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SolarAirHeatCaseStudiestoBattleCheapGas

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					 Battle Cheap Natural Gas with

            Solar Air Heat




Jason Edens, Pine River, Minnesota
Solar Assistance:
Solar Heat for Low Income Families




     Helping families move from
    impoverished to empowered.
Solar Assistance
Statewide Solar Heat for Low-Income Families

                                                                                    	
  
                                                           	
  We re	
  really	
  happy	
  with	
  the	
  
                                                       system,	
  and	
  like	
  how	
  it	
  looks	
  on	
  the	
  
                                                                           house. 	
  
                                                               Solar	
  Assistance	
  Recipient
                                                                        	
                         	
  
 The	
  natural	
  gas	
  company	
  came	
                             	
  -­‐	
  Burl	
  and	
  Donna
out	
   to	
   my	
   house	
   because	
   my	
  
usage	
   was	
   so	
   low	
   compared	
   to	
  
my	
  neighbors!	
   	
  They	
  thought	
  my	
  
meter	
   was	
   broken,	
   but	
   it	
   was	
  
my	
  solar	
  heater	
  that	
  was	
  	
  
making	
  the	
  difference! 	
  

     Solar	
  Assistance	
  Recipient
                           	
   	
  
                -­‐	
  Norbert




Nearly 300 Low-income Families Served
RREAL Solar




Design-build
   Residential and Commercial




Solar Thermal and Solar Electric
Outreach & Education
                 Efficiency Before
                  Renewables!


Quantity
   of
 Energy


                                      Integrated
           Conventional   Efficient   efficiency &
                                       renewable


                                      Conventional energy use


                                      Renewable energy use
                           Solar Air Heating
                       Case Studies to Battle
                            Cheap Gas




1.    Geographic opportunities
2.    Transpired Air Ventilation Make-up
3.    Small building application
4.    Agricultural applications
5.    Commercial Warehouse Bldg.
6.    Vacation properties
     Why solar air heat?

             Other
                     Space Heat
Appliances




Water Heat
Appropriate Solar Thermal
      Technologies

 Transpired Air




 Recirculation Solar Air
Ventilation Make-up Air
Characteristics of
  Appropriate
 Deployments:
•  IAQ
•  Engineered
•  Economical
•  Serviceable
•  Efficient
•  Aesthetic
•  Versatile
•  Durable
Opportunity: Geographic Niche




 Innumerable Applications
Opportunity: Ventilation Make-up
        Transpired air
                       Transpired Air Function
§    Pre-heat makeup air
§    Process heat
§    Destratification
§    Up to 6 LEED points available (3 renewable energy, 3 energy efficiency)
                        MatrixAir Performance
§    Up to 70% solar collection efficiency, up to 60% in medium wind
§    1 m2 delivers up to 2 mmBTU per year
§    Durable baked-on coating boasts 94% absorptivity	
  
§    Filters	
  up	
  to	
  50%	
  of	
  airborne	
  par3culates
        Two Styles of Collectors

 Transpired Air Cladding   Delta Modules




7-8 cfm / square foot
  Transpired Air at
Bemidji State University




   •  $34,000 Installed Cost
   •  126 mmBTU/yr.
   •  12 year equity payback
Opportunity: Small Buildings




 Off the natural gas grid
Case Study 1: Residential
   Supplemental Heat

         80% Efficient Propane Furnace
          1500 Sq Ft. House with 8 Ceilings

            Light Construction

              2 – 4x8 High Quality Collectors


      •! 20% solar fraction
      •! 8.6 mmBtus produced by solar
      •! 10 mmBtus saved
      •! Installed cost - $5000
      •! Payback of 13 years
(2) SPF 32s •  Hung vertically and in parallel
 Opportunity: Agricultural




High Tunnel Season extension
 Opportunity: Agricultural




High Tunnel Season extension
 Agricultural




Vehicle Storage
Opportunity: Plane Hangar - Fire
      Hall - Warehouse




       Vehicle Storage
Case Study 2: Commercial
   High Mass Building
Case Study 2: Commercial
   High Mass Building

            80% Efficient Propane Furnace
             6400 Sq Ft. commercial structure w/ 16 Ceilings

               Massive construction

                 2 5– 4x10 High Quality Collectors


  •! 21% solar fraction
  •! 99.1 mmBtus produced by solar
  •! 123.9 mmBtus saved
  •! Installed cost - $45,000
  •! Payback of 10 years against propane
  •! Payback of 15 years against natural gas
      Case Study 2: Commercial
         High Mass Building

              70.0


              60.0


              50.0
million Btu




              40.0                                                 Total heat demand
                                                                   Max solar heat

              30.0                                                 Usable Solar heat



              20.0


              10.0


               0.0
                     1   2   3   4    5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12
                                     Month of year
Opportunity: vacation property




Low set point; high heating load
Characteristics of
  Appropriate
 Deployments:
•  IAQ
•  Engineered
•  Economical
•  Serviceable
•  Efficient
•  Aesthetic
•  Versatile
•  Durable
  Preserving of
Indoor Air Quality
      COLLECTOR TYPES AND
       INDOOR AIR QUALITY




•! Through pass
•! Front pass
•! Back pass
                 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS
                                   8760                                      ⎧Qu ,              Qu < EL
Energysavings =                    ∑ (Q           )
                                            usable hour
                                                                 Qusable   = ⎨
                                  hour =1                                    ⎩ EL ,             Qu ≥ EL



               *⎧EL ⋅ (1 + overheat ),                    HDD > 0
            E = ⎨
               L
                ⎩0,                                       HDD = 0

                                            I T = I b Rb + diffuse sky + diffuse ground


                                                                                    ⎛                 ⎡ Ti − Ta ⎤ ⎞
                            *
                                                                           η = max⎜ 0, FRτα − FRU L ⋅ ⎢
                                                                                  ⎜                              ⎥ ⎟
                                                                                                                     ⎟
           ⎧Qu ,
           ⎪         Qu < EL                                                       ⎝                 ⎣ IT ⎦ ⎠
 Qusable = ⎨ *              *
           ⎪ E L ,
           ⎩         Qu ≥ E L
       *
    E L = E L ⋅ (1 + overheat )
                                                   EB = b0 + b1* ⋅ max (0, b 2 − Ta )
Air Flow                                                      Aerodynamic Power
                                  Bright Day (2400 Btu/ft2, 6 F outside)

                   0.65

                    0.6

                   0.55

                    0.5

                   0.45
                                                                   4x10 full shelf
      efficiency




                    0.4
                                                                   4x6.5 full shelf
                   0.35

                    0.3

                   0.25

                    0.2
                          0   1   2   3     4   5     6   7    8


                                          cfm / ft2



Pressure Drop                                                               Efficiency
              Air Handling
                  Sizing
PARALLEL CONFIGURATION                           SERIES CONFIGURATION

# Collectors SPF40        SPF32     SPF26        # Collectors SPF40       SPF32     SPF26
           1 6" Duct    5" Duct 5" Duct                     2 8" Duct     8" Duct   6" Duct
           CFM        4         3       4                   CFM            3     4     3.2
            Fan AXC150A AXC125A AXC125A                      Fan AXC200A AXC200A AXC150A
Elec Consumption 68W    41W       60W            Elec Consumption 68W        72W   61W
              2  6" Duct 6" Duct 5" Duct
                                                            CFM
                                                             Fan AXC200B
                                                                           4
           CFM           2      2.7          2
                                                 Elec Consumption 169W
            Fan AXC150A AXC150A AXC125A
                                                                  10" Duct
Elec Consumption 59W       100W     345W
                                                            CFM            4
                 8" Duct            6" Duct
                                                             Fan AXC250
           CFM           4                 3.4
                                                 Elec Consumption 120W
            Fan AXC200A             AXC150A
Elec Consumption 60W                125W                          Not     Not     Not
                                                                  recomme recomme recomme
              3  8" Duct 8" Duct 6" Duct                      3   nded    nded    nded
           CFM          2.8     3.5        2.4
            Fan AXC200A AXC200A AXC150A
Elec Consumption 70W        83W     222W
                 8" Duct            8" Duct
           CFM          3.5                  4
            Fan AXC200B             AXC200A
Elec Consumption <175W              61W
                          Fan & duct sizing - behind the curtain
               1000


               900


               800


               700

                                                                                    125a
               600                                                                  125b
Air flow cfm




                                                                                    150a
                                                                                    150b
               500
                                                                                    200a
                                                                                    12W muffin fan
               400                                                                  14inchfan
                                                                                    14inchfanwdamper

               300


               200


               100


                 0
                      0    0.2   0.4   0.6        0.8         1   1.2   1.4   1.6
                                             Pressure inH2O
  The Implications of
Integrated Air-handling
                          Economically Analyzed
                                    Eagle View Elementary School
                              Solar Fraction of Gymnasium Heating Load
           6.00E+07



           5.00E+07



           4.00E+07
kJ ~ Btu




           3.00E+07
                                                                             Gas heat

                                                                             Solar air
           2.00E+07
                                                                             heat

           1.00E+07



           0.00E+00
                      1   2   3   4   5     6    7    8   9   10   11   12

                                          Month of year
Future Heating Costs
     Solar Air heat and
    Solar Thermal Policy




?
Greenhouse Gas Emission
      Reductions
Highly Serviceable
            System Components
.   Fan
.   Backdraft dampers
.   Ducting
.   High temperature insulation
.   Filter return air grill
.   Controls
Architecturally Appropriate
Architecturally Appropriate
The Importance of Curb Appeal
Durable and Versatile Product
              Parallel and Series Configuration
           Parallel	
  ConfiguraBon	
  	
   Flexibility Series	
  ConfiguraBon	
  
ConfiguraBon	
   in	
   which	
   the	
   air	
   can	
   traverse	
      ConfiguraBon	
  in	
  which	
  the	
  air	
  must	
  flow	
  
panels	
   through	
   the	
   headers	
   before	
   traveling	
        through	
  each	
  collector	
  individually	
  before	
  
through	
  the	
  body	
  of	
  a	
  collector.	
  	
                    traversing	
  through	
  any	
  headers	
  –	
  No	
  short	
  cuts.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
This	
   configuraBon	
   is	
   best	
   requires	
   less	
   fan	
                              (end	
  to	
  end)	
  
power	
  and	
  offers	
  higher	
  collector	
  efficiency.	
  




                                                                                                        U-­‐Shape	
  
    SAH Special Topics




1.! Storage
2.! Controls
3.! Mount Angle
World Oil Production

				
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posted:8/28/2013
language:English
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