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         Developing an opening

• The introduction to your presentation is

• It is your first point of contact with your
  audience; you can either capture or lose
  your audience’s interest in a matter of
          Developing an opening
• introduce yourself

• state what you will be talking about (a title or
  subject area)

• state how you will be talking about it (e.g. by
  comparing test results or reviewing the
  supporting literature)
         Developing an opening

• state what you intend to be the outcome of
  your presentation (an informed
  group, a lively discussion);

• state what you expect your audience to do
  (listen, take notes, read a handout, ask
  questions before/during/after).
       Developing a conclusion
• a review of your title or subject area
  “In this presentation I wanted to explore the
  relationship between X and Y.”

• a summary of your main points
  “We have discussed the following points…”
       Developing a conclusion
• a conclusion clearly drawn from your main
  points (this must be supported by the detail of
  your presentation)
  “It is clear that there can be no substantive
  relationship between X and Y”

• a parting statement to stimulate your
  audience’s thoughts (this might be a
  question or a bold comment).
     Designing PowerPoint slides
• Ensure that all of your slides have the same or
  similar colour schemes. PowerPoint’s design
  templates can be used for this.

• Prepare slides that use a bold colour contrast,
  e.g. black or deep blue text on a cream

• Avoid using red or green for text or
  highlighting as it can be difficult to read.
• Avoid using too much text.
• A useful guideline is the six-by-six rule (slides
  should have no more than six bullet points
  and each bullet point should be no more than
  six words long).

• Create bullet points which are clear
  summaries of key points.

• It is not necessary for bullet points to be
  complete sentences.
• Don’t mix up your fonts and font sizes. Too
  many variations in font size and type can be
  visually confusing.

• Ensure that your text is at least 24pt
  otherwise it may be difficult to read on screen.

• Choose left align for all text to make it easier
  to read.
• Avoid using too many slides in your
  presentation, as this will be distracting
  for your audience.

• In general you should use about one
  slide every two minutes, so a ten-minute
  presentation should have around five
• Don’t just read out the text on the slides,
  they should be a summary or a
  supplement to the content of your
  spoken presentation.

• Don’t leave your screen saver on, as this
  will distract your audience
• Give your audience time to assimilate
  material on your slides.

• If, for example, a slide contains a
  quotation or a diagram – introduce the
  slide, give them time to read and
  understand it and then explain its
                 Eye contact
• Making eye contact is one of the most powerful
  techniques for involving your audience.

• If used well, eye contact can serve to make your
  address much more personal and thus more

• If eye contact is avoided, the presenter can
  appear to be nervous and unconvincing.
                 Eye contact
• Avoid making eye contact only with the
  person assessing you or only with the people
  you know well.

• Make sure to make eye contact with each
  person in the audience.

• If audience is very large, then make it with
  SECTIONS of people.
                 Eye contact
• To build your use of eye contact focus on
  people’s foreheads so that you are at least
  looking in their direction.

• This sounds silly but is much better than
  looking at the ceiling, floor or your notes
     Managing the performance
• When you have written the content of your
  presentation, map out how it will be delivered.

• Make notes or cue cards

• A clear plan of when you’ll be giving out handouts,
  where you’ll be taking questions and the precise
  moment at which you’ll be changing visual aids.
       Managing the performance
• On your own notes, mark the point when you
  will stop to change slides or when you will
  distribute handouts etc.

• When practising your presentation, try to
  replicate the actual delivery as closely as
     Managing the performance
• Simply running through the words in your
  head is not enough to accommodate all
  aspects of the performance.

• Ideally, try the presentation out in a seminar
  room or lecture theatre where you can
  practise integrating all the elements of your
  talk, and time the whole thing.

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