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United Nations Conferences on Population & Development Rels 401 / Wmns 411 September 2012 1. World Population Conference; Rome, 31 August to 10 September 1954 2. World Population Conference; Belgrade, 30 August to 10 September 1965 3. World Population Conference; Bucharest, 19 to 30 August 1974 4. International Conference on Population; Mexico City, 6 to 14 August 1984 5. International Conference on Population and Development; Cairo, 5 to 13 September 1994 6. ICPD + 5: General Assembly 21st special session; New York, 30 June to 2 July 1999 7. ICPD + 10: Commission on Population and Development; New York, 22 to 26 March 2004 401/411 appleby 2 1954, Rome earliest fears about a population explosion 1st international conference on population; 455 delegates; social and scientific disciplines study sessions on mortality, fertility trends, migration and immigration, population projections, and demographic statistics no study group on family planning or birth control no resolutions passed International Planned Parenthood Federation established 1952); IPPF had observer status at conference 401/411 appleby 3 1965, Belgrade 815 delegates sessions on population trends, fertility, mortality, population genetics, population and natural resources, demographics, economic growth, education, migration and immigration section on “Studies Relevant to Family Planning” – reports on family planning programs in India (begun in 1955); Pakistan (1960); South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong (1961); Tunisia (1964); Turkey (1965) population growth exceeds economic development high birth rates + lower mortality rates + increased life -spans not matched by economic development 401/411 appleby 4 Pope Paul VI addresses conference If there are too many people and not enough food, we can respond in these ways: 1. increase use of natural resources and provide more food → ecological exploitation 2. invite fewer guests to the banquet of life by birth control, abortion, sterilization → coercion and compulsion of individuals 3. exclude some guests, abandon “hopeless cases” → offence against human dignity; root causes of underdevelopment remain 4. each guest should get along with a smaller portion → address overconsumption and bare subsistence401/411 appleby 5 “You must strive to multiply bread so that it suffices for the tables of mankind, and not rather favor an artificial control of birth, which would be irrational, in order to diminish the number of guests at the banquet of life.” Pope Paul VI 401/411 appleby 6 1968, Tehran Human Rights Conference United Nations Conference on Human Rights: family planning was recognized as a basic human right for all people Pope Paul VI: Humanae vitae encyclical artificial forms of birth control forbidden 401/411 appleby 7 1984, Mexico City endorsed agreements reached at the 1974 conference again emphasized the human rights of individuals and families (including the right to family planning) highlighted conditions of health and well- being focused also on employment and education sessions on population policy decisions 401/411 appleby 8 1994, Cairo more than 180 States participated Programme of Action adopted – for next 20 years emphasis on linking of population issues with economic and resource development but rather than just in the service of demographic goals, respect for the universally recognized human rights standards and needs of individuals commitment to achieving a better quality of life for all individuals 401/411 appleby 9 Cairo Programme of Action http://www.iisd.ca/Cairo/program/p00000.html “While the advances of the last two decades in areas such as increased use of contraception, decreased maternal mortality, implemented sustainable development plans and projects and enhanced education programmes provide a basis for optimism about successful implementation of this programme of action, much remains to be accomplished. “The world as a whole has changed in ways that create important new opportunities for addressing population and development issues.” 401/411 appleby 10 “Among the most significant are the major shifts in attitude among the world's people and their leaders in regard to reproductive health, family planning and population growth, resulting, inter alia, in the new comprehensive concept of reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, as defined in the Programme of Action.” 401/411 appleby 11 Programme of Action of the United Nations ICPD I - Preamble II - Principles III - Interrelationships Betweeen Population, Sustained Economic Growth and Sustainable Development IV - Gender Equality, Equity and Empowerment of Women V - The Family, its Roles, Rights, Composition and Structure VI - Population Growth and Structure VII - Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health VIII - Health, Morbidity and Mortality IX - Population Distribution, Urbanization and Internal Migration X - International Migration XI - Population, Development and Education XII - Technology, Research and Development XIII - National Action XIV - International Cooperation XV - Partnership with the Non-Governmental Sector 401/411 appleby 12 Principles for the Programme of Action 15 principles: 1) Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. 4) Advancing gender equality and equity and the empowerment of women, … the elimination of violence against women, and ensuring women’s ability to control their own fertility, are cornerstones of population and development- related programmes. The human rights of women and the girl-child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights. 401/411 appleby 13 8) Everyone has the right … to universal access to health-care services, including those related to reproductive health care, which includes family planning and sexual health … All couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education and means to do so. 9) The family is the basic unit of society … Marriage must be entered into with the free consent of the intending spouses, and husband and wife should be equal partners. 401/411 appleby 14 ICPD Programme of Action Ch. VII: Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health A. Reproductive rights and reproductive health B. Family planning C. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV prevention D. Human sexuality and gender relations E. Adolescents http://www.iisd.ca/Cairo/program/p07000.html 401/411 appleby 15
"United Nations Conferences on Population _ Development"