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WATER USE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERING SINGLE AND DUAL CROP COEFFICIENT CONCEPT UN

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									International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME
                                TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)

ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)                                                        IJCIET
Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), pp. 236-242
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)
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     WATER USE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERING SINGLE AND DUAL CROP
     COEFFICIENT CONCEPT UNDER AN IRRIGATION PROJECT: A CASE
                             STUDY

                                            Sunil Ajmera
                                 Associate Professor, SGSITS, Indore

                                   Dr. Rakesh Kumar Shrivastava
                                      Professor, SGSITS, Indore


ABSTRACT

        An attempt has been made in the present study to work out the effect of single and dual crop
coefficient under different methods of Irrigation on the crop water requirement. The result shows that
area under Wheat crop can be increased by about 8 % considering Dual Crop coefficient and
adopting Drip Irrigation Practice. The results can be utilised in increasing the area under crop so as to
increase water use under a Canal Irrigation Project for enhancing overall yield and its efficiency.

Keywords: Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), Crop evapotranspiration (ETc), Crop
coefficient(Kc), Exposed Soil fractions, Basal crop coefficient (Kcb), Irrigation method, Efficiency.

I.     INTRODUCTION

        Population growth is resulting into increase of water requirement and reduction in availability
of water and land for agriculture sector. Poor water management is certainly one of the most
important factors for low performance of irrigation system.. Therefore, water management in the
canal command area is very essential to improve the performance of irrigation project.
        Water is required for the growth of crop. Availability of water in the reservoir depends upon
annual rainfall. In the low rainfall years, availability of water in the reservoir is less compared to
designed capacity of reservoirs. This results into reduction of area under crop. Deficit availability of
water ultimately results in reduction of overall yield i.e. crop production.
        Water losses occur by evapotranspiration, which is combination of two processes Water is
lost, on one hand from the soil surface by evaporation and on the other hand from the crop by
transpiration and is referred to as evapotranspiration (ET). Evapotranspiration from plant varies with
crop growing stage viz. initial stages, development stage, mid stage, end stage. Consumptive use
comprises of crop Coefficient and evapotranspiration. Reference crop evapotranspiration ETo can be
                                                  236
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

calculated using Penman-Monteith method. Experimentally determined ratios of ETc/ETo, called
crop coefficients (Kc), are used to relate ETc to ETo or ETc = Kc*ETo. The values of Crop coefficient
varies by using single and dual crop coefficients approach under different methods of irrigation so
that crop water requirement will reduce to certain extent.
        Objective of the present study is to work out the effect of methods of Irrigation and single
and dual crop coefficient on the crop water requirement for wheat crop under Choral Irrigation
Project. The results can be used for deciding area under the crop considering the availability of water
in the reservoir.

II.   STUDY AREA

        The Choral River Project situated near Mhow Tehsil of Indore under Water Resources Deptt.
of M.P. has been considered as a case study for evaluating the effect of Single and Dual Crop
coefficients in the command area of Choral Project. The. Choral River a tributary of River Narmada
originates from Vindhyan ranges and flows through Indore and Khargone districts. The Choral
Reservoir is located in Rampuriya village under Mhow Tehsil of Indore district. The latitudes and
longitudes of the project site are 75°46’N and 22°25’E respectively. The index map of the Choral
Project is shown in “Figure 1”. The site of Choral Reservoir is situated at a distance of 15 Kms from
Mhow by road. It is a trans-basin diversion project having command area under Chambal basin and
catchment area under Narmada basin. Earthen dam of height 28.04m is constructed across the river
having gross storage of 23.92Million cubic meters (MCM) with live storage capacity of 19.23 MCM
and Dead storage capacity of 4.69MCM. The cropping pattern under the project is given in
“Table 1”.




                                  Figure 1. Choral River Project

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 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

                Table 1. Details of Crop Pattern in Command Area under study
              Particulars                          Particulars
                                   Area in
                                                                 Area in Hectares
                                  Hectares
             Kharif Crop:                          Rabi Crop:
          Maize                          20         Wheat                          2145
          Jower                          15         Gram                           234
          Ground Nut                     5          Potato                         585
          Vegetable                      7          Onion                           78
                                                    Vegetable                       78

III.   SINGLE AND DUAL CROP COEFFICIENT APPROACHES

         Crop coefficient (Kc) is defined as the ratio of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and reference
 evapotranspiration (ETo).The effect of both crop transpiration and soil evaporation are integrated into
 a single crop coefficient. The Kc coefficient incorporates crop characteristics and average effects of
 Evaporation from the soil. While predicting for the effects of specific wetting events on the value of
 the crop coefficient (Kc), the solution consists of splitting Kc into dual crop coefficient, one for crop
 transpiration, i.e., the basal crop coefficient (Kcb), and one for soil evaporation (Ke): The dual crop
 coefficient (Ke and Kcb) approach is more complicated and more computationally intensive than the
 single crop coefficient (Kc) approach. The procedure is conducted on a daily basis and is intended for
 applications using computers. .The dual crop coefficient approach calculates the actual increase in Kc
 for each day as a function of plant development and the wetness of the soil surface.
         Crop coefficient obtained for four growth stages of crop growing periods. The four growth
 stages of crop growing periods are as follows:
 1.    Initial period – planting to 10% ground cover
 2.    Crop development – 10% ground cover to effective cover i.e., flowering
 3.    Mid-season – Effective cover to start maturity
 4.    Late season – Start of maturity to harvest.
 The values of Single crop coefficient and Basal crop coefficient for Wheat crop as detailed in FAO
 56 are given in “Table 2” and “ Table 3”.

                                   Table 2: Single Crop Coefficient
                                                  Crop Coefficient
                            Crop       Kcini      Kcdev       Kc mid     Kc end
                           Wheat       0.4        0.775       1.15        0.35


                                    Table 3: Basal Crop Coefficient
                                              Basal Crop coefficient
                               Crop     Kcini   Kcdev   Kc mid Kc end
                               Wheat 0.32 0.35-1.0           1.0   1.0-0.30



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 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

  a. Effect on Kc with Irrigation Practices
         There are various methods of irrigation adopted by farmer to irrigate crops. Irrigation
 practices like surface, subsurface and drip irrigation are used. Crop coefficient varies due to exposed
 and soil wetted fraction. Exposed fraction depends upon crop cover and crop stage. Wetted soil
 fraction depends upon method of irrigation used to irrigate crops.

  b. Wetted Soil fraction
        Common values of fraction of soil surface (fw) wetted by irrigation or precipitation acquired
 from FAO56 are given in “Table 4”

            Table 4: Common values of fraction fw of soil surface wetted by irrigation

                                         Wetting events                   Fw
                                       Sprinkler irrigation               1.0
                               Furrow irrigation(Alternate furrow)        0.5
                                         Drip irrigation                  0.3


 c. Exposed Soil Fraction
         The value of Exposed Soil fractions covered by vegetation (fc) and (1-fc) as available in FAO
 56 are given in “Table 5”.

  Table 5: Common values of fractions covered by vegetation (fc) and exposed to sunlight (1-fc)
                          Crop growth stage                      Fc             1-fc

                              Initial stage                   0.0 - 0.1   1.0 - 0.9
                        Crop development stage                0.1 - 0.8   0.9 - 0.2
                           Mid-season stage                   0.8 - 1.0   0.2 - 0.0
                           Late season stage                  0.8 - 0.2   0.2 - 0.8



 d. Soil Water Characteristics
 Common values of soil water characteristics has been adopted from Table 19 of FAO56

IV.   ANALYSIS AND COMPUTATION

 a.   Calculation of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration
         The FAO Penman-Monteith method (Allen et al., 1998) is used for the computation of
 Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) using meteorological data available in the vicinity of the
 Project Area from 1996-2009.

 b.   Calculation of Crop Coefficient.
        Crop Coefficient taken from FAO 56 are modified considering the values of minimum
 Relative Humidity (RHmin) and the wind speed at 2 m height (U2) using equation recommended by


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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

FAO56. The Determination of daily values for Kcb at different stages is also obtained by using the
guideline and equations recommended by FAO 56.
         The values of the soil evaporation coefficient, Ke, are is also calculated by daily water
balance computation for the surface soil layer for the calculation of the cumulative evaporation or
depletion from the wet condition as per the guidelines and equations recommended by FAO 56.
         The calculation of Crop Coefficient as above were made for the determination of Crop
coefficients using above mentioned procedure and using the fraction fw of soil surface wetted by
irrigation and fractions covered by vegetation (fc) and exposed to sunlight (1-fc) for Sprinkler,
Furrow and Drip Irrigation Practices. Results of single and dual crop coefficient for Sprinkler
irrigation practices are shown in “Table 6”.

              Table 6. Single and Dual Crop Coefficient for various Irrigation Practices
 Irrigation Method        Single Crop Coefficient                    Dual Crop Coefficient



                         Kcini   Kcdev   Kc mid Kc end     Kcini        Kcdev      Kc mid     Kc end


 Sprinkler Irrigation    0.4     0.775   1.15    0.35    1.22-0.32    0.35-1.23   1.15-1.0   0.95-0.30

     Furrow irrigation   0.2     0.77    1.15    0.35    1.22-0.32    0.35-1.11   1.04-1.0   0.95-0.30

      Drip irrigation    0.12    0.77    1.15    0.35    1.22-0.32    0.35-1.17   1.06-1.0   0.95-0.30


c.    Crop Water Requirement
         The estimated values of ETo have been further multiplied by calculated values of crop
Coefficient Kc to get the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) for individual crops. “Crop Water
Requirements” have been worked out for the Wheat crops for the project area. Estimation of the
irrigation water requirement involves the determination of Special needs (SPL), Crop
evapotranspiration (ETc), Crop Coefficient (kc), Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) effective
rainfall( ER) Surface water contribution (ds) and Groundwater contribution(Gwc) to meet the crop
water requirements for optimum growth. The SPL value for individual crops has been determined
using prevailing practice in the Water Resources Department, Govt. of M.P. ER, ds and Gwc is
assumed as zero in the present study for determination of Net Irrigation requirement(NIR). Gross
Irrigation requirement is obtained by using following formula.




Where Ea = Project efficiency which is taken as 58% in the present study.
      Results of water requirement for Wheat Crop are given in “Table 7”. Comparison of Water
Saved by the use of dual crop coefficients using different Irrigation Practices for Wheat Crop is
shown in “Table 8”.



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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

                                Table 7: Water requirement for Wheat crop


                                                                         Gross water           Gross water
                  Net Irrigation                   Net Irrigation
                                                                        requirement at        requirement at
                  requirement                      requirement
                                                                          canal Head            canal Head
                     (cm/ha)                          (MCM)
   Practices                                                                (cm/ha)               (MCM)
  adopted for                         Area(Ha)
  wheat crop
                 Single       Dual                 Single     Dual      Single      Dual      Single     Dual
                   Kc          Kc                    Kc        Kc         Kc         Kc         Kc        Kc


   Sprinkler                                                             71.94      66.17     7.194      6.617
                  35.72       32.38     1100       3.572      3.238
   irrigation
    Furrow                                                               70.43      64.85     7.043      6.485
                  34.85       31.61     1000       3.485      3.161
   irrigation
      Drip                                                               69.84      64.05     6.984      6.405
                  34.50       31.15     1000           3.45   3.115
   irrigation



 Table 8: Water Saved by the use of dual crop coefficients using different Irrigation Practices
                                      for Wheat Crop

                                         Gross Water requirement              Water         Water saved in %
                                                (MCM)                         saved
   Practices adopted for Wheat                                               (MCM)
               Crop

                                           Single Kc           Dual Kc
         Sprinkler irrigation                  7.194            6.617            0.577            8.02

          Furrow irrigation                    7.043            6.485            0.558            7.92

           Drip irrigation                     6.984            6.405            0.579            8.29




V. CONCLUSION

       Based on results obtained it is found that considerable amount of saving in water is possible if
water is supplied considering dual crop coefficient concept. It is further found that furrow Irrigation
consumes less water compared to sprinkler Irrigation. Further Drip Irrigation consumes minimum
water. Thus the overall efficiency of water can be increased under deficit supply of water and area
under Wheat crop can be increased by about 8 % considering Dual Crop coefficient and adopting
Drip Irrigation method, which will further increase overall yield i.e. Crop production per unit
availability of water


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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

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