VARACTOR DIODE LOADED DOUBLE SQUARE RECONFIGURABLE MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTE by iaemedu

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									International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
         INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME
 COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)

ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)                                                     IJECET
Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August, 2013, pp. 226-231
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    VARACTOR DIODE LOADED DOUBLE SQUARE RECONFIGURABLE
     MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS APPLICATIONS

                        1
                            Chandrappa D.N., 2P.A.Ambresh, 3P.V.Hunagund
                                  1, 3
                                  Microwave Research Laboratory,
                  Department of PG Studies and Research in Applied Electronics,
                    Gulbarga University, Gulbarga (Karnataka) 585 106, India.
                           2
                             Central University of Karnataka, Gulbarga
                 Gulbarga University Campus, Gulbarga (Karnataka) 585 106, India


ABSTRACT

        In this paper, a frequency reconfigurable double square microstrip patch antenna is discussed
and presented. By incorporating four bridges in between the two square patches, a characteristics of
flat input resistance and a linear input reactance across a bridge with multiple bands are obtained in
comparison with conventional patch antenna. The designed antenna also achieves a tunable
frequency range from 1.11 GHz to 3 GHz, with a size reduction of 90 % at resonant frequency.
Designed antenna finds application in dual-mode multiband WLAN transceivers which operate over
a wide range of frequency as designated by TRAI for wireless communication. Measured and
simulated data of return loss (RL) and radiation patterns are also presented.

Keywords: Frequency reconfigurable antenna, square patch, multiple bands, WLAN, bandwidth.

I. INTRODUCTION

        Reconfigurable antennas have recently received significant attention for their applications in
communications, electronic surveillance and counter measures by adapting their properties to
achieve selectivity in frequency, bandwidth, polarization and gain. Compared to broadband antennas,
reconfigurable antennas offer the advantages of compact size, similar radiation pattern for all
designed frequency bands, efficient use of electromagnetic spectrum and frequency selectivity useful
for reducing the adverse effects of co-site interference and jamming. Multi-frequency reconfigurable
microstrip antennas can offer additional advantages of frequency reuse for doubling the system
capability and polarization diversity for good performance of reception and transmission or to
integrate the receiving and transmitting functions into one antenna for reducing the antenna size [1].
Reconfigurable antennas are useful for wireless applications, which require an efficient use of the


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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

electromagnetic spectrum and low interference between adjacent channels. This type of antenna
provides wideband tuning range achievable without deteriorating the radiation pattern.
        Electromechanical or electrical switches such as RF MEMS, p-i-n diodes and varactors have
been used for reconfigurable antennas design. Although RF MEMS for specific antenna designs can
be used without bias lines and even though they exhibit high Q and low loss, they require expensive
equipment, more fabrication time and cost. In contrast, reconfigurable antennas with p-i-n diodes or
varactors which are simpler to fabricate. Antennas, when loaded with active elements like varactor,
the tuning linearity depends strongly on the varactor characteristics [2]. Reconfigurable square patch
antenna has been investigated for multiple band operation in the wireless applications. Hence,
microstrip antennas loaded with active devices are increasingly being used for many wireless
applications because of its low profile and light weight advantages [3].
     In this paper, a design of simple multiband double square patch antenna is presented. Two
square patches, which configure for multiband frequency are obtained by connecting two square
patches each other by 4-briges. The important role of bridge is to have connectivity of each square
patch to operate antenna in multiple frequency bands. In addition, the varactor diodes are connected
to bridges which have a role of tuning the frequency bands by changing bridge width (BW). By
adopting this technique, shift in frequency band is achieved by changing the bridge widths (BW).
Double square patch microstrip antenna is operated at 1.1 GHz, 1.4 GHz, 1.7 GHz, 2.1 GHz, 2.7
GHz frequencies for the solution of Global positioning system (GPS), Digital communication system
(DCS), satellite DMB, WiMax frequency bands respectively.

II. ANTENNA CONFIGURATION

       Fig. 1(a) shows the fabricated geometry of conventional square patch antenna. The square
patch is printed on the dielectric substrate fed by microstrip feedline. The dielectric substrate has
permittivity εr = 4.4 and thickness h = 1.6 mm. The size of rectangular substrate length L = 107 mm
and width W = 67.6 mm. Fig. 1(b) shows simulated results of return loss (RL) versus frequency
characteristics and Fig. 1(c) shows measured results of return loss (RL) versus frequency
characteristics for the proposed conventional antenna.




     Fig:1 (a) Conventional antenna           (b) Simulated Return loss for conventional Antenna




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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME




                         (c) Measured Return loss for conventional Antenna

        These simulated and measured results are in good agreement with each other. Fig. 2(b) shows
the geometry of fabricated reconfigurable double square patch antenna. The inner square patch (P1)
in the center configures for lower frequencies and its square width is 13 mm. The outer square
patches (P2) configure for higher frequencies and its square width is 28 mm. Four-bridges make a
connection between inner patch (P1) and outer patch (P2). Operating frequency of antenna is
acheived by changing bridge width (BW) from 1 mm to 4 mm. Varactor diode is integrated with the
bridge slot, and is used to tune the operating frequencies without affecting the radiation
characteristics. Desired operating frequency values can be obtained by incorporate the active devices,
i. e, varactor diode, which will take some amount of power from the source (Network analyzer)
through SMA connector. This active device will energize itself and provides a long path for current
to flow in the radiating patch. This result in shifting of frequency hence reduction in antenna size is
observed. Transmission lines are avoided in between the non-linear components and the radiating
patch, so that, added noise and ohmic losses are suppressed and the resulting structure is more
compact [4-5].

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

        Reconfigurable double square patch antenna is analyzed using Zeland IE3D-full wave
simulator and also practically tested on Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). Return loss (RL) and
radiation pattern for linear polarization are simulated and measured. Fig. 2(c) shows comparison
between simulated and measured return loss at bridge width (BW) = 2 mm with one diode. From the
figure it is clear that antenna is operating at multi frequencies 1.1 GHz, 1.4 GHz, 1.7 GHz, 2.1 GHz
and 2.7 GHz respectively.




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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
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0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME




    Fig.2 (a) Reconfigurable antenna                  (b) Photograph of the fabricated
      with BW = 2mm with one diode                                 antenna




                                                               econfigurable
          (c) Simulated and measured return loss for proposed reconfigurable antenna

     Comparison of return loss (RL) for the three different bridge widths, BW = 1 mm, BW = 2
                                                                       respectively.
mm, BW = 2 mm with two diodes are shown in Fig. 3 (a), 3 (b) and 3 (c) respectively




Fig: 3(a) Return loss for BW=1mm without diode
      (a)                                            (b) Return loss for BW=2mm without diode

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME




                      (c) Measured Return loss for BW=2mm with two diodes




                   Fig: 4. Radiation pattern for proposed reconfigurable antenna

        For bridge width BW=1, the operating frequencies are 1.1 GHz, 1.7 GHz and 2.0 GHz are
obtained. For bridge width BW=2, the operating frequencies are 1.1 GHz, 1.9 GHz and 2.1 GHz are
obtained. For bridge width BW=2 mm with two diodes, the operating frequencies are 1.12 GHz, 1.18
GHz, 1.6 GHz, 1.7 GHz, 2.1 GHz, 2.7 GHz, 834 MHz and 1.7 GHz are obtained. The wide bridge
width makes strong connection between outer patch (P2), which is operated at higher frequency. In
addition, operating frequency moves to the highend frequency by increasing bridge width as shown
in Fig. 3(c). Also, it is seen that, the operating frequency moves to the low frequency band by
decreasing bridge width (BW) as shown in Fig. 2(c). These simulated results are obtained using
IE3D software.
        Measured normalized radiation pattern for 2.1 GHz at bridge width BW = 2 mm is shown in
Fig.4. By inserting a varactor diode at second bridge slot will generate multi frequency bands useful
for different applications.

IV. CONCLUSION

       A multi band reconfigurable double square patch antenna is designed, simulated, fabricated
and tested for various wireless applications, which operates for 1.1 GHz, 1.4 GHz, 1.7 GHz, 2.1
GHz, 2.7 GHz frequencies having wide multiband characteristics suiting for wireless applications.
From the results it is also clear that, change in bridge width (BW) will affect multifrequency band.
This concept can be simply adopted to design other antennas operating for different frequency band.

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

REFERENCES

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