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					                    Edinburgh Napier University
                  Sustainable Rural Communities
                         27 October 2011
                   Birnam Arts Institute, Dunkeld

       Wind Energy for Farms & Rural
               Communities
       EurIng Prof Ian M. Arbon CEng, CEnv
      Visiting Professor, Newcastle University
     Honorary Professor, University of Glasgow
  Immediate Past Chairman – Energy, Environment &
            Sustainability Group, IMechE
Wind for Rural Communities
                       The Merkland Project
                       Solar PV
    Small Wind          Array Water-source                   Passive Solarium with
     Turbine
                                Heat Pump                    Mechanical Ventilation
                                             Solar Thermal
   Solar                                         Array
   Tube
 Lighting

   Log Gasifier                                Low-e
                                               Double
                                               Glazing   Dwelling with Roof, Walls
                                                          and Floors Insulated to
                                                            Current Standards
   Holiday Let built to      Anaerobic Digester      Micro Hydro
  PassivHaus Standards        with Micro CHP




The Merkland Project
                         Why Wind Energy?
   • Both UK and Scottish Governments have set highly
     ambitious targets for the level of electricity to be
     generated from wind resources by 2020.
   • Scotland has one of the best available wind
     resources in the world and capturing that resource
     will help our security of supply.
   • Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs) and Feed-
     In Tariff payments (FiTs) provide excellent Return on
     Investment (RoI).
   • Wind is not in competition with AD or PV – its
     characteristics are complementary and hybrid
     systems provide a more sustainable solution.
Wind for Rural Communities
             Scotland’s Renewable Electricity
                      ‘Commitment’




                             Source: Compendium of Scottish Energy Statistics (2010)
Wind for Rural Communities
              Location, Location, Location
   • To get significant amounts of energy from the wind it
     needs to be:
         u Moving very fast:
                • High average wind speed site
                • Taller towers
                       OR
         u You need to capture a lot of it:
                • Large collector size
   • Small changes in height/position can be significant;
   • Wind speeds on your site will be below the average annual
     figure most of the time;
   • Wind Quality is as important as Quantity.
Wind for Rural Communities
                        Wind Energy Basics

   • Wind Speed and Energy
   • Wind Shear
   • Wind Distribution and Annual
     Average Wind Speed
   • Turbulence
   • Collecting Wind Energy




Wind for Rural Communities
                      Effect of Turbulence




Wind for Rural Communities
                     Common Misconceptions

    • Myth - power rating (in kW) determines how
      much energy is produced;
    • Collector size is generally a better guide to
      turbine performance than generator size;
    • Choose a collector-generator combination that
      suits your wind regime;
    • Myth – turbines produce most energy when
      running in strong winds.


Wind for Rural Communities
                                              Optimizing Wind Yield
                                                          frequent
     Wind speed distribution                           wind speeds
                                                                                 high power
      Turbine A - 11kW                                                                            - 20
                                              1400
      Turbine B - 20kW                                                                            - 18
      Turbine C - 15kW                        1200
                                                                                                  - 16
      Turbine D -                                                                                 - 14
                                              1000
                          Distribution, h/y




      5kW
                                                                                                  - 12




                                                                                                          Power, kW
                                               800
                                                                                                  - 10
                                               600                                                -   8
                                                                                                  -   6
                                               400
                                                                                                  -   4
                                               200                                                -   2

                                                 0 |            |          |              |   |
                                                                                                  -   0
                                                   0            5         10             15   20
                                                                     Wind, m/s


Wind for Rural Communities
                    Annual Energy Production




Operating Challenges for Offshore Wind
      Wind Energy
        Capture              d



          Doubling
           rotor
       diameter (d)
         increases
       capture area
          4 times


Wind for Rural Communities
                 Key Factors for Wind Energy
    A wind turbine is a ‘machine’ – it consists of many
    moving parts, which have to be properly maintained
    and serviced. Key aspects to be considered are:
    • Durability – how long has the specific turbine
      design been in satisfactory operation?
    • Reliability – what is the design life of the turbine
      and what are its normal service intervals?
    • Performance – has the turbine’s ‘power curve’
      been verified by an independent authority?
    • Energy production – what is the turbine’s
      expected annual output in kWh?
Wind for Rural Communities
                       Wind Turbine Noise


    A sensitive issue in quiet rural areas – what level
    you can tolerate often depends on what side of
    the earnings fence you are standing;

    Turbine noise is dynamic – i.e. it changes with
    wind speed – need to know the noise profile of a
    machine in order to determine its noise impact.




Wind for Rural Communities
                        Wind Turbine Noise




Operating Challenges for Offshore Wind
                    Edinburgh Napier University
                  Sustainable Rural Communities
                         27 October 2011
                   Birnam Arts Institute, Dunkeld

       Wind Energy for Farms & Rural
               Communities

                    Thank you for your attention.

             ian.arbon@engineered-solutions.co.uk
                www.engineered-solutions.co.uk

Wind for Rural Communities

				
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