ENHANCING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRIES BY REDUCING MECHANICAL LOSSES OF ELEC

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ENHANCING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRIES BY REDUCING MECHANICAL LOSSES OF ELEC Powered By Docstoc
					International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME
                              AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)                                                       IJMET
Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 287-291
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI)                  ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




   ENHANCING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRIES BY REDUCING
          MECHANICAL LOSSES OF ELECTRIC MOTORS

                1
                    Dr. A. G. Matani, 2Dr. Padmaja A. Gulhane, 3Prof. A. A. Gulhane
            1
             Associate Professor- Mechanical Engg, Government College of Engineering,
                                   Amravati - 444604 [M.S.]- India
      2
        Assistant Professor – Department of Mathematics, Government College of Engineering,
                                   Amravati - 444604 [M.S.]- India
               3
                 Principal, Government Polytechnic, Arvi- Wardha –444303 (M.S.)India


ABSTRACT

       The biggest problem faced by the energy managers and end users in implementing latest
energy efficiency technologies include lack of awareness and inability to justify financial
requirements associated with the procurement of the latest technologies. Energy companies to stay
ahead of the developments have to pay constant attention to building and maintaining their networks
and are constantly looking for cost-saving possibilities. Information and communications technology
is helping for responding to these challenges. This paper discusses the latest developments in
eliminating losses in energy utilities and highlights various areas of applications of energy efficiency
enhancement by reducing mechanical losses.

Key words: Energy resources, generation capacity, primary energy consumption, improper
installation.

INTRODUCTION

        India is the fourth largest consumer of energy in the world after USA, China and Russia.
However, it is not endowed with abundant energy resources. Therefore, India must meet energy
needs by using all available domestic resources of coal, uranium, oil, hydro and other renewable
resources, and supplementing domestic production by imports. Meeting the energy needs for
achieving 8 to 9 percent economic growth while also meeting energy requirements of the population
at affordable prices is a major challenge. Understanding business trends is a crucial
requirement for energy and utility organizations to create a successful IT strategy in this market.



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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME

ELECTRICITY GENERATION CAPACITY IN INDIA

Installed Generation Capacity as on 31 May, 2013

                  Mode                     Capacity (MW)               Share (%) of Total
                 Thermal                     153187.99                        68.0
                  Nuclear                      4780.00                        2.1
                  Hydro                       39623.40                        17.6
         Renewable energy sources             27541.71                        12.2
                   Total                     225133.10
     Source: Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi

T&D AND AT&C LOSSES IN INDIA

             Year                         T & D Losses                        AT & C Losses
           2003-04                           32.53%                              34.78%
           2004-05                           31.25%                              34.33%
           2005-06                           30.42%                              33.02%
           2006-07                           28.65%                              30.62%
           2007-08                           27.20%                              29.45%
           2008-09                           25.47%                              27.37%
           2009-10                           25.39%                              26.58%
           2010-11                           23.97%                              26.15%
Source: Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi

GLOBAL PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION

        The primary energy consumption for few of the developed and developing countries indicates
that India’s absolute primary energy is only 1/29th of the world, 1/7th of USA, 1/1.6th of Japan but 1.1,
2.9, 1.3, 1.5 times of Canada, Australia, France and U. K. respectively. Primary Energy Consumption
by fuel (2002) in million tonnes oil equivalent ( MTOE) is shown in table

                        Table: Primary Energy Consumption by fuel ( MTOE)
                      Oil       Natural    Coal    Nuclear    Hydro     Total             Share
                                  Gas
         USA         894.3       600.7     553.8    185.8      58.2    2293.0             24.4%
       Canada         89.7        72.6      30.7    17.0       78.6     288.7              3.1%
        France        92.8        38.5      12.7    98.9       15.0     258.0              2.7%
        Russia       122.9       349.6      98.5    32.0       37.2     640.2              6.8%
         U.K.         77.2        85.1      36.5    19.9        1.7     220.3              2.3%
        China        245.7        27.0     663.4     5.9       55.8     997.8             10.6%
         India        97.7        25.4     180.8     4.4       16.9     325.1              3.5%
        Japan        242.6        69.7     105.3    71.3       20.5     509.4              5.4%
      Malaysia        22.5        24.3       3.3      -         1.7     51.8               0.6%
       Pakistan       17.9        18.8       2.1     0.4        4.6     43.8               0.5%
      Singapore       35.5         1.6        -       -          -      37.1               0.4%
        Total       3522.5       2282.0     2397.9      610.6      592.1      9405.0      60.3%


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6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME

ENERGY LOSSES IN INDUSTRIES

        At the industrial end user premises plant network elements like transformers motors causes
losses which affect the input received energy. However losses in such systems are unavoidable.
When the power reaches the industry it meets the transformer. The energy efficiency of the
transformer is very high. Next it goes to the motor through internal plan distribution network. A
typical distribution network efficiency of motor 70-90%. Another 30% lost in the mechanical system
which includes coupling, gear box, driven equipments such as pump and valves. Thus the overall
efficiency becomes 50%. Hence one unit saved in the industry is equivalent to two units generated in
the power plant.

ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRIC MOTORS

Efficiency of motor is determined by intrinsic losses. These losses are of two types:
1. Fixed losses independent of motor load
2. Variable losses dependent on the load.
Fixed losses consist of magnetic core losses and friction losses. Magnetic core losses consist of
eddy current and hysterias losses in the stator. Variable losses consist of resistance losses in the
stator and in the rotor and stray losses.
Measures adopted for energy efficiency address each loss specifically as under:
Stator and Rotor I2R Losses
       These losses are major losses and typically account for 55-60% of total losses. These losses
are heating losses resulting from current passing through stator and rotor conductors. These losses
are functions of a conductor resistance, square of current. Resistance of conductor is a function
of conductor material, length and cross sectional area. Suitable selection of copper conductorsize will
reduce the resistance.
Core Losses
       Core losses are found in the stator rotor magnetic field and are due to hysteresis effect and
eddy current effect during magnetization of the core material. These losses are independent of load
and account for 20-25% of the total losses.
Mechanical Losses
       These losses results from bearing friction, wind-age and circulating air through the motor and
account for 8-20% of total losses. These losses are independent of load.
Stray Losses
       These losses are vary according to square of the load current and are caused by leakage flux
induced by load current in the lamination and accounts for 4-5% of total losses. These losses are
reduced by careful selection of slot number, tooth/slot geometry and air gap.
MECHANICAL LOSSES IN MOTORS

          An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy to
mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is used for, for example, rotating a pump impeller, fan or
blower, driving a compressor, lifting materials etc. Electric motors are used at home (mixer, drill,
and fan) and in industry. Electric motors are sometimes called the “work horses” of industry because
it is estimated that motors use about 70% of the total electrical load in industry. In the future, the cost
of energy will increase due to main driven system in the modern industrial environmental problems
and limited resources. The electric motors consume a major part of the electric energy in the
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME

industry. The electric motor is the society. Minimizing mechanical losses could save a significant
amount of electricity. There are some mechanical losses which should be taken into conservation
while determining the efficiency of electric motor. The greatest enemies of efficient motor operation
are improper installation or adjustments, low-quality electrical power, adverse environmental
condition performance of individual motors.

VARIOUS METHODS OF REDUCING MECHANICAL LOSSES

** Lubrication
** Shaft Alignment
** Belts and Pulleys
** Bearing Maintenance
** Gear Drives
** Motor Temperature
** Excessive Vibration
** Excessive Noise
** Periodic Maintenance
** Cooling and Ventilation
** Variation in Load

CONCLUSIONS

        Information technologies and automation systems plays a major role in standardization,
transparency, revenue realization and reduction in transmission and distribution losses in the power
sector. Innovation in the information technology can only benefit the sector and it plays a major role
in empowering the power supply utilities. Power utilities have made major gains in terms of
productivity, efficiency, reliability and commercial management through the use of modern IT tools.
Information Technology has found applications in a wide spectrum of tools that enhance
performance in planning, operational, maintenance, training and commercial activities in a power
system.

REFERENCES

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 [2]   Dr. A.G. Matani, Fly ash from TPS: Utilization & disposal techniques, Research Journal Of
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 [3]   Dr. A.G. Matani , Potential Utilization of Fly Ash From Thermal Power Plants: Mechanisms
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 [4]   Dr. A.G. Matani, Information Technology Improving Retail Marketing In Agriculture
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6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME

 [6]    Dr . A.G. Matani, Managing new product innovations , , Industrial Engineering Journal,
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 [8]    Dr. A.G. Matani , V N Ahuja, Environmental entrepreneurship towards cleaner production :
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        Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 115 - 122, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.
 [22]   Dr. Ashok G. Matani and Mukesh K. Agrawal, “Performance Analysis of Vapour
        Compression Refrigeration System using R134a, Hc Mixture and R401a as Working
        Medium”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume
        4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 112 - 126, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.
 [23]   Dr. A. G. Matani and Swapnil A. Dahake, “Experimental Study of Heat Transfer
        Enhancement in a Pipe using Twisted Tapes and Wire Coils”, International Journal of
        Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 100 - 111,
        ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.


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