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					EKONOMI INTERNASIONAL I
 Pertemuan II : Isu-isu dan sejarah
    perdagangan internasional

      Ferry Prasetyia, SE., MAppEc
   Alasan melakukan perdagangan internasional




F Faktor-faktor yang telah dikemukakan diatas akan mempengaruhi pola perdagangan
  dan menentukan tingkat keuntungan/kerugian dalam sebuah perekonomian
Isu-isu Perdagangan Internasional
 Bagaimana negara memperoleh keuntungan
      dari perdagangan Internasional

   Contoh negara Autarky (tidak melakukan perdagangan dengan negara lain)

   Table 6-3
   Production without Trade (in Autarky)

                                            PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
                                    CELL PHONES         DIGITAL MUSIC PLAYERS
   JAPAN                                   9,000               1,500
   UNITED STATES                           1,500               1,000



   Konsumsi dapat meningkat akibat perdagangan
        Terms of trade (nilai tukar perdagangan) : rasio
        anatar ekspor terhadap impor dari negara lain.


Sumber: Hubard and O’brien (2008)
    Bagaimana negara memperoleh keuntungan
         dari perdagangan Internasional

  Table 6-4                              Meningkatkan konsumsi dengan perdagangan
   The Gains from Trade for Japan and the United States
 WITHOUT TRADE
                    Production and Consumption
                        CELL             MP3
                        PHONES           PLAYERS

 Japan                  9,000            1,500
 United States          1,500            1,000

 WITH TRADE
                    Production with Trade                          Trade                         Consumption with Trade
                    CELL             MP3                     CELL              MP3               CELL         MP3
                    PHONES           PLAYERS                 PHONES            PLAYERS           PHONES       PLAYERS
 Japan              12,000           0                       Export 1,500      Import 1,500      10,500       1,500
 United States      0                4,000                   Import 1,500      Export 1,500      1,500        2,500
                    With trade, the United States     ...and export some of that good in
                    and Japan specialize in the       exchange for the good the other country
                    good they have a comparative      has a comparative advantage in
                    advantage in producing...         producing.


 GAINS FROM TRADE
                             Increased Consumption
 Japan                       1,500 Cell Phones       The increased consumption made possible
                                                     by trade represents the gains from trade.
 United States               1,500 MP3 Players




Sumber: Hubard and O’brien (2008)
Sejarah teori Perdagangan
      Internasional
Mercantilism
Adam Smith
          Contoh keuntungan asbolut
                   Dikutip dari Prof. John M. Veitch (2005)


No Trade                           Labor Requirements &
Relative Price of Cloth             Absolute Advantage
   is:
– England
    – 1 yard cloth for ¼                       Cloth              Wine
       gallon of wine
– Portugal                   England        1 hour/ yard      4 hours/ gallon
    – 1 yard cloth for
       2/3 gallon of wine
– England has absolute
   advantage in cloth,       Portugal       2 hours/ yard 3 hours/ gallon
   Portugal in wine.
– Show if can trade at 1
   cloth per 1/3 gallon
   wine then both
   nations are better off.
Hume & Price-Specie

				
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posted:9/6/2013
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