Chapter 18 A Divided Nation _1848–1860_

Document Sample
Chapter 18 A Divided Nation _1848–1860_ Powered By Docstoc
					The Road to the Civil War            HOLT
                                                C
                                            ALL TO
     Building Tensions                     F
                                         REEDOM
                                          Beginnings to 1877
  The Missouri Compromise
  (1820)
  Addressed two issues:
  l the expansion of slavery
  l the balance of free and slave states
  l Conditions
      l   Maine enters the Union as a free state
      l   Missouri enters the Union as a slave state
      l   Slavery will be prohibited in new states or
          territories north of 36°30’ latitude

1                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
The Road to the Civil War             HOLT
                                           CALL TO
     Building Tensions                FREEDOMBeginnings to 1877



    Manifest Destiny and Expansion
    1840s belief that Americans were destined
    expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean




2                                    HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                           CALL TO
The Road to the Civil War             HOLT


                                       FREEDOM
     Building Tensions
                                             Beginnings to 1877

    Acquiring Oregon and Texas
    Texas
    l Texas congress approved annexation and
      Texas became the 28th state in December
      1845.
    Oregon
    l Britain and the United States signed a treaty in
      1846 dividing Oregon at the 49th parallel.

3                                    HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                            CALL TO
The Road to the Civil War              HOLT


                                       FREEDOM
     Building Tensions
                                              Beginnings to 1877

    The Mexican Cession
    l This land included the present day states of
      California, Nevada, and Utah. It also included
      most of Arizona, New Mexico and parts of
      Colorado and Wyoming.
    l Gadsden Purchase
      l   $10 million
      l   Included southern Arizona and New Mexico

4                                     HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                     HOLT
                                          CALL TO
                                      FREEDOM
The Debate over Slavery
                                            Beginnings to 1877

    The New Territories and Slavery
    Expansion
    l Additional territories renewed the debate over
      slavery expansion
    l upset balance of free and slave states




5                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
    The Debate over Slavery
                                       HOLT
                                            CALL TO
                                       FREEDOMBeginnings to 1877

    The New Territories and Slavery
    Expansion
      l Wilmot Proviso (1846) – proposal to outlaw
        slavery in the territory added to the United
        States by the Mexican Cession
      l Sectionalism – devotion to a region rather than
        the entire country




6                                     HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                         HOLT
                                              CALL TO
                                         FREEDOM
    The Debate Over Slavery
                                                Beginnings to 1877

    The Mexican War and Slavery Expansion
    l began push for popular sovereignty
      l popular sovereignty –allow voters in a particular
        territory to decide whether to ban or permit
        slavery




7                                       HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                   HOLT
                                        CALL TO
                                   FREEDOM
The Debate Over Slavery
                                          Beginnings to 1877

    Compromise of 1850
    l Proposed by Henry Clay; supported by Daniel
      Webster




8                                 HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
    The Debate Over Slavery
                                     HOLT
                                          CALL TO
                                     FREEDOMBeginnings to 1877

    Compromise of 1850
    l Conditions of the Compromise of 1850
      l California joins the Union as a free state.
      l New Mexico and Utah Territories will use
        popular sovereignty to decide the status of
        slavery.
      l Stronger fugitive slave law passed.
      l Slave trade ended in Washington, D.C.
      l Border dispute between New Mexico and Texas
        is resolved.
9                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                           HOLT
                                                CALL TO
                                           FREEDOM
The Debate Over Slavery
     (continued)                                  Beginnings to 1877

     Compromise of 1850
l Opposition to the Compromise of 1850
     l Allowing California to enter as a free state would
       destroy the balance between the two sections of the
       country.
     l California would be admitted unconditionally.
l Support for the Compromise of 1850
     l Preserving the Union was more important than regional
       differences.
     l Slave labor was not necessary to the West’s economy.
10                                        HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                      HOLT
                                           CALL TO
                                      FREEDOM
The Debate Over Slavery
                                             Beginnings to 1877

     Controversy in the North
     over the Fugitive Slave Act
     l lacked trial by jury
     l bribes were given to government officials for
       support




11                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                          HOLT
                                               CALL TO
                                           FREEDOM
Trouble in Kansas
                                                 Beginnings to 1877
     Kansas-Nebraska Act
     l Introduced by Stephen Douglas
     l Conditions
       l Kansas & Nebraska Territories are created
       l 36° 30’ discontinued
       l Kansas & Nebraska will use popular sovereignty
         to determine whether to be a free or a slave state
     l protested in the North
     l received strong support in the South
12                                       HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                        HOLT
                                             CALL TO
                                         FREEDOM
Trouble in Kansas
                                               Beginnings to 1877

     Bleeding Kansas
     l Territorial Elections
       l 1000s of men crossed over from Missouri to vote
       l Pro-slavery forces won & passed strict pro-
         slavery laws
       l Anti-slavery Kansans formed their own
         government
       l Pro-slavery forces attacked Lawrence, the anti-
         slavery capital
13                                     HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                       HOLT
                                            CALL TO
                                       FREEDOM
Trouble in Kansas
                                              Beginnings to 1877



     Bleeding Kansas
     l Pottawatomie Massacre (1856)
       l John Brown and seven other men murdered pro-
         slavery Kansans
       l Kansas collapsed into civil war
       l Approximately 200 people were killed



14                                    HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
 The Effects of the Kansas-               HOLT
                                               CALL TO
 Nebraska Act
                                           FREEDOM
                                                 Beginnings to 1877

     Raid on Harpers Ferry
     l Oct. 16, 1859
     l John Brown planned a raid on a federal arsenal at
       Harper’s Ferry, VA
     l Hoped to distribute weapons to slaves
     l Slaves did not join revolt
     l White Southerners attacked & killed some of the
       raiders
     l John Brown captured & convicted of treason,
       murder, & conspiracy
     l Hung Dec. 1859
15                                       HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                          HOLT
                                               CALL TO
                                          FREEDOM
Effect of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
                                                 Beginnings to 1877

. Political Divisions
     l Know-Nothing Party formed in 1849
       l Supported measures making it difficult for
         foreigners to become citizens and hold office
     l Republican Party formed in 1854
       l Whigs, some Democrats, Free-Soilers, and
         abolitionists who joined together to oppose the
         spread of slavery in the West


16                                       HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                            HOLT
                                                 CALL TO
                                            FREEDOM
Political Divisions
                                                   Beginnings to 1877
     Dred Scott

     l Dred Scott a slave who lived in free territory and
       then returned to slave territory.
     l sued for his freedom claiming he had become free
       when he lived in free territory.
     l In 1857 the Supreme Court declared:
       l African Americans were not U.S. citizens.
       l The Missouri Compromise’s restriction on slavery was
         unconstitutional.
       l Congress did not have the right to ban slavery in any
         federal territory.
17                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                     HOLT
                                          CALL TO
                                      FREEDOM
Political Divisions
                                            Beginnings to 1877

     Abraham Lincoln’s and Stephen Douglas’
     Differing Views on Slavery
     l Abraham Lincoln opposed slavery and
       supported the equal rights for slaves.
     l Stephen Douglas supported slavery and did
       not feel the African Americans were equal.



18                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                     HOLT
                                          CALL TO
Secession                            FREEDOMBeginnings to 1877



     Reactions to John Brown’s Raid
     l Some mourned his death and regarded him as
       a hero.
     l Others opposed his violence.
     l Southerners felt threatened.
     l It raised the secession issue in the South.


19                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                        HOLT
                                             CALL TO
Secession                                FREEDOM
                                               Beginnings to 1877

     Factors Leading to Lincoln’s Victory
     in the Presidential Election of 1860
     l Lincoln won 180 of the 183 electoral votes in
       the free states.
     l The slave states split their electoral votes thus
       giving Lincoln the victory.



20                                     HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                      HOLT
                                           CALL TO
Secession                              FREEDOM
                                             Beginnings to 1877

     Reasons the Southern States Left the Union
     l believed Lincoln would abolish slavery
     l feared this action would destroy the South’s
       economy and society
     l South Carolina seceded Dec. 1860
     l Feb. 1861 Mississippi, Florida, Alabama,
       Georgia, Louisiana, & Texas seceded
     l Confederate States of America elected
       Jefferson Davis as president
21                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:1
posted:9/3/2013
language:English
pages:21