was due in
  large part to tobacco (“brown gold”)
v the first African slaves were brought to Jamestown in
  1619 (later there would be slavery in ALL of the 13
  colonies– even the New England colonies)
v the first representative government (land-owning white
  men could elect representatives to run the government)
  was founded in Virginia: the House of Burgesses
vthe famous colonial city of Williamsburg was the capital of
  the Virginia colony
0 Massachusetts (New England colony)
v began as the Plymouth settlement in 1620
v founded by Puritans (the Pilgrims were a type of Puritan)
  – who were seeking to practice their religion freely (they
  wanted to purify the Church of England)
vIronically, Massachusetts did not allow religious freedom–
  the Puritan church was the only allowed church
vSettlers unhappy with Massachusetts broke off to form
  Rhode Island and Connecticut
v the most famous colonial city in Massachusetts: Boston
0 New York (Middle colony)
v this colony was originally founded by the Dutch (people
  from the Netherlands) in 1624
vwhen the Dutch settled it, they named it New Netherland
  and its largest city was called New Amsterdam
vin 1664, the English took over (without having to fire a shot,
  even though they were prepared to do so) and promptly
  renamed the colony New York (after a place in England)
v New York colony was home to people of mainly Dutch and
  English background AND people of various faiths
0 Maryland (Southern/Middle colony)
vfounded by the Calvert family, an English noble family, in
vthe men of the Calvert family were granted the title of Lord
  Baltimore by the King of England (thus, Maryland’s city of
v the Calvert family was Catholic– and because England was
  a Protestant country, they felt they were being treated
vso Lord Calvert got permission from the King to establish a
  colony where there was religious freedom– one of the few
  colonies where Catholics could worship freely
0 Pennsylvania (Middle colony)
v founded by William Penn in 1682
v the King of England owed a debt to Penn’s father AND the King
  disliked Penn because he was not a member of the Church of
  England– but was a member of the Society of Friends (or Quakers)
v Quakers believed in treating all people fairly; they refused to bow
  before the king, pay taxes to the Church of England, or fight in wars
vPenn advertised his colony as a place where people of any faith
  could practice freely– including Quakers
vPenn named his capital city Philadelphia– Greek for “city of
  brotherly love”
vPhiladelphia became one of the most famous colonial cities–
  especially because it is where the Declaration of Independence was
0 Georgia (Southern colony)
v founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe
v the Georgia colony was founded to 1) provide a place for
  debtors to go, rather than to jail (debtor = someone who
  owes money) AND 2) to provide a geographic buffer
  against the Spanish colony of Florida
vOglethorpe tried to impose rules such as no drinking and
  no slaves– but the people of Georgia rejected these ideas
v the Georgia colony became home to people of a variety of
 If you are interested in re-
      taking the quiz…
0 … you may replace your old grade with your new
0 … you must go to my website– under Unit 3– and
  print out a Re-take study guide
0 … you must complete the study guide in your own
0 … you must get a parent signature on the study guide
0 … you must stay after school EITHER Thursday (Dec
  1) or Friday (Dec 2) this week to re-take the quiz

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