THE SUITABILITY OF OXYTENANTHERA ABYSSINICA FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PROSTHESES IN DE

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THE SUITABILITY OF OXYTENANTHERA ABYSSINICA FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PROSTHESES IN DE Powered By Docstoc
					    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH ISSN
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),IN
0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME
               ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)

ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)                                                  IJARET
ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)
Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August 2013, pp. 87-97
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp                                         ©IAEME
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   THE SUITABILITY OF OXYTENANTHERA ABYSSINICA FOR
  DEVELOPMENT OF PROSTHESES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

               Faisal Wahib Adam1, Eric Osei Essandoh2, Peter Oppong Tawiah1
                                1
                            Mechanical Engineering Department
                                     2
                                       The Energy Center
         Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana


ABSTRACT

        This work established the suitability of Oxytenanthera abyssinica (OTAB) for the design of
below knee prosthesis pylons. This paper performed three types of test (bending, compressive and
torsion) to establish the mechanical properties of OTAB. Untreated samples of OTAB were kept in
an open space for a month and sliced for the bending and torsion tests. However cylindrical culms
were used for the compressive test. The young modulus of elasticity established by this work is in the
range of 2.68 GPa to 9.65 GPa. The yield strength obtained ranges from 42 to 45 MPa.The torsional
strength of the test specimen was also found to range from 333 MPa to 380 MPa.OTAB, a relatively
cheap bamboo mostly grown in developing countries,is found to possess all the mechanical
properties required for prosthetic materials and even proves to be better than some of the
conventional prosthetic pylon materials.

Keywords: Amputees, Oxytenanthera Abyssinica, Prosthesis, Pylons, Suitability

BACKGROUND

        Amputees form a significant fraction of the population of developing countries and the need
to rehabilitate them should be the concern of every citizen of developing countries. Apart from the
shock, trauma and the agony amputees go through at the time of injury and subsequent amputation,
the economic cost of their rehabilitation is so high that most of these patients cannot afford.
Injury and disease respectively occur when precautions are not observed or taken and when health
conditions are disturbed either naturally or artificially.
Though injury or disease is not a respecter of persons, amputation statistics in most countries
indicates that more males are likely to be amputated than females. The most frequent level of
amputation is the below the knee amputation (transtibial), contributing about 47% of all amputations
done across the world, followed in frequency by above the knee amputation 31% of amputations,
amputations on other parts of the body constitute 22% [3].

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN
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        Lower limb Prosthesis is an artificial device that replaces the limb. Prosthesis is used to
provide an amputee with the opportunity to perform functional tasks, such as ambulation
(walking),this main assistive device used to aid amputees during ambulation is relatively expensive
in developing countries, considering the low income levels of households in these countries. They
are also not readily available, so amputees have to wait in most cases for the prostheses to be
imported.
        The components of a below knee limb prosthesis, mechanical support system, include a
prosthetic footand ankle, the extension (pylon or shin which replaces the length of the lost limb), soft
belt and a socket. The socket is the interface between the limb and the mechanical support system as
shown in Figure 1.




         Figure 1: The main components of a below knee prosthesis (artificial limb)[14]

        In addition to all the components in a below knee prosthesis, conventional above knee
prosthetic legs use a pneumatic or hydraulic return mechanism shown in Figure 2, to mimic the
natural pendulum action of the knee [6].
        Most of the materials used for the production of prostheses in developing countries are
imported and thus tend to increase the production cost of prostheses in developing countries. It is
against this backdrop that this project intends to investigate into the suitability of Oxytenanthera
abyssinica (OTAB) for the design and fabrication of prostheses for both below and above the knee
pylons (shin).




        Figure 2: The main components of an above knee prosthesis (artificial limb)[14]
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        The success of this investigation will bring a considerable savings in the production cost of
prostheses in developing countries.As a result most amputees and their families will be offered the
opportunity to afford relatively cheaper prostheses than before the introduction of the OTAB
prostheses. Amputees will therefore become happy and will be enthusiastic to interact or mingle with
other people in the community, does fostering greater unity and cohesion between amputees and
non-amputees.
        The commonality of the Oxytenanthera abyssinica species of the bamboo family across
developing countries makes it a good choice for the investigation into the suitability of OTAB for the
design and fabrication of prostheses in developing countries. Other common species of bamboo
found in developing countries are bambusa vittata and bambussa vulgaris.The establishment of the
commonality of Oxytenanthera abyssinica in African countries such as Ghana, Cote D‘Ivoire,
Cameroun, Ethiopia, South Africa, and China, Malaysia, India in Asia attest to the fact that,
Oxytenanthera abyssinica is really a common bamboo species in developing countries [15,16,17].
        Oxytenanthera abyssinica grows naturally in warm climate with an average temperature of 35
o
 C and mean annual rainfall between 900 mm and 1400 mm[1]. OTAB grows and multiplies very
fast in such climatic conditions thus making their yield per unit area very high.Furthermore, this
advantage of OTAB coupled with its suitability should encorage the use of OTAB for the production
of prostheses.




                            Figure 3: Offshoots of Oxytenanthera abyssinica

JUSTIFICATION

       Prosthesis, an ambulation assistive device for amputees is highly recommended for accident
victims who lose their limbs. In modern health care, amputation is remedied with the help of
Prosthesis. Amputation occurs through accidents (non-fatal; occupational or non-occupational), civil
wars, congenital deformities, diseases such as diabetes, cancer, gangrene and limb infections.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN
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Physical injury is the main cause of amputation in developing countries, the basis for this assertion is
not far-fetched since accidents, a common cause of physical injury, occurs unintentionally and
unannounced. Road accident for example is a common incidence in developing countries. Rampant
incidence of non-fatal accident and civil wars in developing countries as well as lack of better health
care have led to a significant upshot of the number of cases of lower limb amputations[2].
Statistics indicates that injuries in its entirety rank fifth among the top twentyburdens of diseases in
World population as shown in Table 1. The breakdown of the incidence of the injuries with respect
to total injuries is as follows: transport (29.27%), unintentional (43.26%), self-harm or intentional
(22.32%), forces of nature, war and legal intervention (5.15%) [3].
The cost, availability and suitability of the material for the design and fabrication of prostheses are
the major barriers to the development of inexpensive prostheses in most developing countries. It is
therefore imperative to ascertain the suitability of common bamboo species. This paper investigates
into the suitability of OTAB for the design and fabrication of lower limb prostheses in developing
countries, bydetermining the mechanical properties of OTAB and comparing these mechanical
properties viz a viz the properties ofconventional prosthetic pylonmaterials.

METHODOLOGY

        Literature on various types of bamboo was sought and reviewed after which visit were made
to some bamboo growing sites on KNUST campus, Besease, a suburb of Ejisu Municipality, in the
Ashanti region of Ghana, and Sokoban, a wood industrial village in Kumasi also in the Ashanti
region. Oxytenanthera abyssinica, awoody plant in developing countries was selected and studied in
this work. Figure 3 shows a couple of growing stems of Oxytenanthera abyssinica.

                  Table 1: Top twenty global burden of diseases and injuries[3].




       Pieces of bamboo with a diameter range of 35mm-80mm and length range of 200mm-
350mm were prepared in several forms as shown in Figure 4 and used for compressive test, three
point bend test and torsional test. An Avery Universal tensile testing Machine was used to carry out a
standard compressive test on a nodeless(culm), single middle node and two-ended node bambooas
shown in Figure 4.
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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN
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                           Figure 4: Pieces of bamboo used for the test

       A cross section of the culm as shown in Figure 4 was also used to undertake a three-point
bend test. Finally, a torsional test was conducted using a cross section of the culm as used for the
three-point bend test, with the help of SM1 Mk II, Torsion Testing Machine, whose setup is as
shown in Figure 5.




                     Figure 5: Set up and torsional loading of bamboo culm

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

       The three point bending test yielded the young modulus E and the proof load P. The test
obtained a compressive young modulus of elasticity for the culm of oxytenanthera used for the test in
the range of 2.68GPa to 9.65 GPa.This property is depictedby the graphs shown in Figures 7-8. The
ultimate compressive strength obtained from these graphs ranges from 42 to 45 MPa. From Figures9-

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN
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10, a 0.5% proof load obtained for the test specimen ranges from 1000 N to 1250 N and the setup for
the bending test is as shown in Figure 6. The torsional strength of the test specimen was also found to
range from 333MPa to 380 MPa and the maximum shear stress ranges from 70-80MPa(Figures 11-
12). The poisson ratio was found to lie between 0.23-0.34.




                                  Figure 6: Bending test setup and a failed bamboo strip


                                     O PR        R      R    R      R
                                    C M ESSIVE ST ESS-ST AING APH FO SAMPLE B2
                            50

                            45

                            40

                            35

                            30
             Stress (MPa)




                            25

                            20

                            15

                            10

                            5

                            0
                             0         0.1      0.2      0.3       0.4    0.5      0.6     0.7
                                                                 m m
                                                       Strain ( m /m )

                                 Figure 7: Compressive stress-strain graph for sample B2


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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN
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                                            R   -S R IN R H R M E 1
                                          ST ESS T A G AP FO SA PL B1
                       45

                       40

                       35

                       30
                  P)
           S ss (M a




                       25
            tre




                       20

                       15

                       10

                       5

                       0
                        0         .0 2
                                 0 0      .0 4
                                         0 0      .0 6
                                                 0 0       0 0
                                                            .0 8 0 1 0 1
                                                                  .0   .0 2    .0 4
                                                                              0 1      .0 6
                                                                                      0 1      .0 8
                                                                                              0 1
                                                          tra    m m
                                                         S in ( m /m )
                             Figure 8: Compressive stress-strain graph for sample B11



                                    E D G O D G IN T E L C IO O    A PE 1
                                   B N IN L A A A S D F E T N F R S M L B
                        00
                       10

                       0
                       90

                       0
                       80

                       0
                       70

                       0
                       60
         F rce (N)




                       0
                       50
          o




                       0
                       40

                       0
                       30

                       0
                       20

                       0
                       10

                            0
                             0       0
                                    10         0
                                              20         0
                                                         30     40
                                                                 0     500     0
                                                                              60       0
                                                                                       70        0
                                                                                                80
                                                            e ctio ( m )
                                                          D fle   n m
                                         Figure 9: Force deflection graph for sample B1

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN
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                                              D G AD AIN
                                           BEN IN LO AG STD     T N R
                                                           EFLEC IO FO SAMPLE B2
                             1400


                             1200


                             1000


                                 800
                 Force (N)




                                 600


                                 400


                                 200


                                  0
                                   0        100    200       300        400   500   600         700
                                                            D            m
                                                             eflection( m )
                                       Figure 10: Force deflection graph for sample B2


                                        O Q E G IN T N L  F W T O    A P E 4
                                       T R U A A S A G E O T IS F R S M L A
                             7


                             6


                             5
            oq e N )
           Tr u ( m




                             4


                             3


                             2


                             1


                             0
                              0        1     2     3       4     5      6     7     8       9     10
                                                          n le f w       d
                                                         A g o T ist ( ra )                       4
                                                                                                x10
                                   Figure 11: Torque – angle of Twist graph for sample B2


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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN
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                                      O Q E  AIN  G    F W     O     PL
                                     T R U AG STAN LE O T IST F R SAM E B4
                            6



                            5



                            4
                To e (N )
                       m




                            3
                  rqu




                            2



                            1



                            0
                             0          1         2            3           4   5         6
                                                        g f w           d
                                                      An le o T ist ( ra )               4
                                                                                     x10
                                Figure 12: Torque – angle of Twist graph for sample B2

        Oxytenanthera as a bamboo species through the test was established to be a good
prostheticpylon material since it has properties superior to most conventional prosthetic pylon
materials.Figure 7 shows that the compressive load was highly concentrated at the top and bottom of
the specimen under loading and propagated slowly towards the mid-portion. The torsional loading of
the test specimen took it through series of longitudinal waves till it failed with notches or cuts across
the wavy sections as shown in Figure6.




                   Figure 13: Setup for compressive test and specimen after loading



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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN
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  Table 1: Comparison of the properties of the bamboo test specimen and some conventional
                                   pylon materials[6,11]
  Type of Material          Yield            Modulus of        Poisson       Modulus of     Density(kg/m3)
                      Strength(MPa), Sy   Elasticity(MPa), E   ratio, ν    rigidity(MPa),
                                                                                  G
  Bamboo(OTAB)*            42-45             2 680-9 650       0.23-0.34       333-380         906.94
  Aluminium Alloy           160                  70-95            0.33          26-30        2 520-2720
  Polypropylene            14-60                0.4-1.8         0.1-0.3            -          878-1630
  Co-Polymer
  Polypropylene            28-38.6           0.008-0.011        0.1-0.3          -             900-905
  Thermoformable
  grade (PP)
  Polyethylene (PE)         18-32             0.24-1.34          0.29           -              922-1060
  Vinyl Esther             30-827                4-28              -            -             1030-1949
  E-Glass Fibre               -                  72.3             0.2           -             2541-2599
  Titanium Alloy          170-795              103-120           0.32      39000-44000           4510
*Results obtained by this work

       From Table 1, it can be deduced that OTAB is less dense than most of the conventional
prosthetic materials used in the design of exo-skeletal prostheses. Also, comparingthe properties of
the conventional prosthetic pylon materials to that of OTAB, it is realized OTAB is suitable for the
design and fabrication of lower limb prostheses. OTAB is relatively cheaper than all the other
materials captured in Table 1. Currently, typical costs of 0.04 m to 0.05 m outside diameter bamboo
in Ghana and Costa Ricaare 0.3 Ghana Cedis and 0.87 to 1.34 US$ per metre respectively[18].

CONCLUSIONS
        This work tested OTAB bamboo samples of length between 190-300 mm, with external and
internal diameters of 42 and 28 mm respectively. The bamboo culm was assumed to be cylindrical,
homogeneous and isotropic and had a mass of 196g. This paper has established the fact that OTAB is
a very suitable prostheticpylon material, based on its compressive strength, light weight, torsional
and bending properties. According to ISO 14243the torque required for tibial rotation of prosthetic
materials is between 1 and 6 Nm while this test obtained 4-6.5 Nm.The commercialization of the
production of lower limb prostheses using OTAB should be encouraged since as indicated above it
meets the material requirements for the design and fabrication of prostheses. It is available, cheaper
and easy to process.

RECOMMENDATIONS
       Considering the work done so far, it is recommended that a fatigue test should be carried out
on OTAB to establish and ascertain the life span and endurance of this bamboo species. Also, the
construction of prostheses using OTAB (whose age is determined) should be executed laying more
emphasis on efficient ways of joining this bamboo shin to both the socket and the foot.

REFERENCES

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 [2]    Alison J. Yamaguchi, Donald E, Christopher J, Boninger, David, Boninger, Ronald
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        Countries
                                                   96
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN
0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME

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