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					   Report of the Independent Investigator
                                       The May 22, 2013 Slope Failure and
                                      Prior City Knowledge of Soil Erosion
                                                  In Lilydale Regional Park




Submitted to the City of Saint Paul
August 22, 2013

Donald M. Lewis, Of Counsel
Sheila T. Kerwin
Courtney E. Ward-Reichard
NILAN JOHNSON LEWIS PA
120 South Sixth Street, Suite 400
Minneapolis, MN 55402
                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................................. i

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... iii

          I.        INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 1
                    A.        The Investigator’s Scope of Work .............................................................. 1
                    B.        The Investigator’s Work Plan ..................................................................... 1
                              1.         Interviews........................................................................................ 1
                              2.         Site Visits ........................................................................................ 2
                              3.         Document Analysis......................................................................... 2
                                         a.         Email records ...................................................................... 3
                                         b.         Electronic records ............................................................... 3
                                         c.         Paper files............................................................................ 3
                                         d.         Other sources ...................................................................... 4
          II.       FACTUAL BACKGROUND AND FINDINGS.................................................... 4
                    A.        Background ................................................................................................. 4
                              1.         Overview and History of Lilydale Regional Park........................... 4
                              2.         The City’s Management of Lilydale Park....................................... 5
                              3.         Master Plan for Improvement of Lilydale Park .............................. 6
                                         a.         Overview............................................................................. 6
                                         b.         Natural Resources Management Plan ................................. 7
                                         c.         Master Plan Amendment..................................................... 8
                                         d.         Public input ......................................................................... 9
                                         e.         Sequencing.......................................................................... 9
                                         f.         Approval ............................................................................. 9
                                         g.         Environmental Assessment Worksheet............................. 10
                              4.         Friends of Lilydale........................................................................ 10
                    B.        May 22 Incident in the Fossil Ground ...................................................... 10
                              1.         The Fossil Ground and Fossil Hunting in the Park....................... 10
                              2.         May 22 Hobart School Visit and Incident .................................... 13
                    C.        Prior City Knowledge of Soil Erosion...................................................... 15
                              1.         General Soil Erosion in City Parks ............................................... 15
                              2.         Soil Erosion in Lilydale Park........................................................ 16
                                         a.         Natural Resources Management Plan ............................... 16

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                                b.         Master Plan Amendment................................................... 16
                                c.         Public input to Master Amendment planning
                                           process............................................................................... 17
                                d.         Environmental Assessment Worksheet............................. 18
                      3.        Evidence of Erosion in Lilydale Park ........................................... 19
                                a.         May 2011 slope failure near waterfall .............................. 19
                                b.         February 2012 observations of erosion in the clay
                                           pits..................................................................................... 22
                                c.         Soil erosion and storm sewer drainage affecting the
                                           Cherokee Regional Trail and Cherokee Heights
                                           Boulevard.......................................................................... 24
                                d.         Other unreported slope failures......................................... 25
                      4.        Soil Erosion Events at Other Nearby Locations ........................... 27
                                a.         April 2010 Hidden Falls rock fall ..................................... 27
                                b.         April 2011 boulder fall at BC2 bakery ............................. 27
     III.   CONCLUSION..................................................................................................... 27
            A.        Did the City know that soil erosion posed an environmental threat
                      within Lilydale Park?................................................................................ 27
            B.        Did the City know that soil erosion posed a threat to the safety of
                      visitors to the Fossil Ground within Lilydale Park? ................................. 28
EXHIBITS




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                                   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Tens of thousands of children have visited Lilydale Regional Park (“Park”) in recent years to
explore and search for prehistoric fossils, and they have left the Park without serious mishap or
injury. However, on May 22, 2013, a large mass of sand mixed with broken shale fell from the
steep bluff overlooking the fossil beds near the Park’s East Clay Pit. At the time, fourth-graders
from a St. Louis Park elementary school were hunting for fossils at the base of the slope; two of
them—Haysem Sani and Mohamed Fofana—died. The apparent cause of the slope failure was
natural soil erosion prevalent along the Mississippi River bluffs, aggravated by groundwater
migration during a very rainy spring and trampling of foot traffic along unmarked trails.

The City of Saint Paul (“City”) retained the Minneapolis law firm of Nilan Johnson Lewis PA
(“Investigator”) to perform “an independent review of the City’s internal processes, procedures
and communications” insofar as they indicated preexisting knowledge by its employees of soil
erosion hazards to visitors to the Park. The Investigator reviewed the City’s actions from
January 2009 through June 2013, and its work included extensive interviews of employees of the
City’s Parks and Recreation and Public Works departments and citizen advocates for the Park;
compilation and examination of thousands of electronic files and communications related to the
Park and the City’s handling of issues related to soil erosion; and visits to the Park and the
Incident site. The inquiry paralleled the work of Northern Technologies, Inc., the engineering
firm engaged by the City to determine the cause of the May 22 slope failure.

The Investigator found that the City’s Park and Recreation department has managed Lilydale
Park—a 184-acre flood plain forest and lake—in a manner consistent with the goal of restoring it
as a natural resource-based, undeveloped, and passive park. Long-range master planning for the
Park has focused on improving access and preserving it against environmental threats, including
the effects of water contamination and soil erosion. A proposed survey to identify soil erosion
within the Park and to recommend control measures was included in the plan, but it had not been
implemented by the time of the Incident. However, the master planning process—including
input from citizens devoted to the Park—never revealed any knowledge or concerns that soil
erosion posed safety risks to visitors to the Park or its Fossil Ground.

During the relevant time period, the City was aware that slope failures had occurred within the
Park and elsewhere along the Mississippi River bluffs. In May 2011, there was one such
incident just north of the East Clay Pit, but it was not witnessed by anyone, did not obstruct the
designated trails, and caused no harm to people or damage to property. Nine months later, a
Parks and Recreation forestry supervisor observed significant erosion while ice-climbing in the
Fossil Ground, and reported to his colleagues that “the whole hillside is at risk to slide in heavy
rains.” In both instances, Parks and Recreation managers responded by inspecting the sites.
Engineers with the Public Works Department also knew that a culvert feeding storm water into
the Fossil Ground contributed to soil erosion; at the time of the Incident, the Sewer division was
repairing drainage pipes along nearby Cherokee Heights Boulevard.




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The Investigator concluded that, while City managers and employees had substantial knowledge
that soil erosion was adversely impacting the Park, there was no evidence of actual knowledge of
unstable bluffs that posed risks to the safety of visitors to the Park and its Fossil Ground. Rather,
communications and actions of City employees reflected concerns that soil erosion would
contaminate Pickerel Lake, impair access for recreation, damage neighboring property, and
destroy the Park’s natural beauty. Slope failures and soil erosion, even those reported in the
months preceding the Incident, were considered natural occurrences that were difficult to predict
or control along the vast expanse of bluffs within the Park. The Investigator also determined that
there was adequate communication and cooperation between the City’s departments regarding
their responses to soil erosion in the Park, both immediate and long-term. In sum, the
Investigator concluded that, to the extent that the City possessed general knowledge of soil
erosion within the Park, it was insufficient to enable the City to predict and prevent the deadly
slope failure at the East Clay Pit.




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I.     INTRODUCTION

This report includes the findings and conclusions of the independent investigation into a slope
failure at Lilydale Regional Park (“Lilydale Park” or “Park”) on May 22, 2013. The slope failure
(“Incident”) caused the deaths of two students, and injured at least two other students, who were
in Lilydale Park for a school field trip organized by Peter Hobart Elementary School in St. Louis
Park, MN.

       A.      The Investigator’s Scope of Work

The City of Saint Paul (“City”) retained the law firm of Nilan Johnson Lewis PA to conduct the
independent investigation, which was announced by Mayor Chris Coleman on June 21, 2013.
The Investigator was tasked with working independently and reporting back to the Mayor with
its factual findings and conclusions.

The purpose of the inquiry was to examine “the City’s internal processes, procedures and
communications” insofar as they indicated pre-existing knowledge by its employees of soil
erosion hazards to visitors to the Park. The review focused on the time period from January 1,
2009 to the launch of the investigation on June 21, 2013.

The scope of the review did not include any determination or advice as to the cause of the
Incident; any determination or advice related to potential liability of the City, its employees or
contractors in defense of civil litigation arising from the Incident; any inquiry into the adequacy
of the response of emergency personnel to the Incident; or any evaluation of the work
performance of any City employee or contractor. The scope of the review also did not include an
inquiry into knowledge or culpability of any third party, including the St. Louis Park School
District.

       B.      The Investigator’s Work Plan

Donald Lewis, Sheila Kerwin and Courtney Ward-Reichard were the principal attorneys who
conducted the investigation. In performing its work, the Investigator undertook the following
tasks:

               1.     Interviews

The Investigator conducted interviews of the following current and former City employees
during the course of the investigation:

       Department of Parks and Recreation:

       Kelley Dinsmore, Education Coordinator (former)
       Don Ganje, Landscape Architect
       Mike Hahm, Director
       Gary Korum, Operations Manager
       Cy Kosel, Natural Resources Manager
       Scott Kruse, Forestry Supervisor
       Jody Martinez, Manager of Design and Construction Department
       Alice Messer, Landscape Architect
       Brad Meyer, Public Service Manager
       Karin Misiewicz, Park Maintenance Supervisor
       Cindy Morrison, Office Manager
       Adam Robbins, Environmental Coordinator
       Ellen Stewart, Landscape Architect
       Brian Tourtelotte, Landscape Architect
       Don Varney, Landscape Architect
       Diane Voyda, Maintenance Crew Supervisor
       Pat Voyda, Maintenance Supervisor
       Deb Williams, Maintenance Crew Supervisor

       Department of Public Works:

       Bruce Elder, Assistant City Engineer
       Dan Haak, Civil Engineer
       Aaron Hass, Civil Engineer
       John Maczko, City Engineer
       Joe Mueller, Civil Engineer (former)

The Investigator also interviewed the following individuals not employed by the City:

       Nicole Anderson, Hike-It Volunteer
       Ryan Benson, Northern Technologies, Inc.
       John Goetz, Attorney for Victim Families
       Jon Kerr, Friends of Lilydale Park
       Ed Steinhauer, Friends of Lilydale Park

The Investigator sought to interview the St. Louis Park School District employees who were
involved with scheduling or chaperoning the May 22 field trip to the Fossil Ground, but the
request was declined by the school district’s outside counsel.

              2.      Site Visits

The Investigator examined the site of the Incident three times: once with Design and
Construction project manager Alice Messer, once with Jon Kerr of Friends of Lilydale Park, and
a third time with Ryan Benson of Northern Technologies Inc.

              3.      Document Analysis

The Investigator also collected and analyzed documents obtained from the City in both electronic
and paper form. Given the volume of documents collected, it was not possible for the
Investigator to review each document individually. Instead, filters and keyword searches were
used to narrow the scope of documents reviewed. These keywords included concepts such as
erosion, landslide and safety hazards within Lilydale Park, particularly in the Fossil Ground.
The Investigator also searched for documents reflecting policies and procedures with respect to
Lilydale Park, the process of planning with respect to the Park, or knowledge of previous soil

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erosion or soil movement incidents within the Park or nearby areas. In addition, witness
interviews helped pinpoint specific incidents and issues, which were then examined in depth.

                            a.       Email records

The Investigator collected all available email from January 1, 2009 through June 21, 2013 – the
relevant time period of inquiry – from email accounts of the following City employees: Beth
Albrecht, Kelley Dinsmore, Bruce Elder, Don Ganje, Mike Hahm, Aaron Hass, Gary Korum, Cy
Kosel, Scott Kruse, John Maczko, Jody Martinez, Alice Messer, Brad Meyer, Karin Misiewicz,
Cindy Morrison, Joe Mueller, Adam Robbins, Ellen Stewart, Brian Tourtelotte, Don Varney,
Diane Voyda and Deb Williams.

The City's ordinary email document retention period is three years. However, an archived copy
of all City email accounts was created in June 2012 as part of a transition to a new email system.
These archive copies included emails from June 2009 to June 2012. Emails from June 2012 to
June 21, 2013 were obtained from the current email archiving system.

Thus, in most instances, the Investigator was able to obtain email from June 2009 to
present. There was a handful of city employees whose accounts were not subject to the regular
email retention period in anticipation of litigation on other unrelated matters, which meant that
their emails were available going back to January 1, 2009.

The City’s email archiving method retains all sent and received email, regardless of actions taken
by the employee to delete messages. The total amount of email data received by the Investigator
from the City totaled 285 gigabytes (“GB”). The Investigator applied search terms to further
narrow the documents for review,1 which reduced the data set to 120 GB, or 204,721 documents.
Finally, duplicates and extraneous documents were removed, resulting in an email document
review set of 90,015 documents, or 72.5 GB.

                            b.       Electronic records

The Investigator also obtained electronic files from the Design and Construction division and the
Operations division of the Parks and Recreation department. The Investigator received 9,799
electronic documents, 8,037 of which were included in the review after removing duplicates.
The collection included the “Lilydale Project Folder” used by Design and Construction, “Work
Orders for Lilydale Park,” and files related to the “Hike-It” program.

                            c.       Paper files

The Investigator also obtained and imaged documents from paper files related to Lilydale Park
that were maintained by the City's Parks and Recreation and Public Works Departments. A total
of 2,203 documents were obtained in paper format for inclusion in the review.




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    These terms included: Lilydale, Fossil, Bluff, clay pit, east pit, Cherokee, Annapolis and Brickyard.

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                      d.      Other sources

The City’s website contains many public documents regarding Lilydale Park. The Investigator
reviewed portions of the website and linked documents that were relevant to the inquiry.

The Friends of Lilydale has a Facebook group page which has been active since at least 2010.
The Investigator reviewed the page for posts and photos relevant to its inquiry.

II.    FACTUAL BACKGROUND AND FINDINGS

       A.      Background

               1.     Overview and History of Lilydale Regional Park

The village of “Lilly Dale” was established in the late 1800s on the banks of the Mississippi
River. The community included many industrial businesses, notably the Twin Cities Brickyard,
which used clay from pits located nearby to manufacture bricks.

The Village of Lilydale was under continual threat from floodwaters due to its location. A
massive flood in 1965 motivated a decision to relocate the community to the top of the bluffs,
out of the river’s path. In 1971, the area was designated as a regional park by the Minnesota
State Legislature.

Today, Lilydale Regional Park covers 184 acres, encompassing Pickerel Lake. A major portion
of the Park is located outside the city limits in Dakota County but is owned and maintained by
the City. The Park is defined by the Mississippi River on the north, Highway 13 located above
the river bluffs to the south, Harriet Island Regional Park to the east, and the Pool and Yacht
Club to the west.




                                                4
[Ex. 1 – Map of Lilydale Regional Park]

               2.     The City’s Management of Lilydale Park

Lilydale Park is managed by the City’s Parks and Recreation Department. The Department
manages more than 170 parks and open spaces, the Como Park Zoo and Conservatory, 25 city-
operated recreation centers, four municipal golf courses, more than 100 miles of trails, an indoor
and outdoor aquatic facility, a public beach, a variety of premium sports facilities, and the Great
River Passage, which is the new identity for Saint Paul’s more than 17 miles of Mississippi River
riverfront.

Mike Hahm is the Director of Parks and Recreation. There are two divisions of the Department
that are most relevant to this investigation. First, the Operations Division is responsible for
maintaining Lilydale Park. Lilydale Park falls under the supervision of Karin Misiewicz, who is
a Park Maintenance Supervisor. Cy Kosel, Natural Resources Manager, was the prior Park
Maintenance Supervisor responsible for the Park and also has substantial knowledge of Park
operations. Deb Williams and Diane Voyda are the field maintenance personnel who have been
most involved with specific maintenance duties for Lilydale Park.

By design, Lilydale Park has been left in an unimproved and undeveloped state. Park and
Recreation managers have treated Lilydale Park as a “passive park” with very few amenities for
visitors (e.g. no staff on site, no restrooms and few signs) and minimal maintenance. The limited


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routine work in the Park involves clearing the trails in the winter, patrolling the parking lots on a
regular basis and removal of garbage illegally dumped in the Park.

The Operations Division is also responsible for preparing and executing additional work orders
in the Park, which result from needs identified by sources such as the Mayor’s office, the public
or maintenance personnel. The vast majority of the routine work orders reviewed by the
Investigator related to clean up of graffiti in the Park. There were several work orders related to
providing services and equipment for maintenance of the parking lot and the flat portion of the
Brickyard Trail leading from the parking lot, including unclogging the culvert that runs under the
trail in that area.

The Operations Division also handles permits for all of the City’s parks. For Lilydale Park, the
City requires permits for fossil hunting and ice climbing. Cindy Morrison is the Office Manager
in charge of the permitting process.

Kelley Dinsmore was hired in 2010 as the Educational Coordinator in the Operations Division to
conduct programming in the less frequently visited parks. She implemented two programs in
Lilydale Park. One was called “Story Walk” and occurred in the flood plain level of the Park.
She also developed the “Hike-It” program which was an educational hiking program run by
trained volunteers and included hikes on the Brickyard Trail, which is in the Fossil Ground area
of the Park.

The Design and Construction Division is involved in the parks when construction occurs. Alice
Messer is the project manager from Design and Construction who is most knowledgeable about
Lilydale Park and has led the master planning process, which led to the current construction in
the Park. Messer received assistance and guidance from supervisors Don Ganje and Brian
Tourtelotte, and Manager of Design and Construction, Jody Martinez. She was also assisted by
Ellen Stewart, who led the project while Messer was on parenting leave from October 2008 to
April 2009, and again from January 2011 to June 2011.

               3.      Master Plan for Improvement of Lilydale Park

                       a.      Overview

In 1991, the City developed the Lilydale/Harriet Island Regional Park Master Plan. [Ex. 2 –
August 1991 Lilydale/Harriet Island Regional Park Master Plan] This Plan sought development
of the Park for recreational use, including objectives such as the creation of a highly visible
entrance, improved access to the river, connections to other river corridor parks, interpretive and
recreational facilities, clean-up of Pickerel Lake and improved physical access.

The design elements for Lilydale included many items, one of which was bluff stabilization.
Others included a campground, lakeside activity center, an interpretive building, bike paths,
fishing docks and a boat launch. These design elements were estimated to cost $16.5 million.
According to City of St. Paul landscape architect Alice Messer, none of the design elements of
the 1991 Master Plan were implemented due to a lack of funding.




                                                  6
In 2003, the City and a citizens group, Friends of Lilydale, signed a Letter of Intent establishing
updated shared priorities for programming and enhancements. [Ex. 3 - February 24, 2003 Letter
of Intent Between Friends of Lilydale and Saint Paul Parks and Recreation] While a few of the
priorities identified in the letter were accomplished, such as a bike path that was constructed in
the flood plain area, Lilydale Park has remained predominantly undeveloped. The Park has
remained in its natural state and has been intentionally unmanaged in to maintain it as a nature-
based park.

In 2007, the City initiated a process to develop a Master Plan Amendment (“MPA”) for Lilydale
Park to update the previous plan and formalize the current vision. The project was initiated after
the City received $100,000 from Xcel Energy related to its use of the Park land for its operations.

The goal of the MPA was to showcase Lilydale Park’s natural features and enable increased
access to the Park. This work was predominantly focused on the flood plain area of the Park and
not the Fossil Ground, which was intended to remain in its natural state. Likewise, there was no
plan to develop the bluffs. An Advisory Task Force was appointed in 2007 and, although it met
a few times in the 2007 and 2008 to begin discussing goals for Lilydale Park, there was not
sufficient funding for most of the desired projects, so little progress was achieved.

In November 2008, Minnesota voters approved a Clean Water, Land and Legacy Amendment
which provided a 3/8 of one percent increase in sales and use tax beginning in 2009. A
percentage of the revenue was used for a new Parks and Trail Fund established in 2009. Once
Legacy funding became available, the City’s Parks and Recreation Department was able to move
forward with the process to develop the MPA.

The Design and Construction Division managed the project, with licensed landscape architect
Alice Messer as the project manager. Messer led the Task Force through a continued in-depth
planning process from 2009 through 2013. The Task Force included voting members from the
community including Friends of Lilydale, Friends of the Mississippi River, Friends of Ramsey
County Parks and Trails, Riverfront Corporation and the West Side Citizens Organization.
There were also non-voting members of the Task Force which included City and regional agency
representation. Cy Kosel, from the Operations Division of the Parks and Recreation Department,
was designated a non-voting Task Force member. The purpose of including employees from the
Operations Division was to ensure that any element of the Park design would not negatively
affect the park operations and could be maintained by the Division.

Kosel attended numerous Task Force meetings along with Park Supervisor Karin Misiewicz.
After a lengthy public process, the MPA was approved by the Metropolitan Council on January
13, 2013.

                       b.     Natural Resources Management Plan

The first step of creating any master plan is the preparation of a Natural Resources Management
Plan (“NRMP”). An NRMP is required by the Metropolitan Council to ensure that any park
development meets the needs of the visitors while sustaining and preserving the natural resources
of the area. The Parks and Recreation retained Bonestroo Consulting (now known as Stantec
Consulting) to prepare the NRMP for Lilydale Park, which was completed on May 30, 2009.

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The purpose of the report was to conduct a field-based inventory of natural areas/land cover
types and water resources, as well as to review existing information on environmental
contamination with a goal of identifying future actions related to the management of natural
resources in Lilydale Park. The NRMP addressed the following issues: natural areas
inventory/land cover mapping, water resource analysis, lake management primer and
environmental issues/contaminated soils. The information was intended to help form the
technical foundation of Lilydale Park planning efforts and help frame the practical possibilities
of human recreational use of the Park, as well as the opportunities for ecological restoration and
management.

In its 97-page report that covered all aspects and areas of the Park, Bonestroo made
recommendations related to the Park concept plan site constraints, environmental
hazards/contaminated soils, natural areas management, water resources and other environmental
issues. [Ex. 4 – May 2009 Lilydale Regional Park Natural Resources Management Plan] The
NRMP was addressed to Alice Messer. Cy Kosel was also involved in meetings with the
consultant related to the NRMP.

                      c.      Master Plan Amendment

The final draft of the MPA was dated September 2009. [Ex. 5 – September 2009 Master Plan
Amendment] Because the Park is a regional park, the revised Master Plan was required to
address the following eleven elements required by the Metropolitan Council for Regional Parks
and Open Space Master Plans:

      Boundaries and Acquisition Costs
      Stewardship Plan
      Demand Forecast
      Development Concepts
      Conflicts
      Public Services
      Operations
      Citizen Participation
      Public Awareness
      Special Needs
      Natural Resources

The stated goal in the MPA was to restore Lilydale Park to a natural based resource park.
According to a Design Advisory Committee presentation, the vision of the project was to:
"[c]reate an overall master plan which accentuates the unique characteristics of Lilydale and
Cherokee Regional Park and provides visual, physical, historical and natural connections within
and between two park areas and the Mississippi River." [Ex. 6 – Undated Design Advisory
Committee Presentation].

The MPA consisted of 14 design elements, including: (1) entrance gateway, (2) Water Street
improvements, (3) Fossil Ground trail head development/historical interpretation, (4) regional
trail realignment, (5) boardwalk, (6) Lilydale Road realignment, (7) picnic gathering area, (8) off

                                                 8
leash dog park, (9) storm water treatment area, (10) riverbank restoration, (11) site clean-up, (12)
erosion control/cave protection, (13) fishing pier, and (14) wildlife viewing platforms.

The draft of the MPA was prepared by Alice Messer. Jody Martinez, Manager of the Design and
Construction division, assisted on the preparation of the MPA in light of her past knowledge,
experience and interest in the Park.

                       d.     Public input

As part of the creation of the MPA, an Advisory Task Force was created in 2007 that included
citizens at large and representatives of various agencies including Friends of Lilydale, Friends of
the Mississippi River, Friends of Ramsey County Parks and Trails, Riverfront Corporation and
the West Side Citizens Organization.

From 2007 to 2009, the City obtained significant public input in developing the master plan for
Lilydale Park by conducting several Task Force meetings, a public open house, a survey, a
meeting focused on a proposed dog park and presentations to various stakeholders.

Following the MPA process, there were further meetings focused on the roadway and shelter
design process. The final task force meeting on May 10, 2011 resulted in consensus on the
preferred roadway design, monument sign design and shelter and restroom building designs.

                       e.     Sequencing

Due to funding limitations, the design elements of the MPA could not all be completed at one
time. The project needed to be sequenced, and the entire project was anticipated to span over a
decade. The sequencing decisions were made by Messer with guidance from Ganje, Tourtelotte
and Martinez and then discussed with the Task Force.

The environmental clean-up needed to occur as the first step of any construction. After that, the
decision was made to start with the road construction for many reasons. First, the road
construction is located in the same area as the environmental clean-up, and proceeding together
with both steps was most efficient. Also, there had been safety concerns about the road crossing
the trail and the City wanted to disconnect the two. The road needed to be completed in two
phases due to funding, and it made sense to begin nearest Pickerel Lake because the road
construction was a foundation for other design elements such as the picnic shelter and parking
lot. The gateway signage was also one of the initial projects completed due to funding that was
secured through a donation from the Saint Paul Parks Conservancy.

                       f.     Approval

The Task Force voted on elements of the concept plan. Each of the elements was approved on
July 1, 2009. The MPA was approved by the City Council on October 29, 2009 and the
Metropolitan Council on January 13, 2010.




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                      g.      Environmental Assessment Worksheet

In March 2012, the implementation of projects outlined in the approved MPA was placed on
hold in response to community concerns about potential environmental impacts. To help dispel
any perceptions that significant environmental impacts would occur as a result of the master
plan, the Parks and Recreation Department completed a discretionary Environmental Assessment
Worksheet (“EAW”). The determination of the EAW was that no additional environmental
impacts were anticipated from the project and that the proposed project would restore the
presently environmentally degraded condition of Lilydale Park to a natural resource‐based park.
The EAW also determined that an Environmental Impact Study was not required. Construction
of the roadway is now proceeding as planned.

               4.     Friends of Lilydale

The Friends of Lilydale (“FOL”) was formed in 1999 as a grass roots organization to advocate
for Lilydale Park and improvements to the Park. Its goal is to increase access to the Park but
with an appropriate balance to preserve the unique natural resource qualities of the Park. West
side residents Jon Kerr and Margaret “Grit” Youngquist have led the group, which includes
numerous volunteers and has the support of the West Side Citizens Organization.

Over the past several years, the FOL has been involved in numerous projects in the Park
including Vento’s View, signage, benches and maintaining the Brickyard Trail in the Fossil
Ground. They have also coordinated numerous events including hiking activities and biking
events. In addition, the FOL has partnered with the City on many projects including the Hike-It
Program initiated by Educational Coordinator Kelley Dinsmore in 2010. In 2009, the FOL was
named the “Park Organization of the Year.” At that time, FOL had a good working relationship
with Parks and Recreation staff.

The relationship between the FOL and the City has become strained in recent years as the FOL
developed concerns over the City’s vision for the Park as reflected in the MPA. Specifically, the
FOL raised concerns about the City’s desire to focus on development projects (such as roads,
parking lots and buildings) versus maintaining the natural state of the Park. Throughout 2011,
Kerr and Youngquist met with Parks and Recreation managers to discuss their concerns
regarding environmental and park security issues. However, despite this apparent tension, the
FOL had expressed no concerns that the Park was inherently unsafe, or that children should be
kept away from the Fossil Ground. In fact, one of the main goals of the FOL was to get more
access to the Fossil Ground, including a boardwalk over Pickerel Lake.

       B.      May 22 Incident in the Fossil Ground

               1.     The Fossil Ground and Fossil Hunting in the Park

In addition to the flat flood plain, Lilydale Park includes the Fossil Ground within the old
Brickyard area that is south of Pickerel Lake and extends up into the bluffs. Glaciers that had
once traveled over Minnesota during the Ice Age left behind fossils in “glacial till”. The
Brickyard area is unique because the fossils were exposed by the historic Twin City Brickyard
operations. The excavation removed the limestone “crust” of the bluffs, exposing shale and

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sandstone rife with fossils. According to the fossil hunting community and Friends of Lilydale
Park, fossil hunting is most ideal after it rains, because the rain can wash off a new layer of shale
and sandstone and expose new fossils.




[Ex. 7 - Map of Fossil Ground] Interpretive signs along the Brickyard Trail describe the
brickyard operations and the natural history of the area. The signs request that park visitors stay
on the trail, but since the fossil beds are not directly on the trail, the City certainly contemplated
that visitors who are there to hunt for fossils will not remain on the trail. However, the fossil
beds are not far off the Brickyard Trail and fossil hunters do not need to climb the walls of the


                                                  11
clay pits to find fossils. At the time of the Incident, there was no additional signage warning
visitors of any hazard related to soil erosion or unstable slopes.

The Brickyard is the only area of the Park where a special use permit is required for access. A
permit is required for fossil hunting in the Park. Cindy Morrison from the Operations Division
manages the fossil permitting process. In 2011, the fossil permitting process was managed
electronically and since 2012, individuals can obtain a permit online by themselves. In addition
to online self-permitting, an individual can also fill out a manual application and mail it in or call
and fill out an application over the phone. If a party is tax exempt and wants to maintain its tax
exempt status, online permitting is not allowed.

The following warnings, instructions and release language is included in the paper application:

       Park user will take all means necessary to fully advise participants (and their
       parent or guardian if participants are not adults) of all activities that park user
       and above group wishes to engage in when entering Lilydale Regional Park for
       the purposes stated above.

       The park user warrants at all times, that full and adequate adult supervision will
       be provided for any minor persons the park user brings into Lilydale Regional
       Park for the above purposes.

       The park user agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the City of St. Paul from any
       and all claims of whatever kind or nature that may arise while the park user
       and/or persons acting under its auspices and control are on said property
       pursuant to this permit. As part of said indemnification, the park user fully
       acknowledges that some of the conditions and locations within the Lilydale
       Regional Park area are hazardous to persons or property and park user
       specifically assumes the liability of the City of St. Paul as such claims or injuries
       may arise to persons or property due to its unsafe conditions.

The application also states:

       A rain date will be granted if the Park Permit Office is notified prior to the end of
       the reservation date.

A copy of the park rules and regulations is linked to the online application and sent to those who
apply by mailing in the application form. The document states that “you are using this park at
your own risk”. According to Morrison, the “hazards” contemplated in the release are any
hazards that could be expected in any natural environment such as increased risk of trips and
falls, animals and insects, fallen trees and bad weather.

Because the Brickyard excavation sites are rich with fossils, it is a popular destination for field
trips for many metropolitan area schools. The City was well aware that numerous schools visit
the Fossil Ground on an annual basis. In 2010, the City issued 294 permits with 6,083 persons in
attendance for fossil hunting related to those permits. In 2011, the City issued 283 permits, with
5,240 individuals in attendance. In 2012, the City issued 362 permits, with 4,919 individuals in


                                                 12
attendance pursuant to those permits. While people do climb without a permit, there is signage
in the Park stating that a permit is required.

The Park was closed throughout March 2011 due to flooding. That is the only time that
Morrison recalls the Park being closed since 2009. Operations crews watch flooding conditions
carefully and the Parks will be closed if the levels get too high. If permits are issued for times
when the Park is closed, the trip will be rescheduled or reimbursed.

               2.     May 22 Hobart School Visit and Incident

On Wednesday, May 22, 2013, a fourth grade class from Peter Hobart Elementary School in the
St. Louis Park school district traveled to Lilydale Park for a fossil hunting field trip. The
application was for two dates – first, May 22, 2013, when the school was scheduled to be in the
fossil area with 50 students and 8 to 10 adults from 12:30 p.m. to 2:50 p.m. The second
reservation was for May 23, again from 12:30 p.m. to 2:50 p.m., with 50 students and 8 to 10
adults.

Hobart’s permit was issued based upon a paper application completed by Tara Wetzel, a fourth
grade teacher at Hobart. The paper application contained the standard waiver provisions that the
applicant “acknowledges that some of the conditions and locations within the Lilydale Regional
Park area are hazardous to persons or property” and indemnifies the City against claims “due to
its unsafe conditions.” [Ex. 8 – April 23, 2013 Peter Hobart School Permit Application]

On the afternoon of May 22, as Hobart fourth graders were walking and exploring in the East
Clay Pit in the Fossil Ground, a large mass of soil from the steep bluff slope above them gave
way and collapsed on top of four children.




                                                13
[Ex. 9 – Aerial image of Incident site with coordinates supplied by Public Works Department]

Three were recovered on the day of the Incident. Of those three, Haysem Sani died, Devin
Meldahl suffered significant injuries, and Lucas Lee sustained minor injuries. The fourth child,
Mohamed Fofana, remained missing overnight, and the rescue mission became a recovery
mission the following day until Fofana’s body was recovered.

After the Incident, the City retained Northern Technologies, Inc. (“NTI”), a geotechnical firm
based in Fargo, North Dakota, to analyze the physical cause of the Incident. NI is a
multidiscipline geotechnical and materials engineering and testing firm, providing service to both
the public and private sector.

NTI analyzed the geology and location of the May 22 slope failure, and concluded that recent
man-made activity was not a contributing factor to the slope failure. The Incident was caused by
the introduction of groundwater due to recent rain events,2 which overburdened the sand soils,
increasing its weight of the sand level and fracturing either the shale level or the sand level. The
engineers stated that although any particular slide is unpredictable, the bluffs in and around
Lilydale Park, although appearing to be stable to the untrained eye, are inherently unstable and
will be susceptible to additional slope failures as they undergo additional natural weathering.



2
 The Twin Cities experienced abnormally heavy rainfall in the spring of 2013, and especially during the weekend
preceding the Incident. [Ex. 10 - Daily Weather Records for the Twin Cities: 2010 to date]

                                                       14
[Ex. 11 – June 2013 photo by NTI of Incident site]

       C.      Prior City Knowledge of Soil Erosion

               1.      General Soil Erosion in City Parks

Erosion is the process where the surface of land is worn down by natural forces including
running water. The surface soil or rocks are then transported and deposited to another area.
Surface erosion is a gradual, natural and predictable phenomenon. A slope failure or “landslide,”
on the other hand, is a sudden and potentially catastrophic type of erosion where an internal
failure of the slope deposits a mass amount of land, making it very difficult to predict.

Erosion is a natural phenomenon that is inherent in any river valley and affects every St. Paul
park along the Mississippi River bluff. The City is well aware of the issue of surface erosion and
its effects on the parks along the bluffs. In July 2012, the City developed the Great River
Passage Master Plan as a way to unify all of the 17 miles of City park land along the Mississippi
River. [Great River Passage Plan]

The Great River Passageway Master Plan discussed erosion concerns and plans to minimize
erosion of trails, paths and bluffs. The Plan discussed the effects of erosion related to the desire


                                                 15
to improve water quality as well as the need to consider stabilizing the bluffs to prevent erosion.
The Plan identified minimizing bluff and hillside erosion, especially as it relates to storm water
runoff as a recommendation throughout all of the parks.

Many other riverside parks with longstanding Master Plans have dealt with erosion issues. For
example, the 2011 Crosby Lake Master Plan prepared by the Capital Watershed District as a
result of a grant, which involved the City as a sponsor and owner of the Crosby Farm Park, has
specific plans for bluff stabilization in order to prevent erosion as a way to maintain the quality
of Crosby Lake. [Crosby Lake Management Plan] The recommendation was supported by a bluff
stabilization feasibility study, which had been conducted for Crosby Farm Park in 2007 by
Emmons and Olivier Resources, Inc. [Crosby Farm Bluff Study]

               2.      Soil Erosion in Lilydale Park

Although the execution of Lilydale Park’s Master Planning process is in its early stages, it too
addresses erosion control.

                       a.     Natural Resources Management Plan

Bonestroo Consulting completed a 97-page Natural Resources Management Plan on May 30,
2009. In the report, Bonestroo suggested conducting a "Feasibility study of ravine/slope erosion
areas." The report states that "erosion along the walls of the former clay pits should be evaluated
and prioritized for stabilization" and references a sheer cliff that is close to a residential home
which is above the western-most clay pit. The report indicates that such a study is "important to
prioritize sites for stabilization of slopes and ravines, important for protecting structures and
minimizing nutrient transport to Pickerel Lake.” [Ex. 4 - May 2009 Lilydale Regional Park
Natural Resources Management Plan].

It should be noted that on May 24, 2013, two days after the Incident, Stantec Consulting Services
(formerly Bonestroo), wrote to Brad Meyer, who is responsible for media relations for the Parks
and Recreation department. Stantec noted that the observations in the report related to the clay
pits were specific to the furthest southwest pit and the bluff line much further to the southwest
than where the Incident occurred. [Ex. 12 – May 24, 2013 Letter from Stantec to Brad Meyer].

                       b.     Master Plan Amendment

The MPA adopted the Bonestroo recommendation. Element 12 out of the 14 point plan related
to erosion control/cave protection. Specifically, the plan states:

       Ravines along the bluff line exhibit varying levels of erosion within Lilydale Park. It is
       generally occurring along the mid to upper slope areas with some areas of incision
       exceeding 10 feet in depth. Erosion is also occurring along the walls of the former clay
       pits used by the Twin Cities Brickyard. These areas are to be evaluated for stabilization
       measures.

       Estimated cost of erosion control is dependent on preliminary investigation of erosion
       and stabilization measures. A field based inventory of location and severity of erosion is


                                                16
       required to identify required stabilization measures. An estimate for this inventory is
       approximately $15,000.00.

[Ex. 5 – September 2009 Master Plan Amendment].

According to Messer, the erosion inventory was not included in the first phase of work to be
completed because Parks and Recreation had always believed that erosion was the result of storm
water run-off, which was an issue throughout the City’s parks along the Mississippi River. This
issue had been discussed with representatives from the Sewer division of the Public Works
department over the years. In addition, erosion was believed to be a gradual and long-term issue
that would not pose any immediate threat to structures along the bluff. At no time did Messer
consider erosion as a threat to the safety of park visitors.

                      c.      Public input to Master Amendment planning process

There was substantial amount of public input into the Master Amendment planning process. The
Investigator interviewed City employees and reviewed Task Force meeting minutes as well as
the electronic and physical files of project manager Messer related to Lilydale Park. None of the
City employees recalled any concerns expressed by members of the public regarding safety risks
to park visitors resulting from natural events in the former brickyards. (There were discussions
of “public safety,” but those concerns related to criminal activity.) Erosion issues were
minimally discussed but not connected to the clay pits or in the context of any safety concerns.
Erosion issues that were recalled by witnesses related to water contamination of Pickerel Lake
and, to the extent the Bonestroo Report was raised, it was in the discussion of contaminated
water entering the lake through Ivy Falls. This conclusion is confirmed by the Investigator’s
review of meeting minutes and public comments.

The Friends of the Mississippi did comment in writing about the Master Plan Amendment. In a
July 15, 2009 letter to Carrie Wasley, the chair of the St. Paul Parks and Recreation Commission,
the group made the following statement:

       We think it is important for the City to have a deliberate strategy to stabilize numerous
       areas of erosion throughout the Park. The May 2009 Natural Resources Management
       Plan for the Park notes that some areas of erosion threaten private property, and create
       impacts on the railroad tracks. Others may pose long-term threats to areas around the
       clay pit, Vento’s View and the waterfall along the brickyard trail.

The letter cited to the NRMP report and then stated:

       We think such an analysis [as recommended in the Bonestroo report] is critical to the
       shoring up key resources within the park and ensuring they remain generally intact for
       future generations. As such, we hope that the draft you forward to the City Council will
       recommend conducting this detailed field review in the near term and following up with
       implementation of recommended erosion control projects in the long term.

[Ex. 13 – July 15, 2009 Letter from Friends of the Mississippi River to Carrie Wasley]



                                                17
Jon Kerr of Friends of Lilydale told the Investigator that erosion concerns were raised but
acknowledged that those comments are not reflected in the Task Force minutes. He discussed
erosion along the Brickyard Trail with Misiewicz and was concerned that the City was not
prioritizing the erosion concerns and report identified by Bonestroo in the NRMP.

                       d.      Environmental Assessment Worksheet

The Investigator reviewed documents related to demands for an Environmental Assessment
regarding the Master Plan Amendment, including responses to the Environmental Assessment
Worksheet (“EAW”), and demands that the City conduct a more comprehensive Environmental
Impact Statement.

The City prepared a voluntary EAW, which was published and opened for public comment
between June 11 and July 11, 2012. On August 10, 2012, the City published a “Record of
Decision Regarding the Need for Environmental Impact Statement for Improvements to Lilydale
Regional Park.” [Ex. 14 – August 10, 2012 City of St. Paul Record of Decision]. This document
set forth the reasons why an Environmental Impact Statement was not required, which were in
general terms that significant environmental impacts were not expected from the project.

This document also included all comments received during the comment period to the
EAW. There were only a few comments related to erosion; most focused on whether the road
should be built. One comment asked: “I wonder if long-term plans for Lilydale Regional Park
also address restoration of the bluff prairie and controlling erosion on the bluff trails and in the
fossil beds.” The response from the City was: “Bluff stabilization and habitat restoration are
important components of both the Lilydale Regional Park Master Plan Amendment dated 2010
and in the Great River Passage Master Plan. Erosion and sediment control are addressed in
section 16.” Id. at 13.

A comment by Grit Youngquist and Jon Kerr briefly addressed erosion, asking why resources
were being concentrated in areas not affected by “chronic erosion.” Id. at 24. The response from
the City did not address erosion.

Another comment stated:

       I'm seeing a hugely disturbing amount of erosion by hidden falls. I mean, the bluff is just
       collapsing down into that stream, and what -- where is the plan addressing that? Are we
       just going to let Lilydale Regional Park decay and fall apart while we create these other
       structures? I mean, I don't understand.

Id. at 28. This comment raised several other issues as well, and the response from the City did
not directly address the erosion concern.

Finally, in praising the project, another comment referenced erosion and “landslides,” but
generally praised the plan:




                                                  18
       The other improvements are sane because they're about reducing erosion and making the
       park less hazardous, by degrees. Of course erosion and rock falls will continue to be
       regular, but maybe mitigating the landslides.

Id. at 35. There was no response to this comment because it did not relate to environmental
impacts.

There were no comments related to any safety concerns within the Fossil Ground.

               3.      Evidence of Erosion in Lilydale Park

                       a.      May 2011 slope failure near waterfall

In early May 2011, there was a significant soil failure from a bluff within in the Fossil Ground
near the waterfall just north of the East Clay Pit. Soil and debris clogged part of a creek bed, and
created a pool near the waterfall. Over the next few weeks, the blockage released and sand
washed down to the bottom of the creek and covered part of the flat portion of the Brickyard
Trail that heads southwest from the Fossil Ground parking lot.

Although the exact date and time of this slide is unknown, it occurred sometime before May 10,
2011. Rain on May 8 and 9, totaling .65 inches, may have been a contributing factor. [Ex. 10 -
Daily Weather Records for the Twin Cities]. The Incident was first reported to the City in a May
18 email from Stan Zobel of the National Park Service to Cy Kosel, Natural Resources Manager
for Parks and Recreation. [Ex. 15 - May 18, 2011 email from Stan Zobel to Cy Kosel]. Zobel’s
email included an email from citizen Amy Garcia on May 10:

       Hi, Just wanted to let you know that across the ravine of the NPS sign near the waterfall
       on the brickyard trail in Cherokee Park, the entire bluff side collapsed (must’ve
       happened within the last storm) and has filled the ravine-even creating a pool for the
       water from the waterfall as it can’t easily get down there anymore. So the sign no longer
       references a brick yard cave as there is nothing there anymore! It’s all in the ravine.
       Pretty fantastic actually as I’ve never seen a slide collapse like that before. Anyway, just
       FYI-nature has taken a different course than the sign refers to.

In this same email, Zobel reported that an interpretive sign at the waterfall was still in place, and
stated “[t]here has been significant erosion though. I was surprised at the amount.” Kosel
forwarded this email conversation to Adam Robbins, Gary Korum, Karin Misiewicz and Pat
Voyda, with the comment: “Another Landslide? We should check out to see if it [is] creating
other issues.”

The landslide was also documented by nearby residents affiliated with FOL. After a Memorial
Day walk through along the Brickyard Trail, Ed Steinhauer sent the following post to FOL’s
Facebook page:

       There must have been a mudslide within the past two weeks. This is the waterfall
       adjacent to the brickyard trail. A large section of the bluff line has apparently slid into



                                                 19
       the valley, blocking the stream completely. The water is still filling the basin and has not
       found an outlet yet.

FOL leader Grit Youngquist was among those who responded immediately to the post, stating
that she had seen the site while birding on May 15. “Kind of shocking all the trees down, the
mud dam . . . ” Steinhauer posted one photo on the Friends of Lilydale Facebook page:




[Ex. 16 – Photo posted on Friends of Lilydale Facebook page]

Kelley Dinsmore, the education coordinator, had also contacted Misiewicz to report that, during
one of the Hike-It events along the Brickyard Trail, Dinsmore had seen a slide that blocked part
of the creek. The next day, Misiewicz went to the Park and walked the trail toward the bench
near the waterfall. She saw a lot of debris, looked up and saw a significant slough off from the
bluff. Misiewicz, from the standpoint of access to and safety for visitors on the Brickyard Trail,
did not consider the slide to be a major event or a safety hazard, as all of the debris was well off
the walking path.

Several weeks later, on June 18, Steinhauer visited the Park and observed ankle-deep mud
washed onto the trail from the recent slide and described the path as “completely impassable.”
He posted a photo on the FOL Facebook page later that day, taken by Nicole Anderson:




                                                 20
[Ex. 17 – Photo depicting ankle-deep mud] Anderson, a volunteer for the Hike-It program, had
accompanied Steinhauer, snapped the photo with his camera, and later informed Dinsmore of the
sand and silt on the path. Dinsmore also saw the post and reported it Kosel in a June 21 email
[Ex. 18 - June 21, 2011 email from Kelley Dinsmore to Cy Kosel]. In turn, Kosel forwarded the
communication to Misiewicz and Deb Williams, the maintenance supervisor assigned to parks in
the southern half of the city, including Lilydale. Again, according to Misiewicz, she visited the
trail with Williams and Dinsmore, and concluded that the trail was passable and safe. It was not
uncommon for the culvert near the waterfall to clog with debris, and it was cleared. Dinsmore
considered the slide to be part of the natural erosion in the area and, in fact, used it as an example
of erosion during the hikes she led later that year and in 2012.

Parks and Forestry Supervisor Scott Kruse also told the Investigator that he had observed the site
of the May 2011 slope failure sometime during the late summer or early fall of that same year.

The Investigator twice observed the apparent site of the same slope failure during visits to the
Park:




                                                 21
[Ex. 19 – August 2013 photo by NTI of May 2011 slope failure site]

                      b.     February 2012 observations of erosion in the clay pits

Kruse is an avid ice climber, and he has served as the department’s unofficial consultant on ice
climbing in the City’s parks. In recent years, he has mentioned to his colleagues concerns about
soil erosion in the Fossil Ground where he often climbed. For example, he observed locations
where the bluff line was drifting closer to trees and where fences were falling off the edge.

On February 1, 2012, after a climb in the Fossil Ground, Kruse reported his observations
regarding the conditions of the bluffs in an email to Operations Manager Gary Korum [Ex. 20 -
February 1, 2012 email from Scott Kruse to Gary Korum]:

       Gary,

       Monday I made my inspection of the ice climbing areas in the brickyards. With the warm
       winter the ice is climbable but not in great shape.

       Erosion continues to be a problem in the brickyards the first two photos are of the "main
       area" this is also the main area for Fossil hunting. Notice the top edge of the photo's
       [sic] where the ice meets the embankment, the embankment is actually hanging over the

                                               22
        ice much like a carpet sliding off the edge of a stair. The over hang has trees connected
        to it, these will all slide off in the next year or two, I believe the whole hillside is at high
        risk to slide in heavy rains. Th [sic] next two photo's are the waterfall area just below
        Cherokee ark [sic] at Annapolis and 13. The erosion would be hard to describe, but at
        this location we have lost about 5 feet of embankment, one to the west of the falls and the
        other to the access trail leading down from the top of the park (some Parks Chain link
        fencing has made its way all the way down and over the falls).

        This falls is actually a very beautiful place that is for the most part unknown to most
        people, to see it destroyed by erosion would be a shame.

        I would be happy to go visit this area with anyone who may want to see it.

        Scott K

Kruse attached photographs he had taken during his climb of the affected areas, including one
showing an outcrop of earth near the East Clay Pit.3 [Ex. 22-25 – January 2012 photos by Scott
Kruse].

Although he described the “high risk of a slide” in his February 1 email, Kruse explained to the
Investigator that his concern was on the environmental impact of soil erosion on the bluff. His
focus was on preservation of the Park and the trees on which he and other climbers anchored
their gear. He was also concerned about losing any water sources which would allow for ice
climbing. At that time, he had not concluded that Fossil Ground or the clay pits were unsafe for
visitors.

Kosel forwarded Kruse’s email to Alice Messer and Ellen Stewart:

        Alice and Ellen:

        In doing a routine inspection of the bluffs between Cherokee and Lilydale, Scott Kruse
        indicates what we have been noticing for years now, the continued erosion around parts
        of the clay pits. It would seem that if this continues, it could cause a major slide and
        affect parts of the upper bluff at Cherokee (maybe not for years, but who knows).

        I was wondering if either of you have ever looked at it for stabilization or for steering
        away possible sources of water that may be lending to the erosion. See Scott's comments
        below.

[Ex. 26 - February 1, 2012 email from Cy Kosel to Alice Messer]

Within a week of this email exchange, Korum, Kruse, Misiewicz, Korum, Shawn Locke (a
Forestry Supervisor who works with Kruse) and Pat Voyda went to the site. The purpose of the
trip was to look at the erosion and to determine what, if any, response was required. The group
walked up the Brickyard trail to the culvert, and then went off the trail into the woods along the

3
 The Investigator photographed the same site during its post-accident inspection on the bluff overlooking the East
Clay Pit. [Ex. 21 – August 2013 photo by Investigator of Incident site]

                                                        23
stream. At the waterfall, the bluff became steep. Korum fell, was covered “from head to toe
with mud,” and could not proceed any further. The group was in the Park for about 45 to 60
minutes, and left together as they had rode in the same vehicle. They had looked up into the
bluffs, but did not get near the clay pits.

Public Works was also notified, and Joe Mueller and Aaron Hass, civil engineers in the Sewers
Section, also inspected the site with Kruse and Messer. The inspection lasted about two hours,
and they walked extensively along the bluff line above and through the Fossil Ground below—
including the East and Middle Clay Pits—using walking sticks and pull ropes to avoid falling on
the wet, slippery ground. Photographs were taken during the inspection. [Ex. 27 - February
2012 photo by Messer of bluff overlooking East Clay Pit]

Hass found no “smoking gun” as to what might be causing the erosion, concluding that erosion
was a natural occurring condition, given the steep slopes and the ground water migration. As
they departed, the group discussed what could be done to slow down the process. Following the
inspection, Public Works looked into storm sewer drainage points in the area and became aware
of a discharge problem on Cherokee Heights Boulevard that was eventually corrected in May
2013.

                       c.     Soil erosion and storm sewer drainage affecting the Cherokee
                              Regional Trail and Cherokee Heights Boulevard

The Cherokee Regional Trail is a shared use, paved 1.3 mile trail through Cherokee Regional
Park, situated on the southeast bluffs overlooking Lilydale Park and the Mississippi River.
Construction on the project from Annapolis Street to Plato Boulevard began in spring 2012 and
was completed in the fall of that year. Aspects of the project involved stabilization of eroding
slopes and management of sewer water near the project.

Messer was Park and Recreation’s project manager for the new trail. During the design phase,
the department encountered concerns about erosion on the adjoining slopes, and arranged to
install a sheet pile retaining wall to extend the bluff and provide adequate ground support for the
trail. As the trail was constructed, Messer and others also noticed that storm water was pooling
along Cherokee Heights Boulevard, potentially causing additional erosion along the trail. As
Messer was considering the response to Kruse’s February 1 email regarding erosion in the clay
pits, she sent an email to her colleagues—including her supervisor Jody Martinez—about the
implications of storm water for the trail project [Ex. 28 - February 1, 2012 email from Alice
Messer to Cy Kosel]:

       . . . With the Cherokee Trail Project work occurring; we are reconstructing some of the
       existing catch basins that drain to the bluff, but I am not sure how they relate to the
       current erosion issues. But it does seems [sic] like the time to address the issue would be
       in conjunction with the Cherokee Regional Trail project if storm water run-off from
       Cherokee is in fact the issue.

This recognition led to discussions between Messer and engineers with the Sewer division of the
City’s Public Works Department. By April 2012, after the Sewers engineers had examined the
site, plans were underway to fix plugged catch basins near the near the intersection of Cherokee

                                                24
Heights Boulevard and Annapolis Street that fed storm water into a 60-inch culvert that drained
into the Fossil Ground near the East Clay Pit. [Ex. 29 - April 23, 2012 email from Joe Mueller to
Alice Messer] According to Aaron Hass, a Public Works engineer who worked on the project,
the department decided to fix that drainage area because (a) it posed a risk to the new trail, (b) it
needed repair anyway, and (c) it might help control the soil erosion.

After Sewers verified the problem, designs were developed to correct it. The City had other
sewer projects, and the catch basin repairs became part of a larger contract that was bid out in
spring 2013. [Ex. 30 – February 11, 2013 specifications signed by Hass for Cherokee Heights
Boulevard sewer repair] Sewers prioritized the project because there was no effective drainage
occurring on the road and the City did not want to rely on pumps after a heavy rain. The
contractor, Schurcon Construction, began work in late April 2013 and installed four new catch
basins on Cherokee Heights Boulevard, redirecting the discharge into a depressed area across the
street to the southeast. The engineers also inspected and stabilized another nearby sewer line that
carried storm water from a large area of West St. Paul, accounting for most of the drainage into
the culvert. The reconstructed outlets now drain into the existing 60-inch culvert that feeds
downstream into the ravine near the East Clay Pit. The project, which cost about $120,000, took
about four weeks and was “substantially completed” during the week of May 27. Thus,
construction equipment was visible on Cherokee Heights Boulevard to those responding to the
May 22 Incident.

In the view of the Public Works engineers interviewed by the Investigator, the erosion in the
Fossil Ground was a complex problem resulting from multiple sources in addition to storm water
“overtopping” at Cherokee Heights Boulevard: the steep slopes, migration of ground water, foot
traffic on indiscriminate paths that trampled down vegetation, and storm water draining from the
culvert. [Ex. 31 – June 2013 photo by NTI of culvert] The repairs to the catch basins helped
reduce soil erosion in a localized area, but did not eliminate the problem.

                       d.      Other unreported slope failures

During one visit to the Park, the Investigator (accompanied by the lead NTI engineer, Ryan
Benson) observed evidence of at least one additional slope failure about 500 feet south of the
East Clay Pit. [Ex. 32 - Photo by investigator of slope failure south of Incident site]
Additionally, counsel for the families of the dead and injured children informed the Investigator
that they have collected evidence of other slope failures in the Park. There was no evidence
available to the Investigator indicating that these incidents were reported to or documented by
the City, and they did not appear to impact the Fossil Ground or access to the trails. Moreover,
the Investigator could not conclude that the slope failure observed during the site visit occurred
during the time period relevant to this report.




                                                 25
[Ex. 33 – Fossil Ground Map with approximate locations of three slope failures]


                                              26
               4.      Soil Erosion Events at Other Nearby Locations

                       a.     April 2010 Hidden Falls rock fall

On April 2, 2010, there was a “rock fall/landslide” along the Mississippi River Boulevard bluff
near Highway 5 and Hidden Falls Regional Park. Several days later, Kosel described the
Incident in an email to Parks and Recreation staff:

       Approximately 30 cubic yards of very large and other size rock broke away from the bluff
       about three-fourths the way up and crashed down taking out a few scrub trees at the
       bottom of the hill. Much of the debris landed on and effectively closed the park road
       leading to Hidden Falls Park (South Gate at Prior Street)

       The road had already been closed for the winter season and was due to remain closed
       until the park clean up from the recent flood is complete.

       There were no casualties nor significant damage done to the park.

[Ex. 34 – April 8, 2010 email from Cy Kosel to Ann Mulholland].

In response, the department contracted with an engineering firm to inspect the bluff for stability;
erected chain link fence at the top of the bluff to keep visitors safely back from the edge; and
installed signage above and below the bluff warning visitors of the hazard.

                       b.     April 2011 boulder fall at BC2 bakery

During the early morning of April 8, 2011, a large boulder and other rocks fell onto the building
occupied by the Bread, Coffee and Cake bakery, located at the base of the bluffs on Wabasha
Street South on the West Side. The City’s director of inspections described the boulder as
measuring 20 feet by 12 feet. [Ex. 35 – April 13, 2011 Star Tribune article]. The City condemned
the building, and the bakery relocated to Mendota Heights. A fence and retaining wall were later
constructed near the site to help stabilize the bluffs.

III.   CONCLUSION

       A.      Did the City know that soil erosion posed an environmental threat within
               Lilydale Park?

Yes.

Soil erosion is a natural, ongoing process in all of the City’s parks along the Mississippi River
bluffs, including Lilydale Park. This phenomenon was well known among City employees
responsible for managing, maintaining and improving the Park. Long-term planning for
development of the Park explicitly addressed soil erosion as an environmental concern, and
recommended steps to identify and control erosion. Specifically, the 2009 Bonestroo Natural
Resources Plan and the Master Plan Amendment noted “erosion along the walls of the former
clay pits” and recommended actions to survey erosion locations and identify stabilization
measures.

                                                27
In addition, the City was aware of several events during the last five years—within the Park and
elsewhere along the nearby Mississippi River bluffs—where soil erosion precipitated significant
slope failures, rock falls, and other significant changes in the landscape of the Park. Some
impeded Park access and required maintenance responses and other corrective measures; others
did not. Indeed, the slope failure that occurred near a waterfall within the Fossil Ground in early
May 2011 did not affect the trail until heavy rains weeks later swept mud and debris onto the
Brickyard Trail. At that point, it was quickly removed.

When forestry supervisor Scott Kruse observed serious soil erosion while ice climbing in the
clay pits in February 2012, and notified the Parks and Recreation operations manager that “the
whole hillside is at high risk to slide in heavy rains,” he was reporting a serious—but not an
unusual or unanticipated—outcome of several natural and manmade forces affecting the Park for
decades.

       B.      Did the City know that soil erosion posed a threat to the safety of visitors to
               the Fossil Ground within Lilydale Park?

No.

The tragic Incident on May 22 that killed two school children near Lilydale Park’s East Clay Pit
could not have been predicted by anyone. No witnesses or documents evaluated by the
Investigator suggested that any City employee was aware of an imminent hazard to visitors to the
fossil beds.

Although Kruse’s February 2012 email appeared to warn of a “high risk” of a slide, his
observations were interpreted by Parks and Recreation employees as reflecting concerns about
the environmental impact of soil erosion prevalent in the Park. Kruse did not intend to
communicate, nor did his supervisors understand, that there was an imminent risk to the safety of
future visitors to the Fossil Ground.

To be sure, there were sufficient indications to the City’s Park and Recreation managers that soil
erosion could cause sudden slope failures within Lilydale Park or at other locations along the
Mississippi bluffs. Indeed, as noted above, such failures had occurred two years earlier near the
waterfall and at nearby Hidden Falls Regional Park in 2010. Had people been present at the
bases of those slopes during the events, the consequences may have been tragic. However, given
the vast scale and dynamic nature of the bluffs and the Park, the Investigator concludes that it
would have been difficult for Parks and Recreation managers and employees to extrapolate from
knowledge of these prior events sufficient information that would identify and reasonably
eliminate risks of slope failure elsewhere in the Park.

There are safety hazards inherent to a visit to a “passive” park such as Lilydale Park where the
City’s purpose—and its residents’ expectation—is to preserve the native landscape, vegetation
and animal life. For that reason, visitors to the Fossil Ground, at the time they acquired permits,
were notified of general hazards within the Park. The Investigator notes that there was no
signage near the Incident site warning visitors that the bluff slopes might be unstable and
hazardous.


                                                28
Further, the investigation did not reveal policy or procedural barriers that impeded the sharing of
information among employees of distinct City departments, or divisions within the Parks and
Recreation Department, about the impact of soil erosion in the Fossil Ground. Operations
Division personnel were included in the master planning process for the Park, including review
and analysis of the Natural Resources Management Plan. Kruse’s February 2012 email sent to
Operations personnel was immediately forwarded to the relevant Design and Construction staff.
That division in turn worked together with Public Works engineers to analyze and attempt to
minimize the storm sewer system’s effect on soil erosion in the Park.

While there was a satisfactory system of communication and sharing of information within the
Parks and Recreation Department and among other related departments, the full significance of
the shared information relating to soil erosion in the Fossil Ground, and particularly the risk of
slope failures along the bluff in that area, was not fully appreciated by the staff. Nor did
individuals even more intimately familiar with the Park, including FOL’s advocates,
contemplate or communicate any public safety hazard related to soil erosion in the Fossil
Ground.

Indeed, nothing during the investigation revealed that information was available to City officials
that would enable them to predict a slope failure and pinpoint its location. Without such
information, the Investigator cannot conclude that City had actual or constructive knowledge that
would enable it take reasonable steps to prevent the May 22 Incident. Finally, although the soil
erosion survey proposed by the Bonestroo plan and the Master Plan Amendment has not yet been
funded or completed, there is no basis to conclude that such a survey would have identified or
predicted the unusual conditions that caused the deadly slope failure at the East Clay Pit.

Dated: August 22, 2013

                                                      Donald M. Lewis, Of Counsel
                                                      Sheila T. Kerwin
                                                      Courtney E. Ward-Reichard
                                                      NILAN JOHNSON LEWIS PA
                                                      120 South Sixth Street, Suite 400
                                                      Minneapolis, MN 55402




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                                                                     September
                                                                     2009
MASTER PLAN AM E ND M E NT




           Lilydale Regional Park Master Plan
 (Amendment to Lilydale/Harriet Island Regional Park Master Plan)

    Prepared by the Saint Paul Parks and Recreation Design Section
                                              Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s
                                   Page
Table of Contents                   1

Introduction                        2

Boundaries and Acquisition Costs    3

Stewardship Plan                    4

Demand Forecast                     4

Development Concept                 4 - 10

Conflicts                           11

Public Services                     11

Operations                          12

Citizen Participation               12

Public Awareness                    12

Special Needs                       13

Natural Resources                   13 - 17

Appendix A                          18




                                                                1
    Introduction
    This amendment to the Lilydale/Harriet Island Regional Park Master Plan is occurring
    due to a proposed change in the plans of the original Lilydale/Harriet Island Master Plan
    completed in 1991, as shown in Figure A.

    The revised master plan will address the eleven elements identified for Regional Parks
    and Open Space Master Plans in the Metropolitan Council Parks and Open Space
    Development Guide/Policy Plan. It is specifically intended to meet the criteria required by
    the Metropolitan Council and once adopted, will make the City eligible to apply for funding
    to implement plans for the new amenities identified in this plan amendment.




    Figure A: Existing Lilydale/Harriet Island Regional Park Master Plan from September 25, 1990

2
  Boundaries & Acquisition Costs
Lilydale Regional Park is owned and maintained by the City of Saint Paul. The major portion
of the park is located outside the Saint Paul city limits within the City of Lilydale, located in
Dakota County. It is defined by the Mississippi River to the North, Highway 13 located above
the river bluffs to the South, Harriet Island Regional Park to the East and the Pool and Yacht
Club to the West.

Lilydale Regional Park is a 384 acre park which includes the 100 acre Pickerel Lake and an
additional 100 acres of wetland/marsh. No additional parcels are required for the revised
Master Plan.




                                                   Lilydale Regional Park




                                                                                                    3
    Stewardship Plan

    The City of Saint Paul owns and maintains Lilydale Regional Park. The Saint Paul Police
    and Fire Department currently maintains public safety within the park boundaries. There
    are no non-residential uses or collection of revenues from such uses planned at this time.
    Should such uses occur in the future, revenues will be utilized consistent with the adopted
    Recreation Open Space Development Guide/Policy Plan.


    Demand Forecast

    Based on the 2008 Metropolitan Council Annual Use Estimate of the Metropolitan Regional
    Park System, Lilydale/Harriet Island/Cherokee Heights Regional Park was ranked as the
    10th most visited regional park with 1,089,000 visits in 2008. A third of those visits were
    from special events occurring at Harriet Island.

    The Metropolitan Council 2008 Parks and Trails Survey indicated walking/hiking, picnicking,
    playground use and relaxing are the top activities occurring in Lilydale/Harriet Island
    Regional Park.

    A community wide Community Attitude and Interest Citizen Survey was completed winter
    2007-2008, to establish priorities for the future improvement of parks and recreation
    facilities, programs and services for the City of Saint Paul. The results of this survey
    indicate walking and biking trails, small neighborhood parks, park rest rooms, Como
    Zoo and Conservatory and picnic areas/shelters as the top 5 of 17 facilities requiring
    improvement within the City of Saint Paul. The proposed Master Plan for Lilydale will
    meet the requested recreational amenities by providing walking/biking trails, picnicking
    opportunities and restroom facilities within the park.

    See Appendix A for projected site capacity and parking capacity estimates.




    Canoes on Pickerel Lake                                Existing Regional Trail along Water Street

    Development Concept

    The City of Saint Paul obtained the land now known as Lilydale Regional Park through a land
    swap agreement with Ramsey County after the Village of Lilydale relocated out of the flood way.
    In addition to numerous homes and related out buildings, Lilydale Regional Park has been the
    location of industrial and commercial operations including a brickyard, automobile salvage yard,
    a marina and a demolition landfill. These past uses are still apparent in the landscape through
    the large piles of construction debris buried within the park.
4
The revised Master Plan for Lilydale Regional Park will restore the park to a natural
resource based park. Existing contaminated soils and debris will be removed through out
the park and re- vegetated with natural plant communities.

The development concept provides the following design elements which are indicated in
Figure B below.
                                Entrance Gateway 1


                        Water Street Improvements     2


    Regional Trail Realignment    4


Lilydale Road Realignment     6
                                                                       Mississippi
Riverbank Restoration   10                                             River

   Site Clean Up   11




                                                                                              3 Fossil Ground
                                                                                                 Trail Head
                                                                                                 Development/
                                                                                                 Historical
                                                                                                 Interpretation

                                                                                            12 Erosion Control/
                                                                                                Cave Protection
                                      Pickerel Lake
                                                                                      5 Boardwalk

                                                                               7 Picnic Gathering Area

                                                                          13 Fishing Pier

                                                                      14 Wildlife Viewing Platforms

                                                                       8 Off Leash Dog Park
                                                                       9 Storm Water Treatment Area




                                                          Figure B : Proposed Site Development Plan
                                                                                                                  5
    1 - Entrance Gateway
    A gateway marking the entrance into Lilydale Regional Park from Harriet Island, will reflect
    the overall vision and aesthetic of the park. The gateway will use local limestone and
    brick from the former Twin Cities Brick Company to create a dramatic entrance into the
    park. Invasive plant material will be removed allowing viewsheds of the Mississippi River
    to appear from the existing roadway and regional trail. A planted median is also proposed
    with - WATER STREET GATEWAY
    PLAN VIEWnative plantings. See Figure C and D below.




                   1                                              4



                                                                                                                       6



                                                    3




                           2
                                                         LEGEND
                                                          1   EXISTING REGIONAL TRAIL
                                                5
                                                          2   PROPOSED ENTRANCE SIGN
                                                          3   PROPOSED MEDIAN PLANTING
                                                          4   REALIGNED WATER STREET
                                                          5   PROPOSED STONE COLUMN/SPLIT RAIL FENCE

                                                          6   OLD BAIT SHOP LOCATION


    Figure C: Plan View of Entrance Gateway


                 ENTRANCE PILLAR                          PRECAST CONCRETE CAP


                                                                                                                                                         EXISTING REGIONAL TRAIL

                                                                                         Lilydale
                                                                                         Regional Park
                                                                                                 City of Saint Paul
                                                                                          Division of Parks and Recreation




                                                                                                                                     KASOTA LIMESTONE IN RANDOM ASHLAR
                                                                                                                                     PATTERN WITH SPLIT STONE FINISH. INLAY
                                                                                         PRECAST CONCRETE                            HISTORIC TWIN CITY BRICK COMPANY BRICK
                                                                                         BASE                                        GATHERED FROM FOSSIL GROUND SITE
                                                                                                                                     SINGLE LIMESTONE BLOCK WITH METAL
                                                                                                                                     RAISED LETTERING ATTACHED (LOCATE STONE
     SECTION A - A’- GATEWAY TO LILYDALE REGIONAL PARK                                                                               FROM FOSSIL GROUND SITE)
     NOT TO SCALE

    Figure D: Section of Entrance Gateway

    2 - Water Street Improvements
    Water from the bluffs constantly seeps onto and beneath Water Street. The constant
    presence of water on the roadway has resulted in
    deterioration of the roadway. A creek bed is proposed along
    the base of the bluff to collect the water and divert it to a
    nearby collection location preventing further deterioration of
                                   the roadway.

                                             The existing regional trail
                                             abruptly ends at the entrance
                                             to the fossil grounds and trail
                                             users are forced to share the
                                             roadway for 875 feet, until
                                             the trail begins again past
                                             the Historic Mendota Heights

    Proposed Creek Bed along Water Street                                                                                    Existing Aerial View of Water Street
6
Bridge. Water Street will be realigned further away from the rivers edge and existing
regional trail to eliminate the trail and roadway conflicts that currently exist. The realignment
of this section of Water Street will provide a direct connection to the entrance of the fossil
grounds, eliminate existing trail conflicts and bury existing power lines; greatly enhancing
the entrance to Lilydale Regional Park from Water Street. It also places the trail adjacent to
the river creating viewing/overlook opportunities. See Figure E below.


                                                                 2


                                                        1
                                                             8

                            MISSISSIPPI RIVER




                                                                          LEGEND
                              4                                            1   EXISTING REGIONAL TRAIL
                                                    5
                                                                           2   EXISTING WATER STREET
                                           6
                                  3                                        3   REALIGNED WATER STREET
                                                                           4   REALIGNED REGIONAL TRAIL

                                                7                          5   PROPOSED PARKING LOT
                                                                           6   PROPOSED TRAIL HEAD
                                                                           7   EXISTING FOSSIL GROUND TRAIL
                                                                           8   PROPOSED CREEK BED



                       Figure E: Proposed Fossil Ground Trail Head and Water Street Improvements



3 - Fossil Ground Trail Head Development
A trail head kiosk will provide interpretive signage and a map
of the unique features within the fossil grounds. Rest room
facilities may also be provided at the trail head. See Figure E.

4 - Regional Trail Realignment
The existing regional trail will be realigned to provide a
continuous trail through Lilydale Regional Park. Existing
trail conflicts at the Union Pacific Railroad will be eliminated
through the realignment along the Mississippi River. The
realignment will reduce existing trail/roadway crossings from
four to one.

5 - Boardwalk
A boardwalk along the northern edge of Pickerel Lake will      Proposed Raised Boardwalk for
provide an important pedestrian connection between the main Canoe Crossing
picnic area along Pickerel Lake’s north edge and the Fossil
Ground area. The boardwalk will not block access between the large body of water SW
of the RR bridge and the small body of water NE of the bridge and adjacent to the fossil
grounds. The Department of Natural Resources require that access be maintained for non-
                                                                                                              7
    motorized boats on all navigable waterways. Fishing access points will be provided from the
    boardwalk. The boardwalk will also provide access to wildlife observation points along the
    shore of Pickerel Lake.

    6 - Lilydale Road Realignment
    Lilydale Road is currently aligned along the edge of Pickerel Lake, limiting the ability to
    implement placement of a picnic shelter along the lakeshore without a pedestrian roadway
    crossing. The proposal to relocate 2,600 lf of Lilydale Road further away from Pickerel
    Lake will provide space along the lakeshore for the central gathering and picnic area within
    the park. The roadway realignment will allow for traffic calming measures and storm water
    treatment through the introduction of planted medians and raised intersections at internal
    trail crossings. Water and sanitary sewer will run under the roadway providing service to the
    picnic shelter restroom. Lighting as needed for traffic and park safety will also be provided.

    7 - Picnic/Gathering Area
    A picnic shelter with public rest rooms will be provided within the Park. The picnic shelter
    is proposed to provide two separate shelters that accommodate 6 - 8 picnic tables each.
    The shelters will be raised above the floodplain elevation 12’ to allow for water and sanitary
    service. Additional picnic tables will be provided adjacent to the picnic shelter and along the
    lakeshore. The picnic shelter will be designed using sustainable building design techniques,
    such as a green roof and the use of local limestone materials. An amphitheater is proposed
    along the lakeshore for small group gathering space. It will provide panoramic views across
    Pickerel Lake and provide access to the lakeshore trail and boardwalk. See Figure F.
                                                                                                                                                                   Figure F: Proposed Lakeshore Gathering Area
      1     PICNIC SHELTER

    The picnic shelter, located 12’ above the floodplain, will provide panoramic views of Pickerel
    Lake, the Mississippi River and bluffs. The picnic shelter area will serve as the main activity
    area within the park providing parking and restroom facilities. The shelter design will reflect a
    sustainable building approach resulting in a structure that merges into the natural landscape of
    Lilydale Regional Park. Two separate structures providing space for approximately 6 - 8 picnic
    tables. Additional picnicking opportunities are available within the low grass prairie area.




                                                                                                                                                                        MISSISSIPPI RIVER


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOWLAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HARDWOOD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FOREST
      2     LILYDALE ROAD REALIGNMENT AND PARKING

    The proposed parking lot (80 space) and canoe access route will utilize permeable pavers
    reducing storm water run off into Pickerel Lake. Storm water from the parking lot and picnic
    shelter will be directed to infiltration basins that slowly release and filter storm water prior to it                                                            N
                                                                                                                                                                ATIO
    being absorbed into the existing floodplain soil. The vegetated median will help slow traffic and                                                           OR
                                                                                                                                                          EST
    provide additional opportunities for storm water treatment. Trail crossings will occur in correlation                                            N  KR
    with raised intersections, providing a safe crossing for pedestrians and bicyclists.                                                        ERBA
                                                                                                                                           RIV                     14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           LILYDALE REGIONAL PARK LAKESHORE PICNIC AREA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     RA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   TO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              R  ES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         O
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SH
                                                                                                                                                                                                 7                                 KE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 LA
      3     LAKESHORE GATHERING AREA
                                                                                                                                                                                     6                       LOW GRASS PRAIRIE
    Utilizing the landform created for the picnic shelter, the lakeshore gathering area will provide an
                                                                                                                       13                                                                   1
    amphitheater for small groups or individuals to gather along Pickerel Lake. This gathering area
    will utilize natural stone and native plant materials creating a unique space along Pickerel Lake.                                                                                                       7           8
                                                                                                                            FLOODPLAIN FOREST
                                                                                                                                                                                                     3
                                                                                                                                                         12


                                                                                                                                                                                                              9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CITY OF SAINT PAUL PARKS AND RECREATION DESIGN SECTION
                                                                                                                                                    4

                                                                                                                                                                                                             10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             5
      4     WILDLIFE VIEWING                                                                                                                                                 13
    Wildlife viewing areas will be constructed for visitors to observe wildlife that call Lilydale Regional
    Park home or use the park as a stopping ground for migration. Platforms will be constructed in                           13
    sensitive areas allowing park visitors to observe wildlife in their natural habitat while still protecting
    the natural environment.                                                                                                                                                                    11


                                                                                                                                                                              15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   LILYDALE REGIONAL PARK




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           LEGEND
                                                                                                                                                                               4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             6    RAIN GARDEN
                                                                                                                                                                                                         PICKEREL LAKE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             7    PERMEABLE PAVERS
      5     FISHING PIER                                                                                                                                                                                                                     8    CANOE DROP-OFF
                                                                                                                 FLOODPLAIN SAVANNA
    A fishing pier and lakeshore access points will be provided along Pickerel Lake. The fishing pier                                                                                                                                          9    AMPHITHEATER
    will extend towards the deeper part of the lake, providing handicap accessible fishing locations
    and canoe tie-ups. Lakeshore access points will be constructed Summer 2009 as part of the                                                                                                                                                10 PLAZA AREA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    JULY 1, 2009




    Pickerel Lakeshore Improvements.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             11 SHORELINE FISHING ACCESS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             12 SOFT NATURE TRAIL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             13 GROUP CAMP SITE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             14 REGIONAL TRAIL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             15 LAKESHORE TRAIL




8
8 - Dog Park
An off leash 8.5 acre fenced dog park is proposed adjacent to the existing Department of
Natural Resources (DNR) boat landing and in an area where extensive site clean up is
required. The dog park will allow for dogs to be off leash within Lilydale Regional Park and
because of the popularity of the dog park experience, dog owners and their pets will provide
a more constant presence of visitors, thus reducing security issues within the park. Parking
will be provided at the existing DNR parking lot.

9 - Storm Water Treatment Area
Ninety percent (90%) of storm water enters Pickerel Lake from the surrounding neighbor-
hoods via Ivy Falls. The storm water deposits phosphorus and other nutrients that threaten
the water quality of Pickerel Lake. The storm water treatment area includes the re-alignment
of Ivy Falls Creek channel creating a re-aligned stream channel that discharges directly into
the storm water treatment basins created within the existing wetland area south of Pickerel
Lake.

10 - Riverbank Restoration
The existing shoreline along the Mississippi River is lined with bituminous and concrete
rubble. Restoration and stabilization of approximately 2.5 miles of shoreline along Lilydale
Regional Park is proposed. See Figure G below.



                                                                    REINFORCEMENT MAT WITH NATIVE
                                                                    VEGETATION
                                                                               GRAVEL CHANNEL WITH PLACED
                                                                               BOULDERS, VEGETATION AND GRADE
                                                                               CONTROL
                                                                                     NATURALISTIC FLOOD
                                                                                     DEPOSITIONAL BENCH
                                                                                              RIP RAP BENEATH WATER LEVEL
                                                                                              (IF REQUIRED)




                                                                                                                MISSISSIPPI RIVER




Existing Riverbank Condition                Figure G: Proposed Riverbank Improvements

11 - Site Clean Up
There are two large areas within Lilydale Regional Park where the
old town of Lilydale was buried on site; the old marina demolition
site and the Lilydale dump site. These areas are currently
unusable as park land due to the visible presence of rubble and
sinkholes from settling debris. Removal of the debris areas will
restore the landscape to a natural condition and allow the land to
be accessible by park users. Clean up efforts will include the     Existing Marina Demolition Site
sorting of reusable structural material, including concrete and
bituminous to be used as structural fill for the proposed
picnic shelter to be constructed in the floodplain. After
site clean up, the area will be restored to natural plant
communities as proposed in the Lilydale Regional Park
Natural Resource Management Plan.

12 - Erosion Control/Cave Protection
Ravines along the bluff line exhibit varying levels of erosion
within Lilydale Regional Park. It is generally occurring
along the mid to upper slope areas with some areas
of incision exceeding 10 feet in depth. Erosion is also
                                                                 Existing Site Erosion
                                                                                                                                    9
     occurring along the walls of the former clay pits used by the Twin Cities Brickyard. These
     areas are to be evaluated for stabilization measures.

     Estimated cost of erosion control is dependant on preliminary investigation of erosion and
     stabilization measures. A field based inventory of location and severity of erosion is require
     to identify required stabilization measures. An estimate for this inventory is approximately
     $15,000.00.

     13 - Fishing Pier
     A fishing pier will extend into Pickerel Lake providing acces-
     sible fishing access.

     14 - Wildlife Viewing Platforms
     Five wildlife viewing platforms will be constructed in natural
     areas allowing park visitors to sensitively view and record
     wildlife within Lilydale Regional Park. Soft internal nature
     trails will provide access and connections between the wildlife                                                                                                                             Proposed Wildlife Viewing
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Platform
     viewing platforms. Interpretive signage will be provided where
     appropriate.


      Many of the design elements listed above can not be implemented individually as they are
      dependant on other measures occurring first. Below is a phasing diagram that highlights the
      required phasing process and associated cost estimates. Total project cost is estimated to
      be $13.7 million. See Figure H Plan
     Figure H: Site Improvement Phasing below.

                                                                                                                         RESPONSE ACTION PLAN (RAP) AND
                                                                                                                               CONTINGENCY PLAN
                                                                                                                                          $25,000
                                                                                                                                 2010 - 2011 Legacy Funds
                                                                                                                                                     NOTE: RESPONSE ACTION PLAN OUTLINES PROCEDURE
                                                                                                                                                     CITY WILL FOLLOW REGARDING PRESENCE OF HAZARDOUS
                                                                                                                                                     MATERIALS AND CONTAMINATES THAT MAY BE FOUND
                                                                                                                                                     WITHIN CLEANUP SITES.




                             MARINA DEMOLITION SITE                       LILYDALE DUMP SITE                   ENTRANCE GATEWAY ALONG                RIVERBANK RESTORATION                      KAMISH DUMP SITE CLEAN UP             EROSION CONTROL/
                                  RESTORATION                                RESTORATION                             WATER STREET                          (2 1/2 MILES)                                 $500,000 (30,000 CY)          CAVE PROTECTION
                                   $995,000 (75,000 CY)                     $500,000 (70,000 CY)                           $201,000                             $2 MILLION                               EPA Cleanup Funds?                    $15,000
                                 2010 - 2011 Legacy Funds                 2010 - 2011 Legacy Funds                 Parks Conservancy Funds                    Funds Unknown                                                       (NOTE: Cost estimate reflects initial
                                                                                                                                                                          NOTE: POTENTIAL TO DEVELOP WETLAND                    inventory/analysis costs to determine
      NOTE: SITE RESTORATION OF MARINA                                                                                                                                    MITIGATION BANK ON 6 ACRE KAMISH DUMP                    appropriate erosion control mea-
      DEMOLITION SITE AND LILYDALE DUMP SITE IS                                                                                                                           SITE WITH POTENTIAL FUND OF $520,000 AT
      TO OCCUR CONCURRENTLY AS REMOVAL OF                                                                                                                                 RATE OF $2/SF. KAMISH DUMP SITE CLEAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   sures. Implementation of erosion
      DEBRIS REQUIRED PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION                                                                                                                               UP IS NOT REQUIRED FOR CONSTRUCTION OF                  control and cave protection costs
      OF PICNIC SHELTER.                                            DESIGN/ENGINEERING/CD’S                                                                               STORM WATER TREATMENT PONDS.                            are NOT reflected in this estimate.)
                                                                      OF PICNIC SHELTER AND
                                                                       ROAD REALIGNMENT                       BURY OVERHEAD POWER LINES                                                            STORM WATER TREATMENT
                            DOG PARK CONSTRUCTION                                  $923,000
                                                                                                              ALONG WATER STREET (7,200’)                                                                 PONDS
                                          $120,000                        2011 - 2012 Legacy Funds
                                                                                                                           $250,000                                                                           $1 MILLION
                                       Funds Unknown                                                               Parks Conservancy Funds                                                                  Funds Unknown
                                                                  LILYDALE ROAD REALIGNMENT
                                                                   WITH UTILITIES AND LIGHTING
                                                                               $2.8 MILLION
                                                                     2012 - 2013 CIP Funds (Phase 1)
                                                                   2012 - 2013 Legacy Funds (Phase 2)




                                                                            PICNIC SHELTER
                                        FOSSIL GROUND                                                         REMOVE GUARDRAIL AND
                                                                            CONSTRUCTION
                                   TRAIL HEAD DEVELOPMENT                      $1.75 MILLION                   REPLACE WITH SPLIT RAIL
                                                $450,000                    2014 -2015 CIP Funds                     FENCING
                                       2013 - 2014 Legacy Funds                                                        $375,000
                                                                                                                    Funds Unknown




        TRAIL CONSTRUCTION                        WILDLIFE VIEWING PLATFORMS            CAMP SITE DEVELOPMENT              FISHING PIER CONSTRUCTION
                 $215,000                                    $250,000                                 $15,000                            $75,000
              Funds Unknown                               Funds Unknown                            Funds Unknown               $25,000 FUNDING AVAILABLE
                                                                                                                                  THROUGH DNR GRANT




     BOARDWALK CONSTRUCTION
                 $275,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                        TOTAL : $13.7 MILLION
              Funds Unknown




     PHASING PLAN / COST ESTIMATE
10   LILYDALE REGIONAL PARK
     CITY OF SAINT PAUL PARKS AND RECREATION DESIGN SECTION
     AUGUST 26, 2009
 Conflicts
                                    Figure I: Existing County Road Ownership Map
Lilydale Regional Park is
located in both Ramsey and
                                                Water Street
Dakota Counties. The roadway                    (Currently owned and maintained by
                                                Ramsey County)
that runs through the park is
called “Water Street” in Ramsey
County and “Lilydale Road”
in Dakota County. Dakota
County and Ramsey County
are currently responsible to
maintain their associated                                                                             Ramsey County
section of roadway. Dakota                                                                            Dakota County

County and Ramsey County                                             Pickerel Lake
are both in favor of turning
the roadway over to the City
of Saint Paul as a city street.
Saint Paul is hesitant to do so
until roadway maintenance
                                                                                     Lilydale Road
items have been completed.                                                           (Currently owned and maintained by
                                                                                     Dakota County)
This would allow the City of
Saint Paul to control the posted
speed limit and implement
traffic calming measures
as needed within the park.
Discussions between the City of
Saint Paul, Dakota County and
Ramsey County are currently
underway to determine roadway
operations and responsibilities.


 Public Services

 Currently, there are no public utilities existing within Lilydale Regional Park. Water, sanitary
 and electrical service will need to be provided to the picnic area for the public rest rooms and
 drinking water. These services will be provided in correlation with the realignment of Lilydale
 Road. Services will be provided from the eastern edge of the park and extend from Harriet
 Island.




                                                                                                                          11
     Operations

     The City of Saint Paul, operates and maintains Lilydale Regional Park. Patrolling of the
     facilities is provided by the Saint Paul Police Department. Under city jurisdiction, existing city
     rules, regulations, and ordinances for its operation and maintenance will apply. Estimated
     costs for operation and maintenance are as follows:


     Estimated Annual Operation and Maintenance Costs

            Picnic Shelter/Restroom maintenance              $11,900
            Green Roof maintenance*                          $1,440
            Boardwalk                                        $470
            Fishing Dock                                     $135
            Natural area detailed maintenance*               $25,000
            Prescribed burning of natural areas*             $4,000
            Rain Garden maintenance*                         $2,600
            Naturalized Lakeshore maintenance*               $3,000
            Annual Trail, asphalt maintenance                $1,250
            Brush back                                       $320
            Litter pick up, waste disposal                   $750
            Snow Removal                                     $310
            Trades (carpenter, electrician, plumber…)        $2,000

            Total                                            $51,176.00

     	      *	Reflects	maintenance	costs	after	3	year	establishment	period	for	natural	planting	areas.		
     	      3	year	maintenance	period	will	be	included	in	construction	costs	at	time	of	bidding.



     Citizen Participation

     A Design Advisory Task Force was assembled to help advise the development of the Site
     Plan for Lilydale Regional Park. The Task Force provided input and direction to the City of
     Saint Paul Parks and Recreation. A Public Forum discussing the proposed dog park and a
     Community Open House sponsored by West Side Citizens Organization were held to offer
     additional opportunities for citizen participation. All Task Force meetings were open to the
     public and information was posted on the City of Saint Paul web site for additional input.

     The Site Plan was approved by the Design Advisory Task Force on July 1, 2009; approved
     by the Saint Paul Parks Commission on July 15, 2009 and approved by the City of Lilydale
     City Council on August 10, 2009.


     Public Awareness

     The Friends of Lilydale in association with the West Side Citizens Organization promote
     an extensive outreach and public awareness program for Lilydale Regional Park through
     their volunteer programs. Friends of Lilydale offer guided fossil digging tours, birding
     opportunities and guided hikes throughout the park. The Saint Paul Parks Conservancy
     selected Lilydale as their initial park project providing additional public outreach events.
     Lilydale Regional Park is also part of Mississippi National River and Recreational Area
12
(MNRRA) and has been the site for periodic river tours by Park Service Rangers.

Humbolt Senior High School will offer an environmental studies program beginning Fall
2009. They will be using Lilydale as an outdoor classroom for studies of the Mississippi
River. Approximately 800 kids from grades 7 to 12 will use Lilydale Regional Park at some
point as part of their educational program, increasing awareness of the park.


Special Needs

Access to and within the park and associated trails will be designed in accordance with the
Americans with Disabilities Act providing access for persons with special needs. All park-
ing areas will provide accessible parking with ramps to access trails and other site ameni-
ties. All proposed facilities will be used by all segments of the population and there are no
charges to use these trails and facilities.

The existing fossil ground trail is currently inaccessible to persons with special needs.
The steep grades down the historic brickyard route prevent access for those with disabili-
ties. The proposed trail head and parking lot at the entrance to the fossil grounds will be
designed to accommodate those with special needs, however the fossil ground trail will
remain inaccessible.


Natural Resources

Plant Communities
Lilydale Regional Park is located within the floodplain of the Mississippi River. The town
occupied the land until the 1970’s when Lilydale relocated out of the floodplain to its current
location on the river bluffs. At that time, the City of Saint Paul acquired the land now known
as Lilydale Regional Park. The landscape has been relatively untouched since Park owner-
ship resulting in limited remaining natural areas.

The majority of the park consists of floodplain forest of moderate quality. The canopy
of the forest supports large cottonwoods characteristic of the area with a sub canopy of
elm, green ash, black walnut and black willow. Nonnative trees frequently encountered
include Siberian and black locust. The shrub layer of the floodplain forest includes sandbar
willow, red raspberry, black raspberry, false indigo and non natives Tatarian honeysuckle
and European buckthorn. A number of native plant species are found in the ground layer,
however more prominent species include invasive plant species of garlic mustard and reed
canary grass.

The emergent marsh plant community occurs as a fringe along Pickerel Lake as vegeta-
tion growing within the water. The quality of the emergent marsh is variable with pockets of
good quality plant material, but there are also low quality ares with obvious signs of distur-
bance and litter/junk dominated by nonnative plants.

The Maple-Basswood Forest occurs in several areas of Lilydale Regional Park along the
northwest-facing bluff overlooking Pickerel Lake. Past human activities have impacted this
forest type resulting in moderate to poor quality. Obvious signs of disturbance include old
                                                                                                  13
     Figure J: Existing Natural Area Quality Ranking




14
roads, debris, and mounds of earth that appear to have been associated with clay mining.

A Mixed Hardwood Swamp occurs in two locations within the park. One is on the northwest
side of the railroad embankment at the outlet of Ivy Falls. The out fall has a large amount
of sedimentation resulting in more disturbance and nonnative, invasive species. The other
mixed hardwood swamp location is located at the northeast side of Pickerel Lake by the
railroad tracks. The spring/seep area is small in size, but of moderate good quality.

A Mixed Emergent Marsh is located in the southwest-central portion of the park. The
emergent marsh is of good quality             Figure K: Existing Pickerel Lake Watershed Area
and dominated by native bur-reed.
Minimal management is required of this
area as it is of good quality. It is also
the location where Blanding’s turtle
has been documented within Lilydale
Regional Park.

Cattail Marshes that are present within
Lilydale Regional Park are considered
a low quality due to the significant
presence of invasive, nonnative narrow
leaf cattail.

Water Resources
Ivy Falls Creek, as shown in blue
on Figure K, provides 90% of the
watershed input into Pickerel Lake
from the surrounding neighborhoods
of Mendota Heights, West Saint Paul,
Saint Paul and Lilydale. The proposed
Storm Water Treatment Basin will
be located at the base of Ivy Falls to
treat the high amount of sediment and
pollutant loads entering Pickerel Lake.

Groundwater is another significant
input into Pickerel Lake where aquifers
discharge towards the Mississippi
River from the bluffs.
                                          City of St. Paul, Division of Parks and Recreation          Page 32
                                          Lilydale Regional Park Natural Resources Plan        000211-08110-0
Pickerel Lake and adjacent wetlands
are also part of the Mississippi River floodplain where Lilydale Regional Park is used for over
bank storage during flood events. The occurs in a 10-year reoccurrence.

The proposed boardwalk and wildlife viewing areas will be constructed along Pickerel
Lakeshore. The construction of these facilities will allow the public to view wildlife along the
shoreline with minimal adverse impacts to the environment.

Management
The landscape and vegetation within Lilydale Regional Park has been modified by human
activities. The vegetation management focuses on maintaining the quality of the remaining
                                                                                                                15
     Figure L: Proposed Natural Area Restoration Targets




16
intact native plant communities as well as conducting management of “semi-natural”
vegetation cover types to foster improvement of native species composition and function.

The management goals for all cover types and management areas include:

•   Maintain or improve native (natural) plant communities
•   Manage semi-natural cover types towards dominance of native plant species
•   Avoid or minimize impacts to existing natural areas during park development
•   Plan for infrastructure that enables cost effective natural area management where trails
    can serve as firebreaks and/or access points for on-the-ground management
•   Provide recreational and educational opportunities compatible with sustaining natural
    community function and integrity
•   Carry out surface water and infrastructure planning both within the park and outside the
    park by engaging appropriate stakeholders to reduce erosion issues and for improved
    water quality.




                                                                                               17
Appendix A

Planned Site Capacities
Activity                               Area/Sites Users/Area Turnover Rate/Day                            Users/Day
Fishing Pier                                    1           20                                        4             80
Lakeshore fishing                               4            3                                        4             48
Canoe launch                                    1            2                                       15             30
Lakeshore amphitheater                          1           50                                        1             50
Group Camp Sites                                3           12                                        1             36
Picnic tables                                  11            6                                        2            132
Picnic shelters (2 with 8 tables each)         16            6                                        2            192
River boating                                   1           75                                        2            150
Interpretive activity                           7            3                                        5            105
Dog Park                                      8.5            5                                        8            340
Regional Trail Use                              1           27                                        6            162
Total                                                                                                             1325



Planned Parking Capacities
                                   Users Persons/Car Estimated Parking Needed
Fishing Pier                             20           2                     10
Lakeshore Fishing                        12            2                      6
Canoe launch                              2            2                      1
Lakeshore Amphitheater                   50            3                    17
Group Camp Sites                        36             4                      9
Picnic Tables                            66            3                    22
Picnic Shelters                          96            3                    32
River boating                            75            4                    19
Interpretive Activity                    21            2                    11
Dog Park                               42.5          1.5                    28
Regional Trail Use                       27            2                    14
Total Parking Required (summer weekend day estimate)                       168



Planned Parking Spaces
                                                             Parking Provided      Comments/Notes
Existing Parking
Existing Parking Lot at DNR Boat Launch                                            Existing parking lot accommodates 48 boat trailer parking.
                      Boat trailer parking stalls provided                      24 Reconfigured parking lot will maintain 24 existing boat trailer parking stalls.
                                                                                   Reconfigured parking lot will redesign 24 existing boat trail parking stalls into
                         Standard parking stalls provided
                                                                                50 standard car/truck parking for proposed dog park and regional trail use.
Proposed Parking
      Proposed Fossil Ground Parking Lot (cars/trucks)                       20    Standard parking stalls.
            Proposed Fossil Ground Parking Lot (bus)                          4    Bus parking provided for school groups.
                      Proposed Canoe Launch Parking                           5    Parking provided for canoe launch and accessible access to Pickerel Lake.
                  Proposed Picnic Shelter Parking Lot                        65    No bus parking provided.
Total                                                                       168




Note: Planned Site Capacities estimates were projected from data gathered by the
Metropolitan Council through the 2008 Metropolitan Council Annual Use Estimate of the
Metropolitan Regional Park System and the Metropolitan Council 2008 Parks and Trails
Survey. Projections were based on related activity usages in existing regional parks.

Planned capacities based on summer weekend day usage.



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Daily Weather Records for the Twin Cities: 2010's


STATION: MINNEAPOLIS/ST PAUL, MN

M = missing, e = estimated, T = trace

                                               Precip-   Snow   Snow
                            High      Low      itation   Fall   Depth
Year     Month     Day      (F)       (F)      (in)      (in)   (in)
2010     1         1        6         -9       T         T       9
2010     1         2        1         -15      0         0       9
2010     1         3        7         -14      0         0       9
2010     1         4        7         -10      0         0       9
2010     1         5        10        -9       0         0       9
2010     1         6        16        -4       0         0       9
2010     1         7        16        4        0.06      2.2     11
2010     1         8        8         -6       0         0       11
2010     1         9        6         -14      0         0       11
2010     1         10       15        -6       0         0       11
2010     1         11       22        8        T         T       10
2010     1         12       22        2        T         T       10
2010     1         13       28        19       T         T       10
2010     1         14       31        15       0         0       10
2010     1         15       28        12       0         0       10
2010     1         16       35        15       0         0       10
2010     1         17       34        20       0         0       10
2010     1         18       34        13       0         0       9
2010     1         19       23        13       T         T       9
2010     1         20       28        19       T         T       9
2010     1         21       30        25       0.05      T       9
2010     1         22       33        28       0.02      0       9
2010     1         23       36        32       0.23      T       9
2010     1         24       35        32       0.04      T       7
2010     1         25       34        16       0.05      0.9     6
2010     1         26       16        3        T         T       7
2010     1         27       11        2        T         T       7
2010     1         28       7         -2       T         T       7
2010     1         29       9         -5       0         0       0
2010     1         30       17        1        0         0       7
2010     1         31       16        3        0         0       7
2010     2         1        16        8        0.11      2.6     7
2010     2         2        21        8        0.02      0.5     10
2010     2         3        21        1        0         0       10
2010     2         4        29        19       0.07      1       10
2010     2         5        33        28       0.12      1.3     12
2010     2         6        28        19       0         0       11
2010     2         7        24        15       0.05      0.8     11
2010     2         8        25        22       0.23      4.7     12
2010     2         9        26        15       0.03      0.4     15
2010     2         10       24        3        0         0       16
2010     2         11       25        0        0         0       15
2010     2         12       25        3        T         T       15
2010     2         13       23        10       T         0.2     15
2010     2         14       24        5        0.09      1.6     15
2010     2         15       30        22       0.03      0.7     17
2010     2         16       34        17       0         0       17




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2010     2         17       35        16       0       0     16
2010     2         18       37        10       0       0     15
2010     2         19       31        7        0       0     14
2010     2         20       35        18       T       T     13
2010     2         21       31        13       0       0     13
2010     2         22       32        14       0       0     13
2010     2         23       23        9        T       0.1   13
2010     2         24       20        1        0       0     13
2010     2         25       26        3        0       0     12
2010     2         26       32        5        0       0     12
2010     2         27       38        9        0       0     12
2010     2         28       38        16       0       0     12
2010     3         1        38        19       0       0     12
2010     3         2        42        19       0       0     11
2010     3         3        41        20       0       0     10
2010     3         4        39        20       0       0     10
2010     3         5        42        23       0       0     9
2010     3         6        41        24       T       0     8
2010     3         7        47        35       0.02    0     6
2010     3         8        37        34       T       0     4
2010     3         9        39        33       0.04    0     4
2010     3         10       42        35       0.27    0     2
2010     3         11       47        35       0.25    0     T
2010     3         12       43        38       0.03    0     T
2010     3         13       45        38       0       0     T
2010     3         14       64        40       0       0     0
2010     3         15       60        41       0       0     0
2010     3         16       50        40       0.08    0     0
2010     3         17       58        34       0       0     0
2010     3         18       64        39       0       0     0
2010     3         19       45        29       0       0     0
2010     3         20       39        23       0       0     0
2010     3         21       50        24       0       0     0
2010     3         22       55        30       0       0     0
2010     3         23       61        37       0       0     0
2010     3         24       55        31       0       0     0
2010     3         25       42        24       0       0     0
2010     3         26       51        25       0       0     0
2010     3         27       52        40       0       0     0
2010     3         28       52        33       0       0     0
2010     3         29       59        32       0       0     0
2010     3         30       75        46       0       0     0
2010     3         31       76        50       0       0     0
2010     4         1        81        50       0       0     0
2010     4         2        72        44       0.06    0     0
2010     4         3        61        39       0       0     0
2010     4         4        67        50       T       0     0
2010     4         5        60        43       0.01    0     0
2010     4         6        52        44       0.28    0     0
2010     4         7        56        39       0       0     0
2010     4         8        52        33       0       0     0
2010     4         9        67        32       0       0     0
2010     4         10       63        44       0       0     0
2010     4         11       69        38       0       0     0
2010     4         12       68        47       0       0     0
2010     4         13       69        46       0.73    0     0
2010     4         14       74        53       0.07    0     0
2010     4         15       71        54       0.56    0     0
2010     4         16       61        46       0       0     0
2010     4         17       65        40       0       0     0




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2010     4         18       67        38       0       0   0
2010     4         19       69        45       0       0   0
2010     4         20       71        50       0       0   0
2010     4         21       61        42       0       0   0
2010     4         22       66        34       0       0   0
2010     4         23       69        48       T       0   0
2010     4         24       60        50       0.5     0   0
2010     4         25       61        47       0.04    0   0
2010     4         26       63        44       0       0   0
2010     4         27       60        39       0       0   0
2010     4         28       69        40       0       0   0
2010     4         29       73        56       T       0   0
2010     4         30       69        55       0.07    0   0
2010     5         1        64        49       0       0   0
2010     5         2        64        48       0       0   0
2010     5         3        57        46       0.05    0   0
2010     5         4        79        41       T       0   0
2010     5         5        55        47       T       0   0
2010     5         6        54        41       0.04    0   0
2010     5         7        48        34       0.55    T   0
2010     5         8        52        34       T       T   0
2010     5         9        58        32       0       0   0
2010     5         10       58        44       0.19    0   0
2010     5         11       46        41       0.47    0   0
2010     5         12       51        42       0.04    0   0
2010     5         13       53        46       0.61    0   0
2010     5         14       71        46       0       0   0
2010     5         15       74        45       0       0   0
2010     5         16       74        54       0       0   0
2010     5         17       76        53       0       0   0
2010     5         18       75        54       0       0   0
2010     5         19       79        50       0       0   0
2010     5         20       82        53       0       0   0
2010     5         21       65        59       0.02    0   0
2010     5         22       82        57       0.12    0   0
2010     5         23       88        73       0       0   0
2010     5         24       95        72       0       0   0
2010     5         25       89        66       0.38    0   0
2010     5         26       80        60       0       0   0
2010     5         27       81        56       0       0   0
2010     5         28       85        61       0       0   0
2010     5         29       91        64       0       0   0
2010     5         30       81        59       0.03    0   0
2010     5         31       78        51       0       0   0
2010     6         1        82        62       0.18    0   0
2010     6         2        73        58       0.01    0   0
2010     6         3        78        52       0.01    0   0
2010     6         4        83        63       0.44    0   0
2010     6         5        70        59       0.27    0   0
2010     6         6        78        57       T       0   0
2010     6         7        75        56       0.01    0   0
2010     6         8        70        60       0.84    0   0
2010     6         9        73        59       0       0   0
2010     6         10       66        57       T       0   0
2010     6         11       76        60       0.79    0   0
2010     6         12       62        54       0.15    0   0
2010     6         13       67        59       0       0   0
2010     6         14       69        61       0.26    0   0
2010     6         15       76        61       0.01    0   0
2010     6         16       80        60       0       0   0




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2010     6         17       89        66       0.01    0   0
2010     6         18       86        64       0       0   0
2010     6         19       76        64       0       0   0
2010     6         20       82        61       0       0   0
2010     6         21       79        69       0.07    0   0
2010     6         22       91        67       0       0   0
2010     6         23       80        64       0.32    0   0
2010     6         24       82        60       0       0   0
2010     6         25       86        65       0.73    T   0
2010     6         26       84        66       2.15    0   0
2010     6         27       84        68       0       0   0
2010     6         28       75        63       0       0   0
2010     6         29       74        58       0       0   0
2010     6         30       79        57       0       0   0
2010     7         1        86        63       0       0   0
2010     7         2        88        68       0       0   0
2010     7         3        92        74       0       0   0
2010     7         4        85        73       0.1     0   0
2010     7         5        85        70       0.8     0   0
2010     7         6        88        70       0       0   0
2010     7         7        87        68       0.22    0   0
2010     7         8        85        63       0       0   0
2010     7         9        87        67       0       0   0
2010     7         10       86        69       0.08    0   0
2010     7         11       83        66       0.17    0   0
2010     7         12       79        61       0       0   0
2010     7         13       85        63       0       0   0
2010     7         14       93        71       0.27    0   0
2010     7         15       85        65       0       0   0
2010     7         16       90        70       0       0   0
2010     7         17       92        67       0.28    0   0
2010     7         18       84        68       0       0   0
2010     7         19       80        64       0       0   0
2010     7         20       86        65       0       0   0
2010     7         21       88        66       0       0   0
2010     7         22       77        68       0.28    0   0
2010     7         23       86        68       T       0   0
2010     7         24       83        64       0.51    0   0
2010     7         25       83        64       0       0   0
2010     7         26       86        67       0       0   0
2010     7         27       94        72       0.2     0   0
2010     7         28       83        67       0       0   0
2010     7         29       82        65       0       0   0
2010     7         30       74        67       0.12    0   0
2010     7         31       86        68       0       0   0
2010     8         1        87        70       T       0   0
2010     8         2        86        76       T       0   0
2010     8         3        95        74       0       0   0
2010     8         4        90        71       0       0   0
2010     8         5        82        66       0       0   0
2010     8         6        85        63       0       0   0
2010     8         7        89        68       0.07    0   0
2010     8         8        96        75       0.32    0   0
2010     8         9        95        76       0       0   0
2010     8         10       90        71       2.47    0   0
2010     8         11       93        72       0       0   0
2010     8         12       92        72       T       0   0
2010     8         13       88        68       1.47    0   0
2010     8         14       86        65       T       0   0
2010     8         15       77        63       0       0   0




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msp2010's                                                      Page 5 of 21



2010     8         16       79        58       0       0   0
2010     8         17       78        58       0       0   0
2010     8         18       78        66       0       0   0
2010     8         19       80        71       T       0   0
2010     8         20       86        74       T       0   0
2010     8         21       85        69       0       0   0
2010     8         22       88        65       0       0   0
2010     8         23       88        72       0       0   0
2010     8         24       78        63       0.23    0   0
2010     8         25       73        58       0       0   0
2010     8         26       79        56       0       0   0
2010     8         27       88        63       0       0   0
2010     8         28       89        67       0       0   0
2010     8         29       94        68       0       0   0
2010     8         30       92        77       T       0   0
2010     8         31       86        68       0.35    0   0
2010     9         1        77        60       0       0   0
2010     9         2        73        59       0.74    0   0
2010     9         3        61        51       T       0   0
2010     9         4        69        48       0       0   0
2010     9         5        73        50       0       0   0
2010     9         6        71        59       0.13    0   0
2010     9         7        63        52       T       0   0
2010     9         8        69        46       0       0   0
2010     9         9        65        52       T       0   0
2010     9         10       71        58       0.16    0   0
2010     9         11       73        56       0       0   0
2010     9         12       79        54       0       0   0
2010     9         13       74        54       0       0   0
2010     9         14       68        53       0       0   0
2010     9         15       66        52       0.91    0   0
2010     9         16       56        50       0       0   0
2010     9         17       64        53       0.01    0   0
2010     9         18       60        45       T       0   0
2010     9         19       64        50       0       0   0
2010     9         20       80        52       0.03    0   0
2010     9         21       77        53       0.53    T   0
2010     9         22       65        48       1.01    0   0
2010     9         23       74        57       1.98    0   0
2010     9         24       61        50       0       0   0
2010     9         25       61        45       0.02    0   0
2010     9         26       65        41       0       0   0
2010     9         27       75        45       0       0   0
2010     9         28       66        54       0       0   0
2010     9         29       74        52       0       0   0
2010     9         30       72        49       0       0   0
2010     10        1        70        47       T       0   0
2010     10        2        56        41       0       0   0
2010     10        3        59        38       0       0   0
2010     10        4        65        41       0       0   0
2010     10        5        74        45       0       0   0
2010     10        6        71        54       0       0   0
2010     10        7        74        46       0       0   0
2010     10        8        87        57       0       0   0
2010     10        9        83        58       0       0   0
2010     10        10       81        54       0       0   0
2010     10        11       80        54       0       0   0
2010     10        12       72        52       0       0   0
2010     10        13       66        47       0       0   0
2010     10        14       69        45       0       0   0




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msp2010's                                                          Page 6 of 21



2010     10        15       61        43       0       0      0
2010     10        16       66        46       0       0      0
2010     10        17       59        40       T       0      0
2010     10        18       56        39       T       0      0
2010     10        19       60        40       0       0      0
2010     10        20       68        43       0       0      0
2010     10        21       53        40       0       0      0
2010     10        22       68        36       0       0      0
2010     10        23       65        52       0.01    0      0
2010     10        24       61        53       0.51    0      0
2010     10        25       61        52       0.67    0      0
2010     10        26       63        42       0.37    0      0
2010     10        27       42        35       0.05    T      0
2010     10        28       42        30       0       0      0
2010     10        29       53        28       0       0      0
2010     10        30       52        35       0       0      0
2010     10        31       49        30       0       0      0
2010     11        1        52        31       0       0      0
2010     11        2        56        34       0       0      0
2010     11        3        56        44       0       0      0
2010     11        4        46        33       0       0      0
2010     11        5        45        27       0       0      0
2010     11        6        57        31       0       0      0
2010     11        7        61        36       0       0      0
2010     11        8        63        43       0       0      0
2010     11        9        69        43       0       0      0
2010     11        10       68        45       0.17    0      0
2010     11        11       52        37       0       0      0
2010     11        12       43        36       0.03    T      0
2010     11        13       36        33       0.98    7.7    1
2010     11        14       35        33       0.06    0.3    4
2010     11        15       39        27       0       0      3
2010     11        16       35        30       0.02    0.1    3
2010     11        17       37        30       0       0      2
2010     11        18       31        27       T       T      2
2010     11        19       39        23       0       0      1
2010     11        20       29        18       0.02    0      T
2010     11        21       34        27       0.03    0      T
2010     11        22       31        14       0.02    0.1    T
2010     11        23       24        12       0       0      T
2010     11        24       33        20       0.12    1.1    T
2010     11        25       27        6        T       T      1
2010     11        26       26        11       0       0      1
2010     11        27       28        10       0       0      1
2010     11        28       45        27       0       0      1
2010     11        29       41        36       0.59    0      T
2010     11        30       36        18       0.03    0.5    T
2010     12        1        20        15       T       T      1
2010     12        2        20        11       T       T      1
2010     12        3        20        10       0.43    5.1    1
2010     12        4        25        11       0.09    1      6
2010     12        5        18        4        0.01    0.5    6
2010     12        6        21        14       T       0.3    6
2010     12        7        17        8        0       0      6
2010     12        8        18        3        T       T      6
2010     12        9        34        11       0.01    0.2    6
2010     12        10       28        16       0.05    0.8    5
2010     12        11       22        8        1.16    16.3   9
2010     12        12       8         -1       0       0      18
2010     12        13       6         -8       0       0      17




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msp2010's                                                         Page 7 of 21



2010     12        14       10        -6       0       0     17
2010     12        15       17        4        0       0     16
2010     12        16       20        12       T       T     16
2010     12        17       15        8        T       T     15
2010     12        18       17        8        T       T     14
2010     12        19       15        3        0       0     14
2010     12        20       26        10       0.36    4.6   14
2010     12        21       31        20       0.05    T     16
2010     12        22       32        27       T       T     16
2010     12        23       27        23       0.15    2.3   16
2010     12        24       26        18       0.18    2.3   19
2010     12        25       20        16       T       T     19
2010     12        26       24        7        T       T     19
2010     12        27       21        7        T       T     18
2010     12        28       34        14       0       0     17
2010     12        29       37        25       T       0     16
2010     12        30       42        17       0.27    0     13
2010     12        31       24        7        0.03    0.2   10
2011     1         1        9         1        T       T     9
2011     1         2        17        0        T       0.1   9
2011     1         3        21        8        0.03    1.1   9
2011     1         4        9         -5       T       T     10
2011     1         5        25        3        0.04    0.4   10
2011     1         6        18        7        T       T     10
2011     1         7        15        8        0.01    0.3   10
2011     1         8        12        1        T       T     10
2011     1         9        16        -4       T       T     10
2011     1         10       22        12       0.16    1.5   8
2011     1         11       23        18       0.1     1.2   10
2011     1         12       21        2        0       0     11
2011     1         13       16        0        0.08    1.9   10
2011     1         14       18        14       0.17    2.5   12
2011     1         15       16        2        0       0     13
2011     1         16       15        4        0.01    0.2   13
2011     1         17       25        15       0.07    1.3   14
2011     1         18       19        7        T       T     12
2011     1         19       13        -3       0.01    0.2   12
2011     1         20       9         -11      0.01    0.1   12
2011     1         21       3         -16      0.01    1.1   12
2011     1         22       6         -3       T       0.1   12
2011     1         23       13        -8       0       0     12
2011     1         24       27        11       0.01    0.1   12
2011     1         25       20        13       T       T     12
2011     1         26       25        15       T       T     12
2011     1         27       27        22       0.01    0.2   11
2011     1         28       31        23       0       0     11
2011     1         29       32        15       T       T     11
2011     1         30       23        14       0.03    0.5   10
2011     1         31       21        14       0.25    4.2   12
2011     2         1        15        5        T       T     14
2011     2         2        12        -4       0       0     13
2011     2         3        19        -2       0       0     13
2011     2         4        34        10       0       0     13
2011     2         5        27        14       0.01    0.2   12
2011     2         6        29        23       0.01    0.3   12
2011     2         7        23        0        T       T     12
2011     2         8        3         -10      0       0     12
2011     2         9        8         -7       0       0     11
2011     2         10       12        -11      0       0     11
2011     2         11       32        -6       0.01    0.2   11




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msp2010's                                                          Page 8 of 21



2011     2         12       38        18       0       0      11
2011     2         13       48        29       0       0      10
2011     2         14       39        32       0       0      6
2011     2         15       42        32       0       0      5
2011     2         16       52        28       T       0      5
2011     2         17       46        30       0.01    0      4
2011     2         18       30        15       0       0      2
2011     2         19       29        10       0       0      2
2011     2         20       27        24       0.85    11.8   2
2011     2         21       24        16       0.11    2      14
2011     2         22       27        6        T       T      15
2011     2         23       34        25       T       T      13
2011     2         24       29        15       0       0      11
2011     2         25       15        0        0.02    0.3    11
2011     2         26       8         -2       0.1     1.3    11
2011     2         27       28        2        T       T      12
2011     2         28       25        2        0       0      11
2011     3         1        41        5        0       0      11
2011     3         2        17        -3       0       0      10
2011     3         3        32        14       0.01    0.1    9
2011     3         4        30        23       0       0      9
2011     3         5        29        17       0       0      9
2011     3         6        30        11       0.12    1.7    8
2011     3         7        30        24       0.03    0.4    10
2011     3         8        39        27       T       T      10
2011     3         9        36        30       0.09    1      10
2011     3         10       33        22       0       0      9
2011     3         11       43        20       0.04    0.5    9
2011     3         12       31        16       T       T      7
2011     3         13       30        15       T       T      7
2011     3         14       38        14       0       0      6
2011     3         15       44        30       0.04    0      6
2011     3         16       52        29       0       0      5
2011     3         17       53        38       0       0      1
2011     3         18       40        28       0       0      T
2011     3         19       50        24       0.04    T      T
2011     3         20       44        37       0.1     0      0
2011     3         21       46        35       0       0      0
2011     3         22       39        33       1.14    0.4    0
2011     3         23       33        18       0.34    4.1    2
2011     3         24       33        13       0       0      4
2011     3         25       33        18       0       0      4
2011     3         26       30        16       0       0      4
2011     3         27       34        16       0       0      3
2011     3         28       36        18       0       0      3
2011     3         29       42        21       0       0      2
2011     3         30       44        21       0       0      1
2011     3         31       48        35       0.11    0      T
2011     4         1        47        35       0.07    T      T
2011     4         2        54        31       0       0      0
2011     4         3        56        43       T       0      0
2011     4         4        48        34       0.01    T      0
2011     4         5        56        30       0       0      0
2011     4         6        58        39       0       0      0
2011     4         7        64        36       0       0      0
2011     4         8        64        41       0       0      0
2011     4         9        58        48       0.01    0      0
2011     4         10       76        46       0.1     0      0
2011     4         11       63        43       0       0      0
2011     4         12       68        42       0       0      0




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msp2010's                                                        Page 9 of 21



2011     4         13       62        44       T       0     0
2011     4         14       48        35       T       0     0
2011     4         15       49        33       0.13    0.6   0
2011     4         16       41        32       T       T     1
2011     4         17       49        32       0       0     0
2011     4         18       50        35       0       0     0
2011     4         19       45        35       T       T     0
2011     4         20       46        32       0.2     1.3   1
2011     4         21       50        32       0.16    0     0
2011     4         22       45        39       0.09    0     0
2011     4         23       48        39       0.04    0     0
2011     4         24       62        36       0       0     0
2011     4         25       65        39       0       0     0
2011     4         26       57        38       1.46    0     0
2011     4         27       44        35       T       T     0
2011     4         28       56        35       0.06    T     0
2011     4         29       65        36       T       0     0
2011     4         30       60        43       0.47    0     0
2011     5         1        43        33       T       T     0
2011     5         2        40        33       T       T     0
2011     5         3        59        32       0       0     0
2011     5         4        66        37       T       0     0
2011     5         5        63        46       0.15    0     0
2011     5         6        70        45       0       0     0
2011     5         7        72        53       0       0     0
2011     5         8        65        53       0.18    0     0
2011     5         9        70        54       0.47    T     0
2011     5         10       88        56       T       0     0
2011     5         11       78        61       0.02    0     0
2011     5         12       65        51       0.02    0     0
2011     5         13       56        46       T       0     0
2011     5         14       52        44       0.08    0     0
2011     5         15       64        44       0       0     0
2011     5         16       69        40       0       0     0
2011     5         17       68        44       0       0     0
2011     5         18       73        49       0       0     0
2011     5         19       71        58       0       0     0
2011     5         20       73        59       0.28    0     0
2011     5         21       73        61       1.74    0     0
2011     5         22       69        58       0.57    0     0
2011     5         23       75        59       0.01    0     0
2011     5         24       67        56       0.01    0     0
2011     5         25       64        50       0.1     0     0
2011     5         26       64        45       0       0     0
2011     5         27       63        47       0.22    0     0
2011     5         28       70        50       0.15    0     0
2011     5         29       68        54       0.01    0     0
2011     5         30       88        62       0.03    0     0
2011     5         31       77        59       T       0     0
2011     6         1        76        55       0       0     0
2011     6         2        80        60       0       0     0
2011     6         3        91        68       0.02    0     0
2011     6         4        84        64       0       0     0
2011     6         5        84        62       0       0     0
2011     6         6        97        70       0       0     0
2011     6         7        103       78       0       0     0
2011     6         8        83        58       0       0     0
2011     6         9        68        52       T       0     0
2011     6         10       62        53       0.29    0     0
2011     6         11       69        52       0.02    0     0




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msp2010's                                                      Page 10 of 21



2011     6         12       68        52       0       0   0
2011     6         13       77        55       0       0   0
2011     6         14       80        61       0.92    0   0
2011     6         15       74        58       0.43    0   0
2011     6         16       80        62       0       0   0
2011     6         17       84        60       0.8     0   0
2011     6         18       72        67       0.28    0   0
2011     6         19       79        63       0       0   0
2011     6         20       77        62       0       0   0
2011     6         21       79        65       1.2     0   0
2011     6         22       70        53       1.29    0   0
2011     6         23       63        53       0.01    0   0
2011     6         24       78        52       0       0   0
2011     6         25       68        61       0.02    0   0
2011     6         26       79        61       T       0   0
2011     6         27       77        61       T       0   0
2011     6         28       79        58       0       0   0
2011     6         29       86        62       0       0   0
2011     6         30       95        72       0       0   0
2011     7         1        99        71       0.14    0   0
2011     7         2        85        67       0       0   0
2011     7         3        86        64       0       0   0
2011     7         4        90        68       0       0   0
2011     7         5        88        70       0.01    0   0
2011     7         6        87        64       0       0   0
2011     7         7        87        69       T       0   0
2011     7         8        91        71       0       0   0
2011     7         9        88        76       T       0   0
2011     7         10       92        69       0.62    0   0
2011     7         11       88        69       T       0   0
2011     7         12       78        65       0       0   0
2011     7         13       77        61       0       0   0
2011     7         14       74        64       0.13    0   0
2011     7         15       77        71       1.84    0   0
2011     7         16       87        71       1.08    0   0
2011     7         17       93        79       T       0   0
2011     7         18       98        80       T       0   0
2011     7         19       97        74       0.28    0   0
2011     7         20       96        80       0       0   0
2011     7         21       86        71       0       0   0
2011     7         22       89        71       0       0   0
2011     7         23       85        68       0.68    0   0
2011     7         24       83        63       0       0   0
2011     7         25       89        68       0       0   0
2011     7         26       84        68       T       0   0
2011     7         27       89        72       0.44    0   0
2011     7         28       89        73       0       0   0
2011     7         29       89        68       0       0   0
2011     7         30       90        68       0.01    0   0
2011     7         31       93        68       0       0   0
2011     8         1        83        71       0.82    0   0
2011     8         2        88        74       0.01    0   0
2011     8         3        87        67       0       0   0
2011     8         4        85        68       0       0   0
2011     8         5        85        70       0       0   0
2011     8         6        88        73       T       0   0
2011     8         7        82        67       0       0   0
2011     8         8        82        68       0       0   0
2011     8         9        76        62       0       0   0
2011     8         10       81        58       0       0   0




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msp2010's                                                      Page 11 of 21



2011     8         11       84        63       0       0   0
2011     8         12       77        65       0.01    0   0
2011     8         13       81        62       0.61    0   0
2011     8         14       84        63       0       0   0
2011     8         15       84        67       0       0   0
2011     8         16       84        68       1.42    0   0
2011     8         17       81        62       0       0   0
2011     8         18       84        61       0       0   0
2011     8         19       84        65       0.01    0   0
2011     8         20       78        61       0.01    0   0
2011     8         21       79        61       T       0   0
2011     8         22       85        62       0       0   0
2011     8         23       87        68       0.12    0   0
2011     8         24       81        67       0       0   0
2011     8         25       83        63       0       0   0
2011     8         26       87        66       0       0   0
2011     8         27       79        60       T       0   0
2011     8         28       78        59       0       0   0
2011     8         29       81        59       0       0   0
2011     8         30       71        64       0.02    0   0
2011     8         31       85        64       T       0   0
2011     9         1        94        71       0       0   0
2011     9         2        82        72       0.02    0   0
2011     9         3        81        60       T       0   0
2011     9         4        71        53       T       0   0
2011     9         5        72        48       0       0   0
2011     9         6        74        51       0       0   0
2011     9         7        79        53       0       0   0
2011     9         8        86        57       0       0   0
2011     9         9        90        63       0       0   0
2011     9         10       89        63       0       0   0
2011     9         11       89        65       0       0   0
2011     9         12       90        61       0       0   0
2011     9         13       70        54       0       0   0
2011     9         14       60        41       0       0   0
2011     9         15       58        36       0       0   0
2011     9         16       60        48       0       0   0
2011     9         17       67        49       T       0   0
2011     9         18       61        53       0.2     0   0
2011     9         19       75        51       0       0   0
2011     9         20       73        55       0.04    0   0
2011     9         21       61        49       0.05    0   0
2011     9         22       57        46       T       0   0
2011     9         23       60        47       0       0   0
2011     9         24       62        41       0       0   0
2011     9         25       67        45       T       0   0
2011     9         26       70        53       T       0   0
2011     9         27       67        58       0.05    0   0
2011     9         28       81        56       0       0   0
2011     9         29       66        55       T       0   0
2011     9         30       64        44       0       0   0
2011     10        1        64        38       0       0   0
2011     10        2        80        43       0       0   0
2011     10        3        83        50       0       0   0
2011     10        4        85        52       0       0   0
2011     10        5        88        62       0       0   0
2011     10        6        83        57       0       0   0
2011     10        7        85        65       0       0   0
2011     10        8        83        71       T       0   0
2011     10        9        83        64       0       0   0




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msp2010's                                                        Page 12 of 21



2011     10        10       76        57       0.12    0     0
2011     10        11       76        54       0.02    0     0
2011     10        12       69        57       0.54    0     0
2011     10        13       60        48       T       0     0
2011     10        14       57        48       0       0     0
2011     10        15       60        43       T       0     0
2011     10        16       59        45       0       0     0
2011     10        17       58        41       0       0     0
2011     10        18       47        42       T       0     0
2011     10        19       49        39       0       0     0
2011     10        20       55        35       0       0     0
2011     10        21       61        32       0       0     0
2011     10        22       61        40       0       0     0
2011     10        23       58        42       0.01    0     0
2011     10        24       62        39       0       0     0
2011     10        25       56        42       T       0     0
2011     10        26       51        40       T       0     0
2011     10        27       53        36       0.01    0     0
2011     10        28       56        34       0       0     0
2011     10        29       54        31       0       0     0
2011     10        30       50        39       T       0     0
2011     10        31       50        33       0       0     0
2011     11        1        55        45       T       0     0
2011     11        2        51        37       T       0     0
2011     11        3        54        30       0       0     0
2011     11        4        56        28       0       0     0
2011     11        5        57        40       0       0     0
2011     11        6        55        43       T       0     0
2011     11        7        50        35       0       0     0
2011     11        8        47        34       0       0     0
2011     11        9        50        34       T       T     0
2011     11        10       39        31       T       T     0
2011     11        11       50        30       0       0     0
2011     11        12       64        31       0       0     0
2011     11        13       49        40       0       0     0
2011     11        14       52        35       0       0     0
2011     11        15       51        30       0       0     0
2011     11        16       39        24       0       0     0
2011     11        17       32        16       0       0     0
2011     11        18       48        32       0       0     0
2011     11        19       37        23       0.21    3     0
2011     11        20       27        16       0       0     3
2011     11        21       36        20       0       0     2
2011     11        22       38        34       0       0     1
2011     11        23       52        35       0       0     0
2011     11        24       59        36       0       0     0
2011     11        25       54        44       0       0     0
2011     11        26       50        37       0.08    0     0
2011     11        27       37        31       T       0     0
2011     11        28       39        25       0       0     0
2011     11        29       40        25       0       0     0
2011     11        30       41        24       0.01    T     0
2011     12        1        32        17       0.04    0.4   T
2011     12        2        34        14       0       0     T
2011     12        3        34        29       0.18    4.2   T
2011     12        4        29        22       0.01    0.2   4
2011     12        5        22        17       T       T     3
2011     12        6        19        10       T       0.1   3
2011     12        7        29        14       0       0     3
2011     12        8        29        12       0       0     2




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msp2010's                                                        Page 13 of 21



2011     12        9        17        5        0       0     2
2011     12        10       27        6        0       0     2
2011     12        11       39        19       0       0     2
2011     12        12       40        36       0.01    0     T
2011     12        13       38        35       0.01    0     0
2011     12        14       39        35       0.37    0     0
2011     12        15       37        19       T       T     0
2011     12        16       26        17       T       0.1   0
2011     12        17       35        20       0.01    0.2   T
2011     12        18       47        21       0       0     0
2011     12        19       38        26       0       0     0
2011     12        20       33        20       0       0     0
2011     12        21       31        18       T       0.2   0
2011     12        22       28        21       0       0     T
2011     12        23       37        19       0.02    0.2   0
2011     12        24       42        18       0       0     T
2011     12        25       42        30       0       0     0
2011     12        26       52        25       0       0     0
2011     12        27       40        24       0       0     0
2011     12        28       39        23       0.01    0     0
2011     12        29       37        28       0       0     0
2011     12        30       32        28       T       T     0
2011     12        31       43        28       0.33    1.7   0
2012     1         1        34        19       T       T     1
2012     1         2        20        11       T       T     1
2012     1         3        29        10       0       0     1
2012     1         4        37        23       0       0     1
2012     1         5        45        24       0       0     1
2012     1         6        46        37       0       0     T
2012     1         7        37        25       0       0     0
2012     1         8        40        21       0       0     0
2012     1         9        49        34       0       0     0
2012     1         10       52        27       0       0     0
2012     1         11       38        13       T       T     0
2012     1         12       14        10       T       T     T
2012     1         13       13        7        0.02    0.4   T
2012     1         14       21        5        0.03    0.5   T
2012     1         15       40        18       0       0     1
2012     1         16       32        20       0       0     T
2012     1         17       20        5        0.01    0.1   T
2012     1         18       26        -1       T       0.1   T
2012     1         19       4         -11      0       0     T
2012     1         20       12        0        0.07    1.1   T
2012     1         21       22        -1       0       0     1
2012     1         22       26        20       0.01    0     1
2012     1         23       26        19       0.15    1.9   2
2012     1         24       24        12       T       T     2
2012     1         25       32        22       T       T     2
2012     1         26       40        24       0       0     2
2012     1         27       36        20       0.04    0.1   1
2012     1         28       28        18       0.03    0.4   1
2012     1         29       22        11       T       T     1
2012     1         30       44        19       T       T     1
2012     1         31       45        29       0       0     1
2012     2         1        32        28       0       0     T
2012     2         2        36        28       0       0     T
2012     2         3        33        27       0       0     0
2012     2         4        36        23       T       T     0
2012     2         5        30        27       0       0     0
2012     2         6        46        25       0       0     0




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msp2010's                                                        Page 14 of 21



2012     2         7        32        15       0       0     0
2012     2         8        33        12       0       0     0
2012     2         9        38        17       0       0     0
2012     2         10       28        6        T       T     0
2012     2         11       21        1        0       0     0
2012     2         12       32        6        0       0     0
2012     2         13       31        15       0.04    0.3   0
2012     2         14       34        22       0.01    0.1   T
2012     2         15       36        23       T       T     T
2012     2         16       41        24       0       0     0
2012     2         17       43        26       0       0     0
2012     2         18       37        18       0       0     0
2012     2         19       44        19       0       0     0
2012     2         20       44        27       0.23    1.9   0
2012     2         21       35        30       0.07    0.8   3
2012     2         22       35        22       0       0     2
2012     2         23       39        28       0       0     2
2012     2         24       30        14       0.01    0.1   1
2012     2         25       28        11       T       0.1   1
2012     2         26       39        26       T       T     1
2012     2         27       30        22       T       T     T
2012     2         28       33        24       0.7     0.6   T
2012     2         29       34        31       0.65    2.2   1
2012     3         1        36        29       0.09    0.8   2
2012     3         2        35        28       T       T     2
2012     3         3        28        16       0.02    0.3   2
2012     3         4        29        8        0       0     2
2012     3         5        35        16       0       0     2
2012     3         6        60        29       0       0     2
2012     3         7        54        26       0.04    0     0
2012     3         8        37        21       0.01    0.2   0
2012     3         9        34        15       0       0     0
2012     3         10       66        34       0       0     0
2012     3         11       66        46       0.02    0     0
2012     3         12       52        43       0.28    0     0
2012     3         13       67        34       0       0     0
2012     3         14       73        48       0       0     0
2012     3         15       63        42       0       0     0
2012     3         16       79        42       0       0     0
2012     3         17       80        59       0       0     0
2012     3         18       79        61       0       0     0
2012     3         19       79        61       0.58    0     0
2012     3         20       65        57       0.01    0     0
2012     3         21       66        55       0.02    0     0
2012     3         22       70        56       0.12    0     0
2012     3         23       73        59       T       0     0
2012     3         24       70        51       0       0     0
2012     3         25       58        38       0       0     0
2012     3         26       47        37       0.05    0     0
2012     3         27       68        42       T       0     0
2012     3         28       54        40       0       0     0
2012     3         29       61        40       0.16    0     0
2012     3         30       50        39       T       0     0
2012     3         31       50        41       0       0     0
2012     4         1        67        45       0       0     0
2012     4         2        70        50       0.46    T     0
2012     4         3        64        46       0       0     0
2012     4         4        62        40       0       0     0
2012     4         5        59        42       0       0     0
2012     4         6        61        37       0       0     0




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msp2010's                                                      Page 15 of 21



2012     4         7        57        44       0.17    0   0
2012     4         8        61        37       0       0   0
2012     4         9        48        31       0       0   0
2012     4         10       44        28       0       0   0
2012     4         11       54        27       0       0   0
2012     4         12       63        34       0       0   0
2012     4         13       53        47       0.07    0   0
2012     4         14       73        45       T       0   0
2012     4         15       75        47       1.19    0   0
2012     4         16       48        34       0.24    T   0
2012     4         17       58        33       0.13    0   0
2012     4         18       63        46       0.05    0   0
2012     4         19       47        39       0.06    0   0
2012     4         20       58        33       0       0   0
2012     4         21       52        41       0.29    0   0
2012     4         22       56        41       0.03    0   0
2012     4         23       65        36       0       0   0
2012     4         24       73        49       T       0   0
2012     4         25       73        49       0.05    0   0
2012     4         26       56        44       0       0   0
2012     4         27       56        42       T       0   0
2012     4         28       51        40       0.25    T   0
2012     4         29       57        44       0.05    0   0
2012     4         30       63        44       T       0   0
2012     5         1        74        51       0.75    0   0
2012     5         2        81        58       0.03    0   0
2012     5         3        80        60       0.76    0   0
2012     5         4        74        53       0.38    0   0
2012     5         5        60        54       0.91    0   0
2012     5         6        64        52       1.4     T   0
2012     5         7        66        51       0       0   0
2012     5         8        60        49       0.06    0   0
2012     5         9        66        46       0       0   0
2012     5         10       73        46       0       0   0
2012     5         11       71        51       0.06    0   0
2012     5         12       69        50       0       0   0
2012     5         13       76        49       0       0   0
2012     5         14       85        55       0       0   0
2012     5         15       74        55       0       0   0
2012     5         16       70        47       0       0   0
2012     5         17       83        56       0       0   0
2012     5         18       93        63       0       0   0
2012     5         19       88        63       0.42    0   0
2012     5         20       63        51       0.02    0   0
2012     5         21       74        47       0       0   0
2012     5         22       85        56       0       0   0
2012     5         23       89        64       0.81    0   0
2012     5         24       65        57       2.58    0   0
2012     5         25       69        53       T       0   0
2012     5         26       64        59       0.65    0   0
2012     5         27       92        64       0.32    0   0
2012     5         28       80        60       0.19    0   0
2012     5         29       64        52       T       0   0
2012     5         30       62        47       T       0   0
2012     5         31       66        49       T       0   0
2012     6         1        72        46       0       0   0
2012     6         2        76        54       0       0   0
2012     6         3        77        57       0       0   0
2012     6         4        84        60       0       0   0
2012     6         5        83        61       0       0   0




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msp2010's                                                      Page 16 of 21



2012     6         6        82        62       0.02    0   0
2012     6         7        82        65       0       0   0
2012     6         8        90        71       0.01    0   0
2012     6         9        92        72       0       0   0
2012     6         10       93        64       0.37    0   0
2012     6         11       74        55       0       0   0
2012     6         12       69        51       0       0   0
2012     6         13       76        55       T       0   0
2012     6         14       70        61       0.86    0   0
2012     6         15       81        63       0       0   0
2012     6         16       83        66       0.31    0   0
2012     6         17       78        60       1.15    0   0
2012     6         18       90        67       0.1     0   0
2012     6         19       93        65       0.61    0   0
2012     6         20       83        64       0.16    0   0
2012     6         21       77        61       0       0   0
2012     6         22       81        62       0       0   0
2012     6         23       78        66       T       0   0
2012     6         24       84        66       0       0   0
2012     6         25       77        60       0       0   0
2012     6         26       82        60       0       0   0
2012     6         27       93        69       0       0   0
2012     6         28       88        71       0       0   0
2012     6         29       90        64       0       0   0
2012     6         30       92        70       T       0   0
2012     7         1        94        73       0       0   0
2012     7         2        99        77       0       0   0
2012     7         3        97        68       0.05    0   0
2012     7         4        101       81       T       0   0
2012     7         5        96        79       0       0   0
2012     7         6        102       66       0.54    0   0
2012     7         7        86        64       T       0   0
2012     7         8        90        71       0       0   0
2012     7         9        87        69       0       0   0
2012     7         10       88        65       0       0   0
2012     7         11       88        66       0       0   0
2012     7         12       89        70       T       0   0
2012     7         13       91        67       1       T   0
2012     7         14       91        68       T       0   0
2012     7         15       90        74       0       0   0
2012     7         16       98        77       0       0   0
2012     7         17       94        76       0       0   0
2012     7         18       83        71       0.83    0   0
2012     7         19       84        69       0       0   0
2012     7         20       87        67       T       0   0
2012     7         21       89        71       0.22    0   0
2012     7         22       89        75       T       0   0
2012     7         23       96        76       0.05    0   0
2012     7         24       82        70       1.69    0   0
2012     7         25       92        75       0.01    0   0
2012     7         26       84        66       0       0   0
2012     7         27       80        64       0       0   0
2012     7         28       83        65       T       0   0
2012     7         29       80        66       0.51    0   0
2012     7         30       89        69       0       0   0
2012     7         31       88        68       0       0   0
2012     8         1        92        69       T       0   0
2012     8         2        90        72       0       0   0
2012     8         3        89        66       0.38    0   0
2012     8         4        78        65       0.02    0   0




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msp2010's                                                      Page 17 of 21



2012     8         5        76        57       0       0   0
2012     8         6        86        61       0       0   0
2012     8         7        88        68       0       0   0
2012     8         8        80        64       0.01    0   0
2012     8         9        79        60       0.1     0   0
2012     8         10       79        56       0       0   0
2012     8         11       79        54       0       0   0
2012     8         12       68        61       T       0   0
2012     8         13       83        57       0       0   0
2012     8         14       78        59       T       0   0
2012     8         15       83        64       0.73    0   0
2012     8         16       71        56       0       0   0
2012     8         17       74        50       0       0   0
2012     8         18       78        56       0.02    0   0
2012     8         19       77        57       0       0   0
2012     8         20       79        51       0       0   0
2012     8         21       80        56       0       0   0
2012     8         22       79        58       0.04    0   0
2012     8         23       86        70       0.01    0   0
2012     8         24       89        66       0       0   0
2012     8         25       76        66       0.06    0   0
2012     8         26       86        67       0.01    0   0
2012     8         27       87        61       0       0   0
2012     8         28       84        66       0       0   0
2012     8         29       93        69       0       0   0
2012     8         30       92        72       0       0   0
2012     8         31       86        63       0       0   0
2012     9         1        86        65       0       0   0
2012     9         2        88        62       0       0   0
2012     9         3        92        70       0       0   0
2012     9         4        92        68       0       0   0
2012     9         5        84        61       0.02    0   0
2012     9         6        81        57       T       0   0
2012     9         7        72        55       T       0   0
2012     9         8        79        50       0       0   0
2012     9         9        75        52       0       0   0
2012     9         10       83        54       0       0   0
2012     9         11       95        63       0       0   0
2012     9         12       78        56       0.09    0   0
2012     9         13       75        53       0       0   0
2012     9         14       76        50       0       0   0
2012     9         15       85        52       0       0   0
2012     9         16       80        61       0       0   0
2012     9         17       64        47       0.19    0   0
2012     9         18       61        43       0       0   0
2012     9         19       76        52       T       0   0
2012     9         20       66        50       0       0   0
2012     9         21       63        40       T       0   0
2012     9         22       60        39       T       0   0
2012     9         23       61        36       0       0   0
2012     9         24       77        40       0       0   0
2012     9         25       68        45       0       0   0
2012     9         26       65        40       0       0   0
2012     9         27       69        41       0       0   0
2012     9         28       76        46       0       0   0
2012     9         29       82        51       0       0   0
2012     9         30       77        48       0       0   0
2012     10        1        72        53       0       0   0
2012     10        2        72        44       0       0   0
2012     10        3        78        48       0       0   0




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msp2010's                                                        Page 18 of 21



2012     10        4        64        42       0       0     0
2012     10        5        48        36       0       0     0
2012     10        6        45        33       0       0     0
2012     10        7        53        28       0       0     0
2012     10        8        64        39       T       0     0
2012     10        9        50        36       0.03    0     0
2012     10        10       55        32       0       0     0
2012     10        11       55        33       T       0     0
2012     10        12       53        28       T       0     0
2012     10        13       53        47       0.04    0     0
2012     10        14       59        45       0       0     0
2012     10        15       61        38       T       0     0
2012     10        16       65        52       T       0     0
2012     10        17       62        47       T       0     0
2012     10        18       50        43       0.01    0     0
2012     10        19       52        38       0.21    0     0
2012     10        20       54        34       0       0     0
2012     10        21       71        42       0       0     0
2012     10        22       64        50       T       0     0
2012     10        23       65        55       0.08    0     0
2012     10        24       60        47       0.18    0     0
2012     10        25       47        35       0.75    T     0
2012     10        26       39        32       0       0     0
2012     10        27       43        28       0       0     0
2012     10        28       46        29       0       0     0
2012     10        29       45        31       0       0     0
2012     10        30       50        28       0       0     0
2012     10        31       52        25       0       0     0
2012     11        1        47        31       0       0     0
2012     11        2        39        27       0       0     0
2012     11        3        43        37       0       0     0
2012     11        4        45        30       0.01    0     0
2012     11        5        45        38       T       0     0
2012     11        6        44        38       0.31    0     0
2012     11        7        47        38       0       0     0
2012     11        8        54        34       0       0     0
2012     11        9        55        35       0       0     0
2012     11        10       69        44       0.24    0     0
2012     11        11       56        22       0.02    T     0
2012     11        12       27        19       0.01    0.2   0
2012     11        13       43        18       0       0     T
2012     11        14       51        34       0       0     0
2012     11        15       53        29       T       0     0
2012     11        16       44        23       0       0     0
2012     11        17       54        32       0       0     0
2012     11        18       57        43       0       0     0
2012     11        19       59        38       T       0     0
2012     11        20       54        33       0       0     0
2012     11        21       62        38       0       0     0
2012     11        22       60        24       0.02    0.1   0
2012     11        23       27        14       0.02    0.5   1
2012     11        24       30        11       T       T     T
2012     11        25       30        23       0       0     T
2012     11        26       23        10       0       0     T
2012     11        27       39        16       0       0     T
2012     11        28       36        25       0       0     0
2012     11        29       40        23       0       0     0
2012     11        30       36        31       0       0     0
2012     12        1        48        34       0       0     0
2012     12        2        40        29       0       0     0




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msp2010's                                                         Page 19 of 21



2012     12        3        55        37       0.02    0      0
2012     12        4        45        21       0       0      0
2012     12        5        40        19       0       0      0
2012     12        6        46        27       T       0      0
2012     12        7        32        24       0.05    0.8    0
2012     12        8        33        25       0       0      1
2012     12        9        32        20       0.95    10.5   2
2012     12        10       20        2        T       0.1    9
2012     12        11       20        4        T       0.1    8
2012     12        12       43        12       0       0      8
2012     12        13       40        24       0       0      6
2012     12        14       39        20       0       0      6
2012     12        15       39        33       0.42    0.1    4
2012     12        16       34        20       T       T      1
2012     12        17       25        20       T       T      1
2012     12        18       29        23       T       T      1
2012     12        19       32        27       0.02    0.2    1
2012     12        20       28        13       0.02    0.5    1
2012     12        21       21        9        0       0      1
2012     12        22       29        9        0       0      1
2012     12        23       19        10       0       0      1
2012     12        24       18        6        0.01    0.5    1
2012     12        25       13        0        0       0      1
2012     12        26       19        5        0       0      1
2012     12        27       21        8        0.09    1      1
2012     12        28       26        13       0.06    1.2    3
2012     12        29       19        5        T       T      3
2012     12        30       25        1        0       0      3
2012     12        31       18        1        T       T      3
2013     1         2        21        14       0.01    0.4    3
2013     1         3        22        11       T       0.6    3
2013     1         4        30        16       0       0      3
2013     1         5        26        10       0       0      3
2013     1         6        24        10       0       0      3
2013     1         7        36        15       0       0      3
2013     1         8        35        16       0       0      3
2013     1         9        35        25       0       0      3
2013     1         10       39        24       0.28    0      2
2013     1         11       41        34       0.02    0      1
2013     1         12       39        5        T       T      0
2013     1         13       9         2        T       T      0
2013     1         14       14        5        0       0      T
2013     1         15       30        10       0       0      T
2013     1         16       36        14       0.02    0.3    T
2013     1         17       20        6        T       T      T
2013     1         18       41        17       0.01    0.1    T
2013     1         19       39        2        0       0      T
2013     1         20       9         -2       T       T      0
2013     1         21       -2        -10      T       T      T
2013     1         22       5         -12      0       0      T
2013     1         23       17        -5       T       0.2    T
2013     1         24       13        -6       T       T      T
2013     1         25       21        4        T       T      T
2013     1         26       23        2        0       0      0
2013     1         27       33        21       0.49    3      0
2013     1         28       33        30       T       0      3
2013     1         29       33        25       0.03    0      2
2013     1         30       26        6        T       T      2
2013     1         31       7         -10      T       T      2
2013     2         1        4         -13      0.06    2      2




http://climate.umn.edu/doc/twin_cities/msp2010's.htm                 8/20/2013
msp2010's                                                         Page 20 of 21



2013     2         2        9         0        0.03    0.7   4
2013     2         3        13        3        0.04    0.9   4
2013     2         4        14        3        0.06    1.2   5
2013     2         5        27        8        0.05    1.2   6
2013     2         6        23        3        0.04    0.7   5
2013     2         7        25        18       T       0     5
2013     2         8        23        16       0       0     5
2013     2         9        29        22       0       0     5
2013     2         10       35        25       0.62    2.2   5
2013     2         11       32        19       T       0.1   6
2013     2         12       36        16       0       0     6
2013     2         13       39        20       0.09    0.5   6
2013     2         14       34        15       0.09    1.1   7
2013     2         15       18        6        0       0     7
2013     2         16       20        2        T       T     7
2013     2         17       32        9        0       0     7
2013     2         18       34        9        0.01    0.3   6
2013     2         19       10        0        T       T     6
2013     2         20       19        -3       0       0     5
2013     2         21       23        7        0       0     5
2013     2         22       29        20       0.24    4.2   7
2013     2         23       29        20       0       0     9
2013     2         24       34        12       0       0     8
2013     2         25       37        23       0       0     7
2013     2         26       36        17       0       0     6
2013     2         27       38        29       0       0     6
2013     2         28       31        25       0       0     6
2013     3         1        31        19       0       0     6
2013     3         2        32        10       0       0     6
2013     3         3        32        18       0       0     6
2013     3         4        29        23       0.34    3.9   5
2013     3         5        30        22       0.41    5.4   11
2013     3         6        29        17       0       0     13
2013     3         7        31        11       0       0     11
2013     3         8        39        19       0       0     11
2013     3         9        38        33       0.61    0     8
2013     3         10       36        31       0.01    T     6
2013     3         11       31        23       0       0     6
2013     3         12       29        20       T       T     6
2013     3         13       33        14       0       0     6
2013     3         14       40        24       0.06    0.6   6
2013     3         15       35        24       0.19    0.8   5
2013     3         16       27        14       0       0     6
2013     3         17       29        9        0       0     6
2013     3         18       30        11       0.23    3.1   8
2013     3         19       23        7        0       0     8
2013     3         20       21        5        0       0     8
2013     3         21       29        7        0       0     8
2013     3         22       37        13       0       0     7
2013     3         23       39        20       0       0     6
2013     3         24       33        29       0       0     6
2013     3         25       38        24       0       0     6
2013     3         26       39        27       0       0     5
2013     3         27       43        23       0       0     4
2013     3         28       44        25       0       0     4
2013     3         29       49        32       T       0     2
2013     3         30       56        36       0.19    0     T
2013     3         31       42        24       0       0     T
2013     4         1        36        19       0       0     T
2013     4         2        38        19       0       0     0




http://climate.umn.edu/doc/twin_cities/msp2010's.htm                 8/20/2013
msp2010's                                                        Page 21 of 21



2013     4         3        48        23       0       0     0
2013     4         4        53        33       0       0     0
2013     4         5        44        28       0.07    T     0
2013     4         6        55        37       0.09    0     0
2013     4         7        48        35       0.19    0     0
2013     4         8        48        40       0.52    0     0
2013     4         9        44        31       0.48    0.7   0
2013     4         10       40        30       0.09    0.7   1
2013     4         11       36        31       0.76    4.4   1
2013     4         12       36        28       0.06    0.6   4
2013     4         13       36        29       0.01    0.2   4
2013     4         14       38        30       0.46    0.2   3
2013     4         15       40        33       0       0     2
2013     4         16       47        33       0       0     1
2013     4         17       42        35       0.26    T     0
2013     4         18       35        32       1.02    6.4   0
2013     4         19       38        26       0.12    0.9   7
2013     4         20       42        21       0       0     5
2013     4         21       51        34       0.15    T     3
2013     4         22       44        33       0.82    3.5   0
2013     4         23       42        29       0.02    0.3   3
2013     4         24       51        29       T       0     T
2013     4         25       51        33       T       T     0
2013     4         26       72        45       0.02    0     0
2013     4         27       75        43       0       0     0
2013     4         28       81        54       0.08    0     0
2013     4         29       75        51       0       0     0
2013     5         1        56        35       0.35    T     0
2013     5         2        48        35       T       T     0
2013     5         3        38        32       0.2     0.5   0
2013     5         4        49        34       0.08    T     0
2013     5         5        67        39       0       0     0
2013     5         6        76        46       0       0     0
2013     5         7        78        53       0       0     0
2013     5         8        78        58       0.12    0     0
2013     5         9        60        43       0.1     0     0
2013     5         10       67        37       T       0     0
2013     5         11       57        42       T       0     0
2013     5         12       59        34       0       0     0
2013     5         13       72        41       0.01    0     0
2013     5         14       98        54       0       0     0
2013     5         15       79        56       0       0     0
2013     5         16       83        58       T       0     0
2013     5         17       66        57       0.25    0     0
2013     5         18       81        56       1.47    0     0
2013     5         19       82        64       1.16    0     0
2013     5         20       72        60       0.6     0     0
2013     5         21       65        49       0.07    0     0
2013     5         22       55        47       0.13    0     0
2013     5         23       65        45       0       0     0
2013     5         24       68        44       0.16    0     0
2013     5         25       62        54       T       0     0
2013     5         26       60        54       0       0     0
2013     5         27       62        55       0.05    0     0
2013     5         28       62        54       0.06    0     0
2013     5         29       76        55       0.92    0     0
2013     5         30       77        65       0.26    0     0
2013     5         31       79        63       0.25    0     0




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StarTribune - Print Page                                                                                                                            Page 1 of 1




                  Van-sized boulder smashes into St. Paul
                  bakery
                  Article by: CHAO XIONG
                  Star Tribune
                  April 13, 2011 - 12:43 PM

                  Robert Dubuc thought he'd get a head start on a busy day at his West Side bakery in St. Paul last Friday, but what he found
                  stopped all plans indefinitely: A van-sized boulder had crashed into the back of his business.

                  "It looked like a bomb went off back there," Dubuc said Monday.

                  Dubuc's now shuttered and condemned business sits at 385 Wabasha St. S. at the foot of St. Paul's limestone bluffs, where
                  city authorities say a rockslide this large is unusual. Ricardo Cervantes, director of the city's department of safety and
                  inspections, said the boulder is about 20 feet long and 12 feet high.

                  "On occasion we're going to have some rocks come out of the bluffs, but typically it's not going to land on a structure, and
                  typically they're not this large," Cervantes said.

                  Dubuc believes the boulder fell sometime between midnight and 2 a.m. Friday. He arrived at the bakery about 2:15 a.m. with
                  an extern.

                  At first, the two smelled gas. Further investigation revealed that the boulder had smashed through one-third of a rear wall and
                  roof, and bent a gas pipe to the bread oven. No one was hurt.

                  "It's hard to think clearly right now," said Dubuc, who opened his bakery in 2008. "My whole life is wrapped up in the bakery,
                  and other people's lives." He said he wants to rebuild -- but not there.

                  Dubuc said he always knew there was the possibility of rockslides, but he never envisioned such damage. It's unclear what
                  caused the boulder to fall, but Cervantes said the long winter may have weakened the boulder's hold in the bluff face.

                  "We understand that the bluff, like much of Mother Nature, is in change," Cervantes said.

                  Homes on top of the bluff were not compromised.

                  Dubuc was allowed back in for the first time on Monday. He gathered up some paperwork but left behind an expensive bread
                  oven. He made sure to grab his 13-year-old sourdough starter.

                  "The longer it's alive, the more flavor it has," he said of the starter. "It takes time, and I really need to keep that going."

                  Chao Xiong • 612-270-4708 Follow Chao on Twitter: @ChaoStrib

                                                                            © 2013 Star Tribune




http://www.startribune.com/printarticle/?id=119778674                                                                                                8/20/2013

				
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