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Chapter 15 – Nations_ Borders and Power - Sharyland ISD

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Chapter 15 – Nations_ Borders and Power - Sharyland ISD Powered By Docstoc
					CHAPTER 15 – NATIONS: BORDERS AND POW




In this chapter, you will learn about political power – the power
to control or force behavior. You will also look at how nations
set their borders and interact through international relations.
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

What factors determine where boundaries
 between countries are established?
How do different countries relate to one
 another?
GEOGRAPHIC TERMINOLOGY IN THIS CHAPTER

                     International Relations
                     Political Power
                     Balance of Power
                     Political Region
                     Political Unit
                     United Nations
                     Borders Union
                     European
                     Sovereign Government
 IMPORTANT IDEAS

A. Governments generally set up clear
 boundaries and exercise their power within these
 boundaries, creating political units.
B. Political maps show political units, such as
 countries, and their borders.
C. Political power is distributed spatially within a
 political region or unit.
D. A nation’s power affects its international role.
   POLITICAL REGIONS
 Each government usually establishes clear
  boundaries, over which it asserts its authority. The
  area that a government controls creates a political
  region or political unit. Boundaries between
  countries are known as borders.
   POLITICAL REGIONS
 Each country
  usually has
  several levels of
  government –
  such as cities,
  counties, or
  states (provinces).
  This creates
  several
  overlapping units
  with authority
  over the same
  area. Just as
  each place may
  belong to more
  than one physical
  or cultural region,
  it can belong to
  more than one
  political region.
  POLITICAL REGIONS
 Houston’s Overlapping Governments. For example, the
  citizens of Houston, belong to several political units. First,
  they have their own city government. Houston has a Mayor-
  Council form of government, with elected officials serving
  concurrent two-year terms. The City Charter provides the
  constitutional framework within which its government
  operates. Houstonians also belong to Harris County. This
  county government provides services to the entire county.
  The residents of Houston are also citizens of the State of
  Texas. Texas passes its own state laws, regulates schools
  and businesses, issues licenses to drivers, defines crimes
  and their punishments, maintains state highways, and
  provides many other services to its citizens.
POLITICAL REGIONS

                     Finally, the citizens of
                      Houston also belong to
                      the United States. Our
                      national (or federal)
                      government deals with
                      issues that affect the
                      entire country, such as
                      national defense.
                      Houstonians pay
                      federal taxes, vote in
                      federal elections, and
                      obey federal laws.
                      Some work for the
                      federal government or
                      serve in its armed
                      forces.
POLITICAL REGIONS
                     Supremacy of the National
                      Government. Our national
                      government is our highest
                      level of government. If there
                      is a clash between a local or
                      state government with our
                      national government, the
                      national government is
                      supreme. According to the
                      U.S. Constitution, federal
                      laws always preempt state law.
                      Our national government is
                      sovereign – it is not subject
                      to any higher governmental
                      authority.
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS
 The world today is divided into many separate
  independent, national states. Each such has its own
  sovereign government, like our federal government.
  Each sovereign government has final control over what
  happens within its borders. It is not subject to any
  higher authority on its own territory.
 Every nation has both a sovereign government and fixed
  borders. Who decides where those borders are?
  Physical features often provide the first step. Rivers,
  mountains, lakes, seas and oceans frequently serve as
  borders between countries. But the boundaries
  between states are also often the product of historical
  circumstances or political agreements.
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS :
EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES


                      Take, for example, the United
                       States. Its eastern border, the
                       Atlantic coast, was set by
                       geography, but its western
                       border continually shifted in its
                       early history. At the time of its
                       independence in 1783, the
                       country’s western border was
                       the Mississippi River.
                       Americans were interested in
                       expanding westwards, but they
                       are surrounded by areas
                       claimed by other powers. To
                       the north, Canada belonged to
                       Britain. To the south and west
                       were lands ruled by Spain.
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS :
EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES

 The United States was able to acquire some of these
  lands through negotiation and purchase. In 1804, the
  United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from
  France. In 1819, they bought Florida from Spain.
 In 1836, settlers in Texas won their independence from
  Mexico. In 1845, Texas was admitted to the United
  States. The United States then expanded to the Pacific
  Ocean by dividing the Oregon Territory with Great Britain.
  The United States also obtained territories (Mexico
  Cession) from western Texas to California by defeating
  Mexico in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848).
  America’s borders were thus set by purchase and
  conquest, as well as by geography.
  THE QUESTION OF BORDERS : MEXICO
 Mexico is another nation that
  has seen its borders change.
  Between 1,000 and 300
  B.C.E., before the first
  contact with Europeans,
  Mexico was home to several
  Mosoamerican civilizations –
  the Olmecs, Teotihuacans,
  Mayas, Toltecs, and Aztecs.
  In the early 1500s, the
  Spanish explorer Hernan
  Cortes led a small army of
  conquistadors to conquer the
  ruling Aztec civilization. The
  territory, which Cortes named
  New Spain, was then
  colonized and became a part
  of the Spanish Empire.
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS : MEXICO
  In 1821, Mexico received its independence from Spain. A province of
   Mexico, known as Texas, broke from Mexico and achieved independence in
   1836. In 1846, a border dispute between the United States and Mexico led
   to war. Mexico surrendered nearly half its land to the United States,
   including California and New Mexico. In 1854, the U.S. purchased parts of
   Arizona and New Mexico – known as the Gadsden Purchase. This settled
   the borders Mexico still enjoys today.
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS : MEXICO
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS: MEXICO
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS : MEXICO
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS : MEXICO
  THE QUESTION OF BORDERS :
  POLAND AND ITS SHIFTING BORDERS
 Some countries lack good
  natural borders. For example,
  Poland sits on a flat plain near
  Europe’s center. It is bounded
  by the Baltic Sea to the north
  and the Carpathian Mountains
  to the south. However, Poland
  has no natural defensible
  borders to the east and west.
  For this reason, its borders
  have shifted throughout its
  history. During its “Golden
  Age” in the early 17th century,
  Poland included Lithuania and
  the Ukraine, and extended
  from the Baltic Sea almost to
  the Black Sea.
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS :
POLAND AND ITS SHIFTING BORDERS

In three partitions in the 1700s, Poland was then
 completely carved up by its neighbors. Poland
 regained its independence after World War I, but it
 was invaded again by Nazi Germany and the
 Soviet Union in 1939. After World War II, Poland’s
 border was shifted westward, taking territory from
 Germany and giving territory to the Soviet Union.
 During the Cold War, Poland became a satellite of
 the Soviet Union and fell under its control. In more
 recent times, Poland has enjoyed genuine
 independence.
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS :
POLAND AND ITS SHIFTING BORDERS
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS :
POLAND AND ITS SHIFTING BORDERS
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS :
POLAND AND ITS SHIFTING BORDERS
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS :
POLAND AND ITS SHIFTING BORDERS
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS: FRANCE
 France is another country that once sought to expand its
  borders. It was prevented by conflict and by international
  political relations. Louis XIV fought a number of wars to
  expand France’s borders eastwards. Napoleon expanded
  France even further, but these gains were lost when
  Napoleon was defeated in 1814-1815. Belgium and the
  Rhineland, each part of France’s “natural frontiers” based
  on physical geography, were deliberately kept out of
  French hands by the other “Great Powers.” The French
  kept the city of Strasbourg, but it was taken by Germany
  after the Franco-Prussian War (1870). When Germany was
  defeated in World War I, Strasbourg was returned to France.
  The Nazis got Strasbourg back when they conquered
  France in 1940. The city was returned to France in 1945,
  when Germany lost the war. This example again
  demonstrates how historical as well as geographic factors
  determine a country’s borders.
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS:
ISRAEL AND PALESTINE

In 1947, the United Nations voted in favor of
 creating a Jewish state, but this proposal was
 rejected by Arab leaders. When Israel declared its
 independence in 1948, neighboring Arab stated
 immediately declared war on Israel. Today, after
 several wars and shifting borders, Israelis and
 Palestinians are now debating the future borders
 of Israel and Palestine. One major issue is
 whether a new Palestinian state should include
 some part of the city of Jerusalem.
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS:
ISRAEL AND PALESTINE
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS:
ISRAEL AND PALESTINE
THE QUESTION OF BORDERS:
ISRAEL AND PALESTINE

The creation of national boundaries is guided
 by physical geography but is also shaped by
 history – especially by the outcome of conflicts
 between neighboring states for the control of
 territory. Both physical and human factors
 shape countries’ borders as well as their
 internal political divisions.
 THE QUESTION OF BORDERS:
 ISRAEL AND PALESTINE


Sbarro pizza
 bombing in
 Jerusalem, in
 which 15
 Israeli
 civilians
 were killed
 and 130
 wounded.
POLITICAL MAPS

Political maps are
 designed to show the
 boundaries
 separating different
 countries, or their
 internal political
 divisions, such as
 counties. Usually a
 map key or legend
 explains what the
 different lines on the
 map indicate.
POLITICAL MAPS

                  For example, in
                   this map of the
                   Middle East, solid
                   lines represent
                   boundaries
                   between countries.
                   Stars show some
                   of the capital
                   cities in the area
                   and black dots
                   represent several
                   other major cities.
POLITICAL MAPS
A political map might also show a single
 country with its states or provinces, or even
 a single state (like Texas) with lines to
 indicate the borders between counties.
POLITICAL MAPS
Maps can even be used to indicate the
 distribution of political power or voting patterns.
   POLITICAL MAPS
 Election Maps. Maps can also be used to show how people voted in an
  election or to see voting trends. They help us to understand the spatial
  distribution of political power. For example, the map below shows the
  results of the 2008 U.S. Presidential election.
   INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND THE “BALANCE O
   POWER”
 Within each country, a national government with sovereign
  power over nations. For this reason, nations often compete and
  even conflict in order to protect themselves. They are seeking
  greater security.
 Balance of Power. Geographers and historians sometimes
  speak of a “balance of power” between sovereign nations. This
  is the idea that if one country becomes too strong, other
  countries will band together against it. It is also the idea that
  the amount of power that the largest states enjoy should not
  become too unequal. The purpose of this “balance” is to
  prevent any single nation from becoming so powerful that it is
  tempted to force its will upon other nations. The main aim of
  the “balance of power” is to manage and limit conflict among
  the most powerful sovereign nations. Some experts argue that
  with the threat of nuclear weapons, a new “balance of terror”
  has replaced the traditional “balance of power” in the world.
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND THE “BALANCE O
POWER”

 Many physical and human factors influence how
  much power an individual nation actually possesses:




 The amount of power a country enjoys greatly affects
  its control of territory and resources, its ability to
  defend itself or wage war, and its influence on the
  course of international relations generally.
THE WORLD’S MAJOR POWERS
 Countries like the United States, China, Russia, and
  Japan exercise a large influence on international
  relations today because they either have powerful
  armed forces, a large population, or a dynamic
  economy. Many of these countries have all three of
  these characteristics.
THE WORLD’S MAJOR POWERS
 United States. Americans have the benefit of a large
  land area, rich natural resources, high standards of living,
  and an educated population. It also possesses a highly
  skilled, experienced army with superior weapons. After
  World War II, the U.S. emerged as a Superpower, with the
  world’s first nuclear weapons. From 1946 to 1990,
  America had the world’s largest economy, while it
  engaged in the Cold War with the Soviet Union. The
  United States also pioneered the development of new
  information technologies, like the computer and Internet.
  After the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001,
  America became engaged in costly wars in Iraq and
  Afghanistan. At the same time, Americans are being
  challenged by rising economic competition from overseas.
  America remains the world’s foremost power with the
  largest economy and most nuclear weapons.
 THE WORLD’S MAJOR POWERS
 China. Mao Zedong established a Communist totalitarian
  dictatorship in China in 1949. Although China had the
  world’s largest population and army, it had low standards of
  living and inferior technology. China’s economy was then
  dominated by government activity. In 1978, more than 90%
  of its economy was controlled by state-run enterprises. After
  Mao’s death, China allowed greater freedom of choice in its
  economy. Starting in the 1990s, China also began
  welcoming foreign investors and technology into China. By
  2009, only 30% of its production was still created by state-
  run enterprises. Since then, China has developed into the
  world’s fastest growing economy. It also continues to have
  the world’s largest military force, with more than 1.6 million
  troops as well as its own nuclear weapons. Some experts
  predict that China will soon become the world’s greatest
  power.
THE WORLD’S MAJOR POWERS
 Russia. Russia was the leading part of the Soviet Union, one of the
  two major Superpowers after World War II. Following its defeat in the
  Cold War with the United States, Russia has faced great economic
  challenges in its transition from a Communist to a free-style economy.
  It continues to have a large and advanced military and possesses the
  world’s second largest arsenal of weapons.




  The former
  Soviet Union
THE WORLD’S MAJOR POWERS

Japan. Japan has a much smaller population
 than China, the United States, or Russia. As
 the target of the world’s only nuclear attack at
 the end of World War II, Japan has also
 renounced the use of nuclear weapons.
 Because of the high education standards and
 inventiveness of its people, Japan is still a
 major world power based on its economic
 strength.
THE WORLD’S MAJOR POWERS
 The United Nations. Some associations of countries
  are also very influential in international relations.
  The United Nations is an organization of all the
  sovereign nation states in the world. Founded after
  World War II, the aim of the United Nations is to
  promote peace, prevent war, and encourage
  development in all nations. All member states
  belong to the General Assembly. A group of
  especially powerful states, including the United
  States, China, Russia, Britain and France, belong to
  the UN Security Council. The Security Council has
  the power to send UN peace-keeping forces to areas
  of conflict around the world.
THE WORLD’S MAJOR POWERS
 THE WORLD’S MAJOR POWERS

European Union. The European Union is another
 association of countries with influence on
 international relations. The EU is an economic and
 political union of member states. Now composed of
 a large number of European states, the EU forms a
 large area in which people and goods can pass freely.
 EU members also cooperate on many matters and
 follow EU directives and regulations. Most use the
 Euro, a common currency. Citizens in member states
 even elect representatives to a European Parliament
 in Strasbourg, France.
THE WORLD’S MAJOR POWERS

				
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