Chapter 18_ The 18th Century_ European States_ International Wars by hcj

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									Chapter 18: The 18       18 th

Century: European States,
International Wars and
Social Change

  Economic Expansion and Social
  Change
 Growth of Population
§ Slowly, but steadily
§ Decline in death rate
   § More food
   § Better food
   § Better transportation
      of food
   § End of bubonic
      plague
§ Still many diseases
   § Typhus
   § Smallpox
   § Influenza
   § dysentery
EFFECTS OF THE POPULATION EXPLOSION
                 § Industrial Revolution
                   required rapid expansion of
                   labor supply & consumers
                 § Europeans became
                   younger - more young
                   adults & children
                    § Expanded markets, but…
                    § Older generations could
                      not keep up with facilities
                      necessary to meet
                      expanding populations
                      (housing, educational
                      facilities, hospitals, etc.)
 Childcare
§ Traditional:
   § lower class breastfeed
   § Upper hired wet nurses
   § Children are tiny adults




    § Changes (some due to Emile)
       § Childhood as own phase, comfy clothes = increased
         survival
       § All are important, not just 1st son
       § Breastfeeding of own children increased
Childcare continued
                                  § Lower Classes still
                                    suffered
                                    § Many had to many children
                                      and did the unthinkable
                                    § Law in Austria that no child
                                      under 5 could sleep in
                                      parents’ bed
 § English were the first to        § “Foundling homes” grew
   make toys just for kids             § Largest in St. Petersburg
    § Jigsaw puzzles                   § Mortality rates sometimes
    § Little Pretty Pocketbook           90% as they became
      (aimed to teach and play)          overburdened
    § Aimed at upper class
Marriage and Birthrate


§ Unless wealthy people married in mid/late 20s to afford
  own home
§ Illegitimacy was low in 1st half of 1700s, but grew in 2nd
  half
§ Birthrate
   § 1st in 1year of marriage with 1 each 2 or 3 years after =
     average of 5
   § Upper class English and French used birth control (coitus
     interruptus) and average declined from 6 to 3
   § 40% of fertile women were unmarried at any given time
   § Children helped work in working class families
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION




        England in the lead
MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE
  § Growth of Commercial Agriculture
  § Crop rotation – lie fallow (unused)
  § Beginning in low-countries
    (Netherlands) 1700s
  § More efficient use of crop rotation
  § After soil depletion crop – plant soil
    restoring crops - like clover.
Charles “Turnip” Townsend
             § 1725 – 1767 (English)
             § Soil loosening – large root
               plant
             § 4 crop rotation – wheat,
               turnips, barley, clover
               (replaced fallow fields)
             § Learned how to use
               fertilizers in sandy soil
             § New crops supplied
               animal fodder
NEW CROPS
§ Tomatoes, potatoes, sugar beets
§ From Americas
§ Tomatoes & Potatoes increased vitamin
  and caloric level of Europeans’ diets
§ One acre of potatoes – feed a peasant
  & his family for a year
    § Famine of 1846 – Ireland and northern
      Europe
§ Sugar beets – vitamins, calories and
  sweets ended dependence on
  American sugarcane)
    Use And Breeding Of
    Stock
§ Certain rotation of crops valuable food for
  farm stock
§ Enclosed pens – eases fertilizer collection
   § Raises crop yield
§ No need to slaughter animals in fall
§ More advances in breeding improved
  quality & supply of meat
§ Robert Bakewell (1725 – 1795) –pioneered
  new methods of animal husbandry which
  produced more milk & meat.
 New Inventions
§ Jethro Tull
   § 1674 – 1741
   § Wealthy landowner
   § Iron plow
   § Seed drill
§ Charles Newbold – cast-
  iron plow

§ John Deere – self-cleaning
  plow

§ Reaper – Cyrus
  McCormack
New Means of Land Organization
§ English Enclosure Movement
  § Commercial sheet farming
  § 200 years before Industrial Revolution
  § mid-1700s – commercial (capitalist) farming
  § In 50 years – two million acres enclosed
  § Many independent farmers reduced to tenant
    farming
New Methods of
Finance
§ Gold and Silver decline
   § $ shortage = new public and private banks – begin use of paper
      notes = credit expands
§ Bank of England 1694
   § Begins making loans (instead of just deposits and currency
      exchange)
   § Paper notes backed by its credit
   § National debt is now separate from Monarch’s (leads to larger
      armies and government programs)
§ Still Risky
   § Investments in colonial enterprises
   § French company of John Law had price driven to high and went
      bankrupt – French didn’t want to trust paper notes = slower
      economic growth
§ Great Britain
   § Borrowed a lot at low interest = advantage over France
§ Dutch still leading until 1800s
   Supplemental Income à
Cottage Industries: “Putting-Out”
             System
The “Putting-Out” System
The “spinning jenny”
Advantages of the Putting-Out System
•   Peasants could supplement their agricultural incomes.
     § Take advantage of winter months when farming was
       impossible.
•   Merchants could avoid the higher wages and often
    demanding regulations of urban labor.
     § Easier to reduce the number of workers when the
        economy was bad.
•   Merchants could acquire capital, which would later play
    a part in funding industrialization itself.
     § Peasants acquired future skills.
•   Young people could start separate households earlier,
    thus contributing to population growth.
 Disadvantage of the Putting-Out
           System??
When demand rose [which it did in the 18c] this
system proved inefficient.
 § Merchant-capitalists found it difficult to induce
    peasant-workers to increase their output.




This dilemma eventually led to the factory system
 § All the workers were concentrated in one place under
    the supervision of a manager.
 § Water or steam power could easily be applied there.
“Apprentices at Their Looms”
   William Hogarth, 1687
      Textile Innovations




                                                   The “flying shuttle




Water frame spun yarn faster
Mechanical looms (workers feared being replaced)
The “water frame” by Richard Arkwright

								
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