United Nations' Peacekeeping Methods - missmarsland by hcj


									United Nations Peacekeeping
1991 Slovenia                                  1992 Bosnia-
declares its                    1995 Bosnia    Herzegovina
independence                    divided into   declares its
                                two entities   independence
                                with central   Civil war
1991 Croatia                    government.    breaks out
declares its                                   between
independence                                   Serbs, Croats
Short war with                                 and Muslims
Serbia                                         till 1995
1991-2                                         2003 Union of
Macedonia        2008
                                               Serbia and
declares its     Kosovo                        Montenegro
independence     declares its                  created from
New name         independence                  Former
agreed on        from Serbia                   Yugoslavia.
after Greek
objections                                     2006
1999 Serbia
                                               declares its
defeated by
NATO in war
                                               from Union.
over Kosovo
        Background to conflict
§ Yugoslavia:
§ Formed post WW1
§ Many of the countries
  did not share the same
  language, culture or
§ After death of
  Communist leader Tito
  different groups tried to
  take control and the area
  moved towards civil war.
       Background to conflict
§ Bosnia:
§ Split between different
  ethnic groups, Bosnia
  Muslims, Serbs and
§ Muslims and Croats voted
  for independence but
  Bosnia Serbs were
  against this.
§ Wars lasted for 3 years
  and many atrocities were
  inflicted on both sides.
               Arms Embargo
§ This prevents the
  selling of weapons to
  people who are at war.
  It stops soldiers getting
  the military equipment
  they need to continue
§ This was used in the
  Bosnian civil war (1992
            Trade Sanctions
§ These prevent a
  country from buying
  goods from and selling
  goods to other
  countries. This
  weakens the country’s
§ Sanctions were used
  against Iraq from 1991
  to 2003.
§ These are called to stop
  fighting between the
  warring groups. They allow
  the people involved in a
  war to calm down and
  think about a peaceful
§ Ceasefires were used in
  the Bosnian civil war to
  stop fighting between
  Serbs, Croats and Muslims.
       Peacekeeping Soldiers
§ These are sent to keep
  the peace between the
  sides involved in a
  war. Peacekeepers
  can also help with the
  distribution of
  humanitarian aid.
§ Peacekeepers were
  used in Bosnia to
  protect aid and people
  living in safe areas.
                Peace Talks
§ These are held to stop
  the fighting. Often
  sides will not get what
  they want and may
  have to compromise to
  reach an agreement.
§ Peace talks were held
  to resolve the conflict
  in Bosnia on four
  different occasions
  between 1992 and
                 Safe Areas
§ These are places
  inside a country where
  people can go to
  escape from a war.
  Safe areas reduce the
  number of refugees
  fleeing to other
§ The UN set up 6 safe
  areas in Bosnia.
             Military Action
§ This may be necessary
  if other peacekeeping
  methods have failed.
  This would involve
  armed forces taking
  action to stop a war.
§ Military action was
  taken against Iraq in
  1991 and 2003.
                                      Oct. 1992 UN forces
  Military Threats                    protected aid conveys

                       UN’s Role in

Trade and diplomatic
                                                Peace Plan
ü The UN can ask member           û The UN can invade a
  countries to stop dealing         country and remove
  arms and munitions with
  countries who are involved
                                    governments from power.
  in conflict                     û The UN can use air
ü The UN can send a                 strikes against a country
  delegation to investigate a       to stop war.
  conflict and then report back   û UN troops can aid one
  to the Security Council.          country in military action
ü The UN can ask member             against another.
  states to stop trading with a   û Some member countries
                                    votes are worth more
ü UN officials can patrol a         than others in the
  ceasefire area between
                                    General Assembly.
  countries which are
  engaged in conflict.
ü UN can provide food aid to
  areas affected by civil war
  or conflict.
ü UN can investigate war

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