Docstoc

PRINTED RECTANGULAR MONOPOLE ANTENNA WITH E SHAPED NOTCH

Document Sample
PRINTED RECTANGULAR MONOPOLE ANTENNA WITH E SHAPED NOTCH Powered By Docstoc
					International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
         INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME
 COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)

ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)                                                         IJECET
Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August, 2013, pp. 206-213
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)
                                                                               ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




    PRINTED RECTANGULAR MONOPOLE ANTENNA WITH E SHAPED
                          NOTCH

                             Naveen S. M1, Vani R. M2, Hunagund P. V1
            1
                Dept. of Applied Electronics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-585 106, India.
                    2
                      University Science Instrumentation Centre, Gulbarga University,
                                         Gulbarga-585 106, India.


ABSTRACT

       This paper presents a planar microstrip fed monopole antenna for UWB wireless
communications. The impedance bandwidth of 3.01 to 15 GHz is obtained by embedding E-shaped
notch at the right side of the radiating patch and inserting a stub at the lower left side of the radiating
patch. Design and simulation for the antenna dimensional parameters using Mentor Graphics IE3D
simulation software is made and measured using Vector Network Analyzer. The proposed antenna
has a small size of 26mmX16mm with good radiation characteristics to satisfy the requirements of
wireless communications systems.

I. INTRODUCTION

        Currently, there is an increased interest in ultra-wideband (UWB) technology for use in
several present and future applications. UWB technology received a major boost especially in 2002
since the US Federal Communication Commission (FCC) permitted the authorization of using the
unlicensed frequency band starting from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. for commercial communication
applications. Although existing third-generation (3G) communication technology can provide us
with many wide services such as fast internet access, video telephony, enhanced video/music
download as well as digital voice services, UWB as a new technology is very promising for many
reasons [1].
          From mobile telephones to wireless internet access to networked appliances and peripherals,
there is an increasing reliance on wireless communications to provide functionality for products and
services. Therefore, the technologies for wireless communications always need further improvement
to satisfy higher resolution and data requirements. That is why ultra wideband (UWB)
communications systems covering 3.1GHz to 10.6GHz released by the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) in 2002 are currently under development [2]. There is always increasing demand
for small size, and greater capacities and transmission speeds. This will certainly require more
operating bandwidth in the near future. [3]. A suitable UWB antenna is supposed to fulfill many

                                                   206
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

requirements such as small size, omnidirectional radiation patterns. As a succeeded candidate for
UWB antennas, printed monopole UWB antenna technology has attracted both academia and
industrial’s great attention [4, 5].
        In this paper, a microstrip fed monopole antenna with an E-shaped notch is studied. To
achieve good impedance matching stub is inserted at lower left side of the radiating patch. Details of
this proposed antenna with both simulated and measured results will be presented and discussed.

II. ANTENNA DESIGN

       In this article, a microstrip patch structure which has UWB characteristics is proposed. The
proposed antenna has been modified based on the idea which is presented in ref.5. The antenna
covers UWB and is smaller than the antenna size which is presented in ref.5. The geometry of the
antenna with E-shaped notch at the right side, square stub at the lower left side of the radiating patch
and L-shaped notches at the corners of the patch with 50 microstrip line is shown in fig 1(e).




      Fig 1(a) Antenna with rectangular patch            Fig 1(b) Antenna with 4-steps on the
                                                           patch & 1 step on ground plane




       Fig 1(c) Antenna with 4-steps on the             Fig 1(d) Antenna with E-shaped notch at
        patch & 2-steps on ground plane                   the right side of the radiating patch




                                                  207
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME




                                 Fig 1(e) Optimized proposed antenna

        The glass epoxy substrate having h=1.6mm thick with permittivity εr=4.4 is used. The
geometry of the antenna having substrate length Lsub=26mm and width Wsub=16mm is designed.
The length of the radiating patch Lp=17.5mm and width Wp=12mm is fed by a microstrip line of
width Wf=2mm and length Lf=6mm. The height of the feed gap between main patch and the ground
(g) is also an important parameter to control the impedance bandwidth & it is 2mm. The ground
plane size is LgXWg=4X16mm. The ground plane also plays an important role in the broadband
characteristics of this antenna, because it helps to match the patch with feed line in a wide range of
frequencies. The notch in the ground plane creates a capacitive load that neutralizes the inductive
nature of the patch to produce nearly pure resistive input impedance.
        By selecting the optimal parameters mentioned in table1, the proposed antenna can be tuned
to operate within the UWB band. To design the UWB antenna, we have applied three techniques to
the proposed antenna. The use of i) steps on the patch and ground plane, ii) square stub on the
radiating patch, iii) E-shape notch at the right side of the radiating patch.

                          Table 1. Dimensions of the antenna are in mm
                       Lsub Wsub Lp        Wp Lf Wf Lg Wg                      a
                       26   16       17.5 12      6     2     4     16         3
                       b    c        d     e      f     g     h     i          -
                       1    1        1     0.5 0.5 2          1     1          -

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

         In this section, design procedure of the proposed monopole antenna with simulated return
loss curves in presented. Note that the simulated return loss results are obtained by using the IE3D
software. Initially, the effect of inserting L-shaped notches (steps) in the ground plane and on the
radiating patch is studied. Fig.1(a,b,c) shows the structure of three antennas with modifications on
the ground plane and radiating patch. The return loss characteristics of all designs, namely with step
shaped notches on radiating patch and ground plane, with stubs are compared to understand the
function of the notch in the design. The simulated results are plotted in figure 2 (a) to 2 (c). From the
simulation results in fig. 2(a), it can be seen that the impedance bandwidth for the patch is varied
from 3.05GHz to 7.13GHz by varying steps from 1 to 3 on radiating patch. But with 4 steps on
radiating patch and one step on ground plane i.e., RpXGp=4stpX1stp, the bandwidth is obtained
from 3.039GHz to 14GHz with a band notch from 7.56 GHz to 8.05GHz. The data is shown in &
table 2.

                                                  208
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

         To improve the bandwidth & to remove band notch, we varied steps on the ground plane as
shown in fig 1(c) and return loss characteristics are shown in fig2 (b) & table 3. In this it is observed
that the bandwidth is from 3.05GHz to 14GHz with 4 steps on patch and 2 steps on the ground plane
i.e., RpXGp=4stpX2stp.
         To further reduce lower frequency and to enhance the impedance bandwidth we added E-
shaped notch [fig. 1(d)] & square stub [fig1 (e)] and the study has been made. It is observed that, by
inserting E-notch and square stub the simulated results gives the frequency range from 3.01GHz to
14GHz, which decreases the lower frequency and increases the bandwidth. Finally this optimized
antenna shown in fig 1(e) is fabricated and measured using a German made Rohde & Schwarz
Vector Network Analyzer. The measured and simulated return loss characteristics are shown in fig.4.
From the results it is observed that the measured value is from 2.98 to 15.5 GHz and it is shown in
table 4.

                       Table 2. Bandwidth results for one step in ground plane
                    RpXGp        fL (GHz)      fH (GHz)       Bandwidth (GHz)
                   1stpX1stp        3.13          6.28                3.15
                   2stpX1stp        3.07          6.71                3.63
                   3stpX1stp        3.05          7.13                4.07
                   4stpX1stp     fL1=3.03      fH1=7.56            BW1=4.29
                                 fL2=8.05       fH2=14             BW2=5.95

                    Table 3. Bandwidth results for two steps in the ground plane
                   RpXGp       fL (GHz)      fH (GHz)        Bandwidth (GHz)
                   1stpX2stp 3.11            6.35            3.23
                   2stpX2stp 3.07            6.81            3.73
                   3stpX2stp 3.05            7.34            4.28
                               8.3           14              5.7
                   4stpX2stp 3.05            14              10.95




                            Fig 2(a). Simulated Return-loss characteristics

                               Table 4. Results of proposed antenna
                         Antenna          fL         fH        Bandwidth
                          results      (GHz)       (GHz)         (GHz)
                       Simulated         3.01        14           10.99
                       Measured          2.98       15.5          12.52

                                                  209
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME




                                                    Fig 2(b). Simulated Return-loss characteristics


                                      -1 0
                    Return Loss(dB)




                                      -2 0



                                      -3 0



                                      -4 0                                           W ith E n o tc h
                                                                                     W ith E n o tc h & s q u a re s tu b

                                                   4              6              8               10            12              14
                                                                  F re q u e n c y (G H z )
                                             Fig 3. Return loss characteristics with E-notch & square stub


                                       -5

                                      -1 0
         Return Loss (dB)




                                      -1 5

                                      -2 0

                                      -2 5

                                      -3 0

                                      -3 5                                                                    S im u la te d
                                                                                                              M e a su re d
                                      -4 0
                                                   4          6              8              10           12            14
                                                                      F re q u e n c y (G H z )
                                               Fig 4. Return Loss characteristics of proposed antenna



                                                                             210
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

        The simulated and measured radiation patterns in the E-plane and H-plane for 3.1GHz,
5.8GHz, & 10.6GHz are depicted in fig 5(a), 5(b) & 6(a), 6(b). The results shows that the elevation
patterns are bidirectional and azimuthal radiation patterns are nearly omnidirectional. Also it is
observed that the measured and simulated radiation patterns are in close agreement.




                                                  Fig 5(a). Simulated Elevation radiation patterns


                          90    -E plane 3.1GHz
   0                                                                                                                90    -E plane 10.6GHz
                    120               60
                                                                                             -2               120              60
   -1                                                                                        -4
                                                                                             -6
   -2         150                                 30                                         -8         150                            30
   -3                                                                                       -10
                                                                                            -12
   -4                                                                                       -14
   -5   180                                             0                                   -16   180                                        0
                                                                                            -16
   -4                                                                                       -14
                                                                                            -12
   -3                                                                                       -10
              210                                 330                                                   210                            330
   -2                                                                                        -8
                                                                                             -6
   -1                                                                                        -4
                                                                                                              240              300
   0
                    240               300                                                    -2
                                                                                                                    270
                          270




                                                  Fig 6(a). Measured E-plane radiation patterns




                                            Fig 5(b). Simulated azimuthal radiation patterns




                                                                        211
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

                          90    -H plane 3.1GHz
   0                120               60

   -2
   -4         150                                 30

   -6
   -8
  -10   180                                             0

   -8
   -6
              210                                 330
   -4
   -2
                    240               300
   0
                          270




                                                        Fig 6(b). Measured H-plane radiation patterns


The current distribution of the antenna is studied & it is shown in fig 7. This show current is
concentrated more at the corners of the antenna, feedline and around the notches of the antenna.




                                                            Fig 7. Current distribution of the antenna


IV. CONCLUSION

        A printed rectangular monopole antenna with E-shaped notch is studied. This gives wide
band frequency ranging from 2.98 GHz to 15.5 GHz. This antenna has compact size and gives
bidirectional radiation pattern in E-plane and nearly omnidirectional radiation pattern in the H-plane
over the UWB spectrum. This antenna has advantages in ultra wide bandwidth, compact in size, low
cost and easy fabrication which is suitable for UWB communication systems.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

      The authors acknowledge their thanks to UGC, New Delhi for sanctioning the IE3D software
under Major Research Project, which is most useful and reliable for designing microstrip antennas
and DST, New Delhi for sanctioning Vector Network Analyzer for measuring the fabricated antenna.



                                                                               212
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

REFERENCES

 1) Osama Haraz and Abdel-Razik Sebak, “UWB Antennas for Wireless Applications”
     Advancement in Microstrip Antennas with Recent Applications.
 2) FCC, “First report and order on ultra wideband technology”, Tech. Rep., 2002.
 3) A.A. Eldek, “Numerical analysis of a small ultra wideband microstrip-fed tap monopole
     antenna”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER, 65, 59-69,2006.
 4) Liang Xu*, Bin Yuan, and Shuang He, DESIGN OF NOVEL UWB SLOT ANTENNA FOR
     BLUETOOTH AND UWB APPLICATIONS, Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol.
     37, 211-221, 2013.
 5) M. Akbari, M. Koohestani, Ch. Ghobadi, J. Nourinia, “A New compact Planar UWB Monopole
     Antenna”, Wiley Online Library, 1 March 2011.
 6) M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Rectangular Slot Loaded Monopole
     Microstrip Antennas for Quad-Band Operation”, International Journal of Electronics and
     Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 165 - 171,
     ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.
 7) Suman Sushant, Sachin Agarwal and Tanushree Bose Roy, “Enhancement in Frequency Band
     of Printed Rectangular Monopole Antenna by Pushing-Up Feed Technique”, International
     Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4,
     Issue 2, 2013, pp. 239 - 242, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.
 8) M. Veereshappa and S. N. Mulgi, “Rectangular Slot Loaded Monopole Microstrip Antennas
     for Triple-Band Operation and Virtual Size Reduction”, International Journal of Electronics
     and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013,
     pp. 176 - 182, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.
 9) G.A.Bidkar, P.V.Hunagund, R.M.Vani, S.N. Mulgi and P.M.Hadalgi, “Low Cost Slotted
     Microstrip Line Fed Shorted Patch Antenna”, International Journal of Electronics and
     Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011,
     pp. 11 - 16, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.
 10) Vanishree S B, P.A.Ambresh, G.A.Bidkar, R.M.Vani and P.V. Hunagund, “Novel Design of a
     Low Cost Microstripline-Fed Shorted Patch Antenna for Communication Applications”,
     International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
     Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 235 - 239, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.
 11) Jagadeesha.S, Vani R.M And P.V Hunugund, “Self-Affine Rectangular Fractal Antenna with
     UC-EBG Structure”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &
     Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 15 - 22, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN
     Online: 0976 –6472.




                                             213

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:1
posted:9/5/2013
language:
pages:8