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									  Marketing Research

       Aaker, Kumar, Day
         Ninth Edition
Instructor’s Presentation Slides

                                    Chapter Eleven

                                 Attitude Measurement

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                                 Attitude Measurement

         n Used to understand and influence behavior since:
                n Concept exists that attitudes lead to behavior
                n    More feasible to ask questions on attitudes than to observe and
                     interpret behavior
                n Capacity for diagnosis and explanation
                n    Learn which features of a new product concept are acceptable or
                n    Measure the perceived strengths and weaknesses of competitive

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                                 What Are Attitudes?

           n Mental states used by individuals to structure the way they
             perceive their environment and guide the way they respond
             to it
           n Components of attitude:
                  n Cognitive or Knowledge component
                  n Affective or Liking component
                  n Intention or Action component

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                     Cognitive or Knowledge Component

                n A person’s information about an object
                n Awareness of existence of the object
                n Beliefs about the characteristics or attributes of the
                n Judgments about the relative importance of each of the

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                       Affective or Liking Component

               n       Summarizes a person’s overall feelings toward an
                       object, situation, or person on a scale of like-dislike or
               n       When there are several alternatives, liking is
                       expressed in terms of preference for one alternative
               n       Preference measured by asking which alternative is
                       “most preferred” or “first choice,” which is the
                       “second choice,” and so on

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                       Intention or Action Component

        n Refers to a person’s expectations of future behavior toward an
        n Intentions are usually limited to a distinct time period that
          depends on buying habits and planning horizons
        n Incorporates information about a respondent’s ability or
          willingness to pay for the object, or otherwise take action

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                                 Concept of Measurement

         n Standardized process of assigning numbers or other
           symbols to certain characteristics of objects of interest,
           according to pre-specified rules
         Characteristics for Standardization
         n One-to-one correspondence between the symbol and the
           characteristic in the object that is being measured
         n Rules for assignment should be invariant over time and the
           objects being measured

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        n Process of creating a continuum on which objects are
          located according to the amount of the measured
          characteristic possessed
        n Type of scales:
               n Nominal
               n Ordinal
               n Interval
               n Ratio

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                                       Nominal Scale

         n Objects are assigned to mutually exclusive, labeled
         n No necessary relationships among categories
         n No ordering or spacing are implied
         n Only possible arithmetic operation is a count of each category
                                                            Are you
                                                                1) Caucasian
                                                                2) African-American
                  Are you a resident of Connecticut?
                                                                3) Hispanic
                                                                4) Asian
                                                                5) Other

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                                 Ordinal or Rank Scale

        n Ranks objects or arranges them in order by some common
        n Does not provide information on how much difference there is
          between objects
        n Arithmetic operations are limited to statistics such as median
          or mode
                                 Rank your preferences for the following
                                 attributes in making a car purchase decision
                                      Price           -----------
                                      Safety          -----------
                                      Design          -----------
                                      Fuel economy ------------

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                                         Interval Scale

         n Numbers used to rank objects also represent equal
           increments of the attribute being measured
         n Differences can be compared
         n Entire range of statistical operations can be employed for

                        On a scale of 1 to 7, how would you rate the performance of
                        natural gas as home heating fuel in terms of reliability of supply?
                        (1 being least reliable and 7 being most reliable)

                        1         2          3         4          5          6             7

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                                       Ratio Scale

        n Type of interval scale with meaningful zero point
        n Possible to say how many times greater or smaller one object
          is than another
        n Only scale that permits comparisons of absolute magnitude

                                 How old are you? _________

                                   What is your zip code?______

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              Types of Scales and Their Properties

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                                 Attitude Rating Scales

           n Present a respondent with a continuum of numbered
             categories that represent the range of possible attitude
           n Classified as:
                  n Single item scales
                  n Multiple item scales

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                        Classification of Attitude Scales

                                                 Attitude Scales

                 Single-Item          Continuous
                   Scales               Scales

        Category                 Comparative
         Scales                    Scales                           Semantic           Associative
                                                                   Differential          Scales
          Q-sort                   Scales

    Rank Order            Constant Sum        Pictorial        Likert         Thurstone            Stapel
      Scales                 Scales            Scales          Scales          Scales              Scales
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                                 Single Item Scales

        n Only have one item to measure a construct

        n Types of Single item scales
               n Itemized-category scale
               n Comparative
               n Rank-order
               n Q-sort
               n Pictorial
               n Constant sum

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                           Itemized-category Scales

           n Respondent selects from a limited number of categories
                                 ________    Very Satisfied
                                 _________   Quite Satisfied
                                 _________   Somewhat Satisfied
                                 _________   Not at all Satisfied

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                                 Comparative Scale

           n A judgment comparing one object, concept, or person
             against one another

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                                 Rank-order Scales

           n Respondent compares one item with another or a group of
             items against each other and ranks them

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                                 Q-sort Scaling

          n Respondents sort comparative characteristics into normally
            distributed groups
          n Ten or more groups increases accuracy of results

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                                        Pictorial Scales

           n Various categories of the scale are depicted pictorially
                  n Thermometer Scale
                  n Funny faces scale
           n Format must be comprehensible to respond and allow
             accurate response

                                  Like very much              100
                                 Dislike very much            0

                                 1         2         3              4   5
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              Types of Single Item Scales (Contd.)

        Paired-Comparison Scales
        n The brands to be rated are presented two at a time, so each brand in
          the category is compared once to every other brand
        n Brands are rated on a given number of points that are then divided
          between the two brands on the basis of respondents’ preferences
        n Frame of reference is always the other brand being tested; these
          brands may change over time

                                 n A and B
                                 n A and C
                                 n A and D
                                 n B and C
                                 n B and D
                                 n C and D
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                                 Constant-sum Scale

           n Respondents allocate a fixed number of rating points
             among serial objects to reflect relative preference

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                       Designing Single Item Scales

           Decisions regarding form and structure:
           n Number of scale categories
           n Types of poles used in the scale
           n Strength of the anchors
           n Labeling of the categories
           n Balance of the scale
                                 Balanced                             Unbalanced
                Very good                   ______        Excellent                 ______
                Good                        ______        Very Good                 ______
                Fair                        ______        Good                      ______
                Poor                        ______        Fair                      ______
                Very Poor                   ______        Poor                      ______

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                                 Multiple-item Scales

           n Developed to measure a sample of beliefs toward the
             attitude objects and combine the set of answers into an
             average score
           n Types of multiple-item scales:
                  n Likert scale
                  n Thurstone scales
                  n Semantic-Differential Scales

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                                 Likert Scale

         n Requires respondent to indicate degree of agreement or
           disagreement with a variety of statements related to the
           attitude object
         n Also called Summated Scale since scores on individual items
           are summed to give total score for respondents
         n Usually consists of item part and evaluative part
         n Likert scale Is uni-dimensional

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                                 Likert Scale – Example

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                                 Thurstone Scales

         n Also known as the method of equal-appearing intervals since
           objective is to obtain a unidimensional scale with interval
         Step 1: Generate a large number of statements or adjectives
                 reflecting all degrees of favorableness toward the attitude
         Step 2: A group of judges is given this set of items and asked to
                 classify them according to their degree of favorableness or

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                           Thurstone Scales (contd.)

                n Easy to administer
                n Requires minimum instructions
                n Time consuming
                n Expensive to construct
                n Not as much diagnostic value as a Likert scale
                n Values depend on the attitudes of the original judges

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                         Semantic-Differential Scale

        n Respondents rate each attribute object on a number of five or
          seven-point rating scales bounded by polar adjectives or
        n With bipolar scale, the midpoint is a neutral point

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              Semantic-Differential Scale (contd.)

       n Pairs of objects or phrases selected must be meaningful in
         market being studied and correspond to product/service
       n Rotate negative pole on either side to avoid "halo" effect
       n Category increments are treated as interval scales so group
         mean values can be computed for each object on each scale
       n May also be analyzed as a summated rating scale

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                                 Profile Analysis

       n Application of semantic differential scale
       n Plot mean ratings for each object on each scale for visual comparison
       n Overall comparison of brands hard to grasp with many brands and
       n Not all attributes are independent

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                                 Stapel Scales

         n Uses one pole rather than two opposite poles
         n Respondents select a numerical response category
         n High positive score reflects good fit between adjective and
         n Easy to administer and construct
         n No need to assure bipolarity

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                                 Associative Scaling

            n Most effective for markets where respondent is
              knowledgeable only about a small subset of a large number
              of choices
            n Appropriate to choice situations that involve a sequential
              decision process
            n Best suited to market tracking where the emphasis is on
              understanding shifts in relative competitive positions

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                           Continuous Rating Scales

          n Respondents rate objects by placing a mark at appropriate
            position on a line running from one extreme of the criterion
            variable to the other
          n Also called graphical rating scales
          n Easy to construct
          n Scoring is cumbersome and unreliable

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                 General Guidelines For Developing A
                         Multiple-Item Scale

                             Determine clearly what you are going to measure

                                     Generate as many items as possible

                        Ask experts in the field to evaluate the initial pool of items

                                 Determine the type of attitudinal scale to be used

                        Include some items that will help in the validation of the scale

                                    Administer the items to an initial sample

                                         Evaluate and refine the items

                                          Optimize the scale length
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                      Choosing An Attitudinal Scale

         Problems in choosing a scale:
                n Different techniques with different strengths and
                n Virtually any technique can be adapted to the
                  measurement of any one of the attitude components
         Researchers’ choice shaped by:
                n The specific information required
                n Adabtability of the scale to the data collection method
                  and budget constraints
                n Compatibility of the scale with the structure of the
                  respondent’s attitude

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              Accuracy of Attitude Measurements

         Validity: An attitude measure has validity if it measures what it
                            is supposed to measure
         n Face or consensus Validity
                n The extent to which the content of a measurement scale appears to tap all
                    relevant facets of the construct
         n Criterion Validity
                n Based on empirical evidence that the attitude measure correlates with
                  other “criterion” variables
         n Concurrent validity
                n Two variables are measured at the same time
         n Predictive validity
                n The attitude measure can predict some future event

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          Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Cont.)

         n Convergent validity
                n A form of construct validity that represents the association
                  between the measured construct and measures of other
                  constructs with which the construct is related on theoretical
         n Discriminant validity
                n A form of construct validity that represents the extent to which
                  the measured construct is not associated with which the
                  construct is related on theoretical grounds
         n Construct Validity
                n A scale evaluation criterion that relates to the underlying
                  question "what is the nature of the underlying variable or
                  construct measured by the scale?"

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         Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Contd.)

                n The consistency with which the measure produces the same
                  results with the same or comparable population
                n Extent to which ratings provided by a scale are able to
                  discriminate between the respondents who differ with respect to
                  the construct being measured
                n Refers to the ease of scale administration and interpretation in
                  different research settings and situations
                n Relevance = reliability * validity

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                    Scales in Cross-national Research

         Responses Can Be Affected by:
         n Low literacy and educational levels
         n Culture; semantic differential scale is closest to pan-cultural
         n Adapting response formats, particularly their calibration, for
           specific countries and cultures

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