International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) IJCIET Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), pp. 236-242 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) © IAEME www.jifactor.com WATER USE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERING SINGLE AND DUAL CROP COEFFICIENT CONCEPT UNDER AN IRRIGATION PROJECT: A CASE STUDY Sunil Ajmera Associate Professor, SGSITS, Indore Dr. Rakesh Kumar Shrivastava Professor, SGSITS, Indore ABSTRACT An attempt has been made in the present study to work out the effect of single and dual crop coefficient under different methods of Irrigation on the crop water requirement. The result shows that area under Wheat crop can be increased by about 8 % considering Dual Crop coefficient and adopting Drip Irrigation Practice. The results can be utilised in increasing the area under crop so as to increase water use under a Canal Irrigation Project for enhancing overall yield and its efficiency. Keywords: Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), Crop evapotranspiration (ETc), Crop coefficient(Kc), Exposed Soil fractions, Basal crop coefficient (Kcb), Irrigation method, Efficiency. I. INTRODUCTION Population growth is resulting into increase of water requirement and reduction in availability of water and land for agriculture sector. Poor water management is certainly one of the most important factors for low performance of irrigation system.. Therefore, water management in the canal command area is very essential to improve the performance of irrigation project. Water is required for the growth of crop. Availability of water in the reservoir depends upon annual rainfall. In the low rainfall years, availability of water in the reservoir is less compared to designed capacity of reservoirs. This results into reduction of area under crop. Deficit availability of water ultimately results in reduction of overall yield i.e. crop production. Water losses occur by evapotranspiration, which is combination of two processes Water is lost, on one hand from the soil surface by evaporation and on the other hand from the crop by transpiration and is referred to as evapotranspiration (ET). Evapotranspiration from plant varies with crop growing stage viz. initial stages, development stage, mid stage, end stage. Consumptive use comprises of crop Coefficient and evapotranspiration. Reference crop evapotranspiration ETo can be 236 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME calculated using Penman-Monteith method. Experimentally determined ratios of ETc/ETo, called crop coefficients (Kc), are used to relate ETc to ETo or ETc = Kc*ETo. The values of Crop coefficient varies by using single and dual crop coefficients approach under different methods of irrigation so that crop water requirement will reduce to certain extent. Objective of the present study is to work out the effect of methods of Irrigation and single and dual crop coefficient on the crop water requirement for wheat crop under Choral Irrigation Project. The results can be used for deciding area under the crop considering the availability of water in the reservoir. II. STUDY AREA The Choral River Project situated near Mhow Tehsil of Indore under Water Resources Deptt. of M.P. has been considered as a case study for evaluating the effect of Single and Dual Crop coefficients in the command area of Choral Project. The. Choral River a tributary of River Narmada originates from Vindhyan ranges and flows through Indore and Khargone districts. The Choral Reservoir is located in Rampuriya village under Mhow Tehsil of Indore district. The latitudes and longitudes of the project site are 75°46’N and 22°25’E respectively. The index map of the Choral Project is shown in “Figure 1”. The site of Choral Reservoir is situated at a distance of 15 Kms from Mhow by road. It is a trans-basin diversion project having command area under Chambal basin and catchment area under Narmada basin. Earthen dam of height 28.04m is constructed across the river having gross storage of 23.92Million cubic meters (MCM) with live storage capacity of 19.23 MCM and Dead storage capacity of 4.69MCM. The cropping pattern under the project is given in “Table 1”. Figure 1. Choral River Project 237 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME Table 1. Details of Crop Pattern in Command Area under study Particulars Particulars Area in Area in Hectares Hectares Kharif Crop: Rabi Crop: Maize 20 Wheat 2145 Jower 15 Gram 234 Ground Nut 5 Potato 585 Vegetable 7 Onion 78 Vegetable 78 III. SINGLE AND DUAL CROP COEFFICIENT APPROACHES Crop coefficient (Kc) is defined as the ratio of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and reference evapotranspiration (ETo).The effect of both crop transpiration and soil evaporation are integrated into a single crop coefficient. The Kc coefficient incorporates crop characteristics and average effects of Evaporation from the soil. While predicting for the effects of specific wetting events on the value of the crop coefficient (Kc), the solution consists of splitting Kc into dual crop coefficient, one for crop transpiration, i.e., the basal crop coefficient (Kcb), and one for soil evaporation (Ke): The dual crop coefficient (Ke and Kcb) approach is more complicated and more computationally intensive than the single crop coefficient (Kc) approach. The procedure is conducted on a daily basis and is intended for applications using computers. .The dual crop coefficient approach calculates the actual increase in Kc for each day as a function of plant development and the wetness of the soil surface. Crop coefficient obtained for four growth stages of crop growing periods. The four growth stages of crop growing periods are as follows: 1. Initial period – planting to 10% ground cover 2. Crop development – 10% ground cover to effective cover i.e., flowering 3. Mid-season – Effective cover to start maturity 4. Late season – Start of maturity to harvest. The values of Single crop coefficient and Basal crop coefficient for Wheat crop as detailed in FAO 56 are given in “Table 2” and “ Table 3”. Table 2: Single Crop Coefficient Crop Coefficient Crop Kcini Kcdev Kc mid Kc end Wheat 0.4 0.775 1.15 0.35 Table 3: Basal Crop Coefficient Basal Crop coefficient Crop Kcini Kcdev Kc mid Kc end Wheat 0.32 0.35-1.0 1.0 1.0-0.30 238 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME a. Effect on Kc with Irrigation Practices There are various methods of irrigation adopted by farmer to irrigate crops. Irrigation practices like surface, subsurface and drip irrigation are used. Crop coefficient varies due to exposed and soil wetted fraction. Exposed fraction depends upon crop cover and crop stage. Wetted soil fraction depends upon method of irrigation used to irrigate crops. b. Wetted Soil fraction Common values of fraction of soil surface (fw) wetted by irrigation or precipitation acquired from FAO56 are given in “Table 4” Table 4: Common values of fraction fw of soil surface wetted by irrigation Wetting events Fw Sprinkler irrigation 1.0 Furrow irrigation(Alternate furrow) 0.5 Drip irrigation 0.3 c. Exposed Soil Fraction The value of Exposed Soil fractions covered by vegetation (fc) and (1-fc) as available in FAO 56 are given in “Table 5”. Table 5: Common values of fractions covered by vegetation (fc) and exposed to sunlight (1-fc) Crop growth stage Fc 1-fc Initial stage 0.0 - 0.1 1.0 - 0.9 Crop development stage 0.1 - 0.8 0.9 - 0.2 Mid-season stage 0.8 - 1.0 0.2 - 0.0 Late season stage 0.8 - 0.2 0.2 - 0.8 d. Soil Water Characteristics Common values of soil water characteristics has been adopted from Table 19 of FAO56 IV. ANALYSIS AND COMPUTATION a. Calculation of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration The FAO Penman-Monteith method (Allen et al., 1998) is used for the computation of Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) using meteorological data available in the vicinity of the Project Area from 1996-2009. b. Calculation of Crop Coefficient. Crop Coefficient taken from FAO 56 are modified considering the values of minimum Relative Humidity (RHmin) and the wind speed at 2 m height (U2) using equation recommended by 239 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME FAO56. The Determination of daily values for Kcb at different stages is also obtained by using the guideline and equations recommended by FAO 56. The values of the soil evaporation coefficient, Ke, are is also calculated by daily water balance computation for the surface soil layer for the calculation of the cumulative evaporation or depletion from the wet condition as per the guidelines and equations recommended by FAO 56. The calculation of Crop Coefficient as above were made for the determination of Crop coefficients using above mentioned procedure and using the fraction fw of soil surface wetted by irrigation and fractions covered by vegetation (fc) and exposed to sunlight (1-fc) for Sprinkler, Furrow and Drip Irrigation Practices. Results of single and dual crop coefficient for Sprinkler irrigation practices are shown in “Table 6”. Table 6. Single and Dual Crop Coefficient for various Irrigation Practices Irrigation Method Single Crop Coefficient Dual Crop Coefficient Kcini Kcdev Kc mid Kc end Kcini Kcdev Kc mid Kc end Sprinkler Irrigation 0.4 0.775 1.15 0.35 1.22-0.32 0.35-1.23 1.15-1.0 0.95-0.30 Furrow irrigation 0.2 0.77 1.15 0.35 1.22-0.32 0.35-1.11 1.04-1.0 0.95-0.30 Drip irrigation 0.12 0.77 1.15 0.35 1.22-0.32 0.35-1.17 1.06-1.0 0.95-0.30 c. Crop Water Requirement The estimated values of ETo have been further multiplied by calculated values of crop Coefficient Kc to get the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) for individual crops. “Crop Water Requirements” have been worked out for the Wheat crops for the project area. Estimation of the irrigation water requirement involves the determination of Special needs (SPL), Crop evapotranspiration (ETc), Crop Coefficient (kc), Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) effective rainfall( ER) Surface water contribution (ds) and Groundwater contribution(Gwc) to meet the crop water requirements for optimum growth. The SPL value for individual crops has been determined using prevailing practice in the Water Resources Department, Govt. of M.P. ER, ds and Gwc is assumed as zero in the present study for determination of Net Irrigation requirement(NIR). Gross Irrigation requirement is obtained by using following formula. Where Ea = Project efficiency which is taken as 58% in the present study. Results of water requirement for Wheat Crop are given in “Table 7”. Comparison of Water Saved by the use of dual crop coefficients using different Irrigation Practices for Wheat Crop is shown in “Table 8”. 240 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME Table 7: Water requirement for Wheat crop Gross water Gross water Net Irrigation Net Irrigation requirement at requirement at requirement requirement canal Head canal Head (cm/ha) (MCM) Practices (cm/ha) (MCM) adopted for Area(Ha) wheat crop Single Dual Single Dual Single Dual Single Dual Kc Kc Kc Kc Kc Kc Kc Kc Sprinkler 71.94 66.17 7.194 6.617 35.72 32.38 1100 3.572 3.238 irrigation Furrow 70.43 64.85 7.043 6.485 34.85 31.61 1000 3.485 3.161 irrigation Drip 69.84 64.05 6.984 6.405 34.50 31.15 1000 3.45 3.115 irrigation Table 8: Water Saved by the use of dual crop coefficients using different Irrigation Practices for Wheat Crop Gross Water requirement Water Water saved in % (MCM) saved Practices adopted for Wheat (MCM) Crop Single Kc Dual Kc Sprinkler irrigation 7.194 6.617 0.577 8.02 Furrow irrigation 7.043 6.485 0.558 7.92 Drip irrigation 6.984 6.405 0.579 8.29 V. CONCLUSION Based on results obtained it is found that considerable amount of saving in water is possible if water is supplied considering dual crop coefficient concept. It is further found that furrow Irrigation consumes less water compared to sprinkler Irrigation. Further Drip Irrigation consumes minimum water. Thus the overall efficiency of water can be increased under deficit supply of water and area under Wheat crop can be increased by about 8 % considering Dual Crop coefficient and adopting Drip Irrigation method, which will further increase overall yield i.e. Crop production per unit availability of water 241 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME REFERENCES  Berry, G. (1964). Evaluation of natural evaporation formula by electronic computer”. Journal of applied science,1: 61-64.  D.P.R. Choral Project (1979). Irrigation Deptt. , Govt. of M.P. India.  Elliott, R. L., S. L. Harp, G. D. Grosz and M. A. Kizer. (1988). Crop Coefficients for Peanut Evapotranspiration. Agricultural Water Management 15:155-164.1.  FAO. (1979). Yield response to water. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 33. Rome  FAO. (1992). CROPWAT. A computer program for irrigation planning and management. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 46. Rome.  FAO. (1993). CLIMWAT for CROPWAT. A climatic database for irrigation planning and management. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 49. Rome.  FAO. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration; guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56. Rome.  Jensen, M.E. (1974) (ed.) Consumptive use of water and irrigation water requirements. Rep. Tech. Com. on Irrig. Water Requirements, Irrig. and Drain. Div., ASCE, 227 pp.  Kang, S., Shi, W. & Zhang, J. (2000). An improved water-use efficiency for maize grown under regulated deficit irrigation. Field Crops Research, 67: 207-214.  Kirda, C., Moutonnet, P., Hera, C. & Nielsen, D.R. (eds.) (1999). Crop yield response to deficit irrigation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.  Libardi, P.L., Reichardt, K., Nielsen, D.R. & Biggar, J.W. (1980).Simple field methods for estimating soil hydraulic conductivity. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 44: 3-7.  Molden, D. J. and Gates, T. K. (1990). “Performance measures for evaluation of irrigation water delivery systems.” Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, 116(6), 804- 823.  Mannocchi, F. & Mecarelli, P. (1994). Optimization analysis of deficit irrigation systems. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 120: 484-502.  Pereira, L. S., Oweis, T., &Zairia, A. (2002).”Irrigation Management under Water Scarcity”. Journal of Agriculture Water Management,.51:175-206.  Rao, N. H., Sarma, P. B. S., & Chander, S. (1988).”Irrigation scheduling under a limited water supply”. Agriculture Water Manage.15, 165-175.  Reca, J., Roldan, J., Alcaide, M., Lopez, R., &Camacho, E. (2001).”Optimization model for water allocation in deficit irrigation systems: II.Application to the bembezar irrigation system”. Agriculture Water Manage.48, 117-132.  Sanimer, K., Srivastava, D.K. and Arya D. S.(2011). “Some Limitations of a Planning Model for Canal Scheduling of Rotational Irrigation”, Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, 04(06), PP 286-289.  Singh, K.K.1980. “Warabandi for Irrigated Agriculture in India”, Publication No. 146, Central Board of Irrigation and Power, New Delhi.  Smout, I. K., and Gorantiwar, S. D. (2005).”Multilevel approach for optimizing land and water resources and irrigation deliveries for tertiary units in large irrigation schemes. I: Method”. Transaction ASCE, 131,254-263.  Omar K M Ouda, Abdullatif A. Al-Shuhail, Tawfiq Qubbaj and Rana Samara, “Assessing the Applicability of Ground Penetrating Radar (Gpr) Techniques for Estimating Soil Water Content and Irrigation Requirements in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: A Project Methodology”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 114 - 123, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 242
"WATER USE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERING SINGLE AND DUAL CROP COEFFICIENT CONCEPT UN"