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United Nations Conferences on Population _ Development

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					United Nations Conferences on
Population & Development

Rels 401 / Wmns 411
September 2012
1.   World Population Conference; Rome, 31 August to 10
     September 1954
2.   World Population Conference; Belgrade, 30 August to
     10 September 1965
3.   World Population Conference; Bucharest, 19 to 30
     August 1974
4.   International Conference on Population; Mexico City, 6
     to 14 August 1984
5.   International Conference on Population and
     Development; Cairo, 5 to 13 September 1994
6.   ICPD + 5: General Assembly 21st special session;
     New York, 30 June to 2 July 1999
7.   ICPD + 10: Commission on Population and
     Development; New York, 22 to 26 March 2004
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                                  1954, Rome
earliest fears about a population explosion
1st international conference on population; 455
delegates; social and scientific disciplines
study sessions on mortality, fertility trends, migration
and immigration, population projections, and
demographic statistics
no study group on family planning or birth control
no resolutions passed
International Planned Parenthood Federation
established 1952); IPPF had observer status at
conference
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                           1965, Belgrade
815 delegates
sessions on population trends, fertility, mortality,
population genetics, population and natural
resources, demographics, economic growth,
education, migration and immigration
section on “Studies Relevant to Family Planning” –
reports on family planning programs in India (begun
in 1955); Pakistan (1960); South Korea, Taiwan,
Hong Kong (1961); Tunisia (1964); Turkey (1965)
population growth exceeds economic development
high birth rates + lower mortality rates + increased life
-spans not matched by economic development
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     Pope Paul VI addresses conference
If there are too many people and not enough food,
     we can respond in these ways:
1. increase use of natural resources and provide
     more food → ecological exploitation
2. invite fewer guests to the banquet of life by birth
     control, abortion, sterilization → coercion and
     compulsion of individuals
3. exclude some guests, abandon “hopeless
     cases” → offence against human dignity;
     root causes of underdevelopment remain
4. each guest should get along with a smaller
     portion → address overconsumption and
     bare subsistence401/411 appleby                5
“You must strive to multiply bread so
  that it suffices for the tables of
  mankind, and not rather favor an
  artificial control of birth, which
  would be irrational, in order to
  diminish the number of guests at
  the banquet of life.”
                                  Pope Paul VI
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                    1968, Tehran
         Human Rights Conference

United Nations Conference on Human Rights:
  family planning was recognized as a basic
  human right for all people

Pope Paul VI:
  Humanae vitae encyclical
  artificial forms of birth control forbidden
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                 1984, Mexico City
endorsed agreements reached at the 1974
conference
again emphasized the human rights of
individuals and families (including the right to
family planning)
highlighted conditions of health and well-
being
focused also on employment and education
sessions on population policy decisions
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                                      1994, Cairo
more than 180 States participated
Programme of Action adopted – for next 20
years
emphasis on linking of population issues with
economic and resource development
  but rather than just in the service of demographic
  goals, respect for the universally recognized
  human rights standards and needs of individuals
commitment to achieving a better quality of
life for all individuals
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                 Cairo Programme of Action
         http://www.iisd.ca/Cairo/program/p00000.html

“While the advances of the last two decades in areas
  such as increased use of contraception, decreased
  maternal mortality, implemented sustainable
  development plans and projects and enhanced
  education programmes provide a basis for optimism
  about successful implementation of this programme
  of action, much remains to be accomplished.
“The world as a whole has changed in ways that create
  important new opportunities for addressing
  population and development issues.”
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“Among the most significant are the major
  shifts in attitude among the world's people
  and their leaders in regard to reproductive
  health, family planning and population
  growth, resulting, inter alia, in the new
  comprehensive concept of reproductive
  health, including family planning and sexual
  health, as defined in the Programme of
  Action.”
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Programme of Action of the United Nations ICPD
I - Preamble
II - Principles
III - Interrelationships Betweeen Population, Sustained Economic Growth and
Sustainable Development
IV - Gender Equality, Equity and Empowerment of Women
V - The Family, its Roles, Rights, Composition and Structure
VI - Population Growth and Structure
VII - Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health
VIII - Health, Morbidity and Mortality
IX - Population Distribution, Urbanization and Internal Migration
X - International Migration
XI - Population, Development and Education
XII - Technology, Research and Development
XIII - National Action
XIV - International Cooperation
XV - Partnership with the Non-Governmental Sector
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                     Principles for the
                  Programme of Action
15 principles:
1) Everyone has the right to life, liberty and
   security of person.
4) Advancing gender equality and equity and the
   empowerment of women, … the elimination of
   violence against women, and ensuring women’s
   ability to control their own fertility, are
   cornerstones of population and development-
   related programmes. The human rights of
   women and the girl-child are an inalienable,
   integral and indivisible part of universal human
   rights.
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8) Everyone has the right … to universal access to
   health-care services, including those related to
   reproductive health care, which includes family
   planning and sexual health … All couples and
   individuals have the basic right to decide freely
   and responsibly the number and spacing of
   their children and to have the information,
   education and means to do so.
9) The family is the basic unit of society …
   Marriage must be entered into with the free
   consent of the intending spouses, and husband
   and wife should be equal partners.
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      ICPD Programme of Action
 Ch. VII: Reproductive Rights and
             Reproductive Health
A. Reproductive rights and reproductive health
B. Family planning
C. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV
   prevention
D. Human sexuality and gender relations
E. Adolescents
       http://www.iisd.ca/Cairo/program/p07000.html
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