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          SUBMITTED BY            :   VIKAS SENGAR

         DIVISION             :       HUMAN RESOURCE

        COMPANY GUIDE             :    Mr. NARSINGH

      MURTI

                    (PERSONAL AND ADM. MANAGER)




           BATCH     :       2008-2009.
                         1
                          A


              PROJECT REPORT ON

       “JOB SATISFACTION”

                        FOR




                      PVT. LTD.



                     Submitted to

        BIRLA ERICSSON OPTICAL LIMITED



                    Submitted by

                  VIKAS SENGAR

VNS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, BHOPAL (M.P.)

      In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of
                     MBA Program
                 (HUMAN RESOURCE)
                    Batch (2008-2010)

                           2
                DECLARATION


I, the under signed     VIKAS SENGAR           hereby declare

that the Project Work entitled “ JOB SATISFACTION

FOR     BIRLA     ERICSSON               OPTICAL    LIMITED”

undertaken during the Period For 6 weeks is the result

of my    Own efforts and the same has not                    been

previously   submitted    to       any    Examination   of    the

BARKATULLAH        UNIVERSITY,            BHOPAL    (M.P.) or

any other University.




                                         VIKAS SENGAR
                                                  MBA


                               3
                     PREFACE

It is mandatory for every student of master of business
administration from VNS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT
affiliated to BARKATULLAH UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL to
undergo project training at organization location with a
project on live program.
              My training has been a faithful experience for
me. Now I got a broad idea about the functioning of
organization and this will be helpful for me in the coming
days.

In this report I describe the company profile and history of
the company.




                                    VIKAS SENGAR
                                             MBA




                             4
            ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Neeraj Singh, Department
Head of MBA (VNS Institute Of Management) Bhopal (M.P.) giving me
opportunity to work with Birla Ericsson Optical Ltd.
 for my Summer Internship Program. I would also like to thanks Mr.
Narsingh Murti, (Personal and Administration Manager), Mr. I.M.
Sheikh (DGM), Mr. R.K. Lakhera (Personnel Officer), Mr. Vinay
Nigam (Asst. Personnel Manager) and Mr. Kamleshwar Pd. Dwivedi
(Computer & Data Operator) of Birla Ericsson Optical Ltd. At Rewa
(M.P.) for giving me an opportunity to work under his guidance .My
extended thanks to Mr. M.P. Singh, Placement cell Head (VNS Institute
Of Management, Bhopal) for his guidance during the course of my project
for his suggestions which has lead to a successful completion of my Summer
Internship Program. Last but not the least I would also like to acknowledge
contributions of various official websites and books named in the references
for helping me with the data collection and analysis which have provided me
with the relevant information for me to successfully complete my Project
Report.




                                                VIKAS SENGAR

                                                                    MBA



                                     5
                   TABLE OF CONTENT
  Sr. No.                        Content                                 Page No.
      1              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                       7-8
      2              INTRODUCTION OF HRM                                    9-14
      3                 JOB SATISFACTION                                   15-40
      4               OBJECTIVES OF STUDY                                  41-42
      5             RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                   43-46
      6                COMPANY PROFILE                                     47-60
      7            SCOPE OF JOB SATISFACTION                               61-62
      8                DATA ANALYSIS AND                                   63-84

                          INTERPRETATION
      9                   SUGGESTION AND                                   86-87

                        RECOMMENDATION
     10                LIMITATION OF STUDY                                 88-88
     11                   BIBLIOGRAPHY                                     89-89
     12                    ANNEXURES                                       90-97




                   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Job satisfaction in regards to one’s feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work.
Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one’s relationship with their
supervisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in
their work, etc.




                                             6
Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude
towards job has been defined variously from time to time.       In short job satisfaction is a
person’s attitude towards job.


Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of many specific
likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job- their evaluation may rest largely
upon one’s success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived
combination of the job and combination towards these ends.


According to pestonejee, Job satisfaction can be taken as a summation of employee’s
feelings in four important areas. These are:


   1. Job-nature of work (dull, dangerous, interesting), hours of work, fellow workers,
       opportunities on the job for promotion and advancement (prospects), overtime
       regulations, interest in work, physical environment, and machines and tools.
   2. Management- supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and punishments,
       praises and blames, leaves policy and favoritism.
   3. Social relations- friends and associates, neighbors, attitudes towards people in
       community, participation in social activity socialibility and caste barrier.
   4. Personal adjustment-health and emotionality.




Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a
predictor of work behavior such as organizational citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover.


Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and grievances,
absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and worker
morale. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been found to
be a good indicator of longevity.



                                               7
Job satisfaction is not synonyms with organizational morale, which the possessions of
feeling have being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherence
to common goals and confidence in desirability of these goals.
Morale is the by-product of the group, while job satisfaction is more an individual state of
mind.




    INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE
             MANAGEMENT

Definition –
         Edwin Flippo defies HRM as “planning, organizing, directing, controlling of
procurement, development, compensation, integration , maintenance and separation of
human resources to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives are
achieved.”



                                             8
Features of HRM or characteristics or nature
   1. HRM involves management functions like planning, organizing,
      directing and controlling

   2. It involves procurement, development, maintenance of human resource

   3. It helps to achieve individual, organizational and social objectives

   4. HRM is a mighty disciplinary subject. It includes the study of
      management psychology communication, economics and sociology.

   5. It involves team spirit and team work.

Evolution of HRM
The evolution of HRM can be traced back to Kautilya Artha Shastra where
he recommends that government must take active interest in public and
private enterprise. He says that government must provide a proper procedure
for regulating employee and employee relation
       In the medieval times there were examples of kings like Allaudin
Khilji who regulated the market and charged fixed prices and provided fixed
salaries to their people. This was done to fight inflation and provide a decent
standard of living




During the pre independence period of 1920 the trade union emerged. Many
authors who have given the history of HRM say that HRM started because of
trade union and the First World War.

The Royal commission in 1931 recommended the appointment of a labour
welfare officer to look into the grievances of workers. The factory act of
1942 made it compulsory to appoint a labour welfare officer if the factory
had 500 or more than 500 workers.
       The international institute of personnel management and national
institute of labour management were set up to look into problems faced by
workers to provide solutions to them. The Second World War created

                                      9
awareness regarding workers rights and 1940’s to 1960’s saw the
introduction of new technology to help workers.
      The 1960’s extended the scope of human resource beyond welfare.
Now it was a combination of welfare, industrial relation, administration
together it was called personnel management.
      With the second 5 year plan, heavy industries started and professional
management became important. In the 70’s the focus was on efficiency of
labour wile in the 80’s the focus was on new technology, making it necessary
for new rules and regulations. In the 90’s the emphasis was on human values
and development of people and with liberalization and changing type of
working people became more and more important there by leading to HRM
which is an advancement of personnel management.


Scope of HRM/functions of HRM
The scope of HRM refers to all the activities that come under the banner of HRM.
These activities are as follows

   1. Human resources planning :-
            Human resource planning or HRP refers to a process by which
      the company to identify the number of jobs vacant, whether the
      company has excess staff or shortage of staff and to deal with this
      excess or shortage.

   2. Job analysis design :-
            Another important area of HRM is job analysis. Job analysis
      gives a detailed explanation about each and every job in the company.
      Based on this job analysis the company prepares advertisements.




   3. Recruitment and selection :-
            Based on information collected from job analysis the company
      prepares advertisements and publishes them in the news papers. This
      is recruitment. A number of applications are received after the
      advertisement is published, interviews are conducted and the right
      employee is selected thus recruitment and selection are yet another
      important area of HRM.

   4. Orientation and induction :-
             Once the employees have been selected an induction or
      orientation program is conducted. This is another important area of
                                         10
      HRM. The employees are informed about the background of the
      company, explain about the organizational culture and values and
      work ethics and introduce to the other employees.

   5. Training and development :-
             Every employee goes under training program which helps him
      to put up a better performance on the job. Training program is also
      conducted for existing staff that have a lot of experience. This is called
      refresher training. Training and development is one area were the
      company spends a huge amount.

   6. Performance appraisal :-
            Once the employee has put in around 1 year of service,
      performance appraisal is conducted that is the HR department checks
      the performance of the employee. Based on these appraisal future
      promotions, incentives, increments in salary are decided.

   7. Compensation planning and remuneration :-
            There are various rules regarding compensation and other
      benefits. It is the job of the HR department to look into remuneration
      and compensation planning.

   8. Motivation, welfare, health and safety :-
             Motivation becomes important to sustain the number of
      employees in the company. It is the job of the HR department to look
      into the different methods of motivation. Apart from this certain health
      and safety regulations have to be followed for the benefits of the
      employees. This is also handled by the HR department.




   9. Industrial relations :-
             Another important area of HRM is maintaining co-ordinal
      relations with the union members. This will help the organization to
      prevent strikes lockouts and ensure smooth working in the company.


Challenges before the HR manager/before modern personnel
management
Personnel management which is know as human resource management has
adapted itself to the changing work environment, however these changes are
                                      11
still taking place and will continue in the future therefore the challenges
before the HR manager are

   1. Retention of the employees :-
             One of the most important challenge the HR manager faces is
      retention of labour force. Many companies have a very high rate of
      labour turnover therefore HR manager are required to take some action
      to reduce the turnover

   2. Multicultural work force :-
             With the number of multi cultural companies are increasing
      operations in different nations. The work force consists of people from
      different cultures. Dealing with each of the needs which are different
      the challenge before the HR manager is integration of multicultural
      labour work force.

   3. Women in the work force :-
             The number of women who have joined the work force has
      drastically increased over a few years. Women employees face totally
      different problems. They also have responsibility towards the family.
      The organization needs to consider this aspect also. The challenge
      before the HR manager lies in creating gender sensitivity and in
      providing a good working environment to the women employees.

   4. Handicapped employees :-
            This section of the population normally faces a lot of problems
      on the job, very few organization have jobs and facilities specially
      designed for handicapped workers. Therefore the challenge before the
      HR manager lies in creating atmosphere suitable for such employees
      and encouraging them to work better.




   5. Retrenchment for employees :-
             In many places companies have reduced the work force due to
      changing economic situations, labourers or workers who are displaced
      face sever problems. It also leads to a negative atmosphere and attitude
      among the employees. There is fear and increasing resentment against
      the management. The challenge before the HR manager lies in
      implementing the retrenchment policy without hurting the sentiments
      of the workers, without antagonizing the labour union and by creating
      positive attitude in the existing employees.

   6. Change in demand of government :-
                                     12
             Most of the time government rules keep changing. While a lot
      of freedom is given to companies some strict rules and regulations
      have also been passed. The government has also undertaken the
      disinvestment in certain companies due to which there is fear among
      the employees regarding their job. The challenge before the HR
      manager lies in convincing employees that their interest will not be
      sacrificed.

   7. Initiating the process of change :-
             Changing the method of working, changing the attitude of
      people and changing the perception and values of organization have
      become necessary today. Although the company may want to change it
      is actually very difficult to make the workers accept the change. The
      challenge before the HR manager is to make people accept change.


Significance/importance/need of HRM

HRM becomes significant for business organization due to the following
reasons.

   1. Objective :-
            HRM helps a company to achieve its objective from time to
      time by creating a positive attitude among workers. Reducing wastage
      and making maximum use of resources etc.

   2. Facilitates professional growth :-
             Due to proper HR policies employees are trained well and this
      makes them ready for future promotions. Their talent can be utilized




             not only in the company in which they are currently working but
      also in other companies which the employees may join in the future.

   3. Better relations between union and management :-
             Healthy HRM practices can help the organization to maintain
      co-ordinal relationship with the unions. Union members start realizing
      that the company is also interested in the workers and will not go
      against them therefore chances of going on strike are greatly reduced.

   4. Helps an individual to work in a team/group :-

                                     13
         Effective HR practices teach individuals team work and
   adjustment. The individuals are now very comfortable while working
   in team thus team work improves.

5. Identifies person for the future :-
         Since employees are constantly trained, they are ready to meet
   the job requirements. The company is also able to identify potential
   employees who can be promoted in the future for the top level jobs.
   Thus one of the advantages of HRM is preparing people for the future.

6. Allocating the jobs to the right person :-
          If proper recruitment and selection methods are followed, the
   company will be able to select the right people for the right job. When
   this happens the number of people leaving the job will reduce as the
   will be satisfied with their job leading to decrease in labour turnover.




                                  14
      DEFINITIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION


Different authors give various definitions of job satisfaction. Some of them
are taken from the book of D.M. Pestonjee “Motivation and Job Satisfaction”
which are given below:
Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable, emotional, state resulting from
appraisal of one’s job. An effective reaction to one’s job.

                                       15
                                                                   Weiss
Job satisfaction is general attitude, which is the result of many specific
attitudes in three areas namely:
Specific job factors.
Individual characteristics.
Group relationship outside the job
                                                          Blum and Naylor


Job satisfaction is defined, as it is result of various attitudes the person hold
towards the job, towards the related factors and towards the life in general.
                                                                  Glimmer


Job satisfaction is defined as “any contribution, psychological, physical, and
environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully say, ‘I am
satisfied with my job.”


Job satisfaction is defined, as employee’s judgment of how well his job on a
whole is satisfying his various needs
                                                                 Mr. Smith




Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable or positive state of mind resulting
from appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.
                                                                     Locke



HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION


                                        16
The term job satisfaction was brought to lime light by hoppock (1935). He
revived 35 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 and observes
that Job satisfaction is combination of psychological, physiological and
environmental circumstances. That causes a person to say. “I m satisfied with
my job”. Such a description indicate the variety of variables that influence
the satisfaction of the individual but tell us nothing about the nature of Job
satisfaction.


Job satisfaction has been most aptly defined by pestonjee (1973) as a job,
management, personal adjustment & social requirement. Morse (1953)
considers Job satisfaction as dependent upon job content, identification with
the co., financial & job status & priding group cohesiveness


One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the
Hawthorne study. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton
Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various
conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity.


 These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions
temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later




found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the
knowledge of being observed.
This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other
than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in
job satisfaction.


                                      17
Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the
study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principles
of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform
any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial
production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework
towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages.


The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased
productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However,
workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with
new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction.


It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and
Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor’s work.


Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory,
laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that
people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs, safety
needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model
served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job
satisfaction theories.




 IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION


    Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about
      their job and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational,
      citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover.

                                      18
    Job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality
      variables and deviant work behavior.


    Common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life
      style.
      This correlation is reciprocal meaning the people who are satisfied
      with the life tends to be satisfied with their jobs and the people who
      are satisfied their jobs tends to satisfied with their life.


    This is vital piece of information that is job satisfaction and job
      performance is directly related to one another. Thus it can be said that,
      “A happy worker is a productive worker.”


    It gives clear evidence that dissatisfied employees skip work more
      often and more like to resign and satisfied worker likely to work
      longer with the organization.




IMPORTANCE TO WORKER AND
ORGANIZATION

Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal
satisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and self-development. To the worker,
job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that can often leads to a
                                        19
positive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative,
flexible, innovative, and loyal.
      For the organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a work
force that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. Increased
productivity- the quantity and quality of output per hour worked- seems to be
a byproduct of improved quality of working life. It is important to note that
the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is
neither conclusive nor consistent.
      However, studies dating back to Herzberg’s (1957) have shown at
least low correlation between high morale and high productivity and it does
seem logical that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to an
organization.
      Unhappy employees, who are motivated by fear of loss of job, will not
give 100 percent of their effort for very long. Though fear is a powerful
motivator, it is also a temporary one, and also as soon as the threat is lifted
performance will decline.
        Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in
complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well
as improved punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked
with a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of
longevity.




      Although only little correlation has been found between job
satisfaction and productivity, Brown (1996) notes that some employers have
found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or
delighting customers, thus protecting the “bottom line”.


WORKERS ROLE IN JOB SATISFACTION
                                      20
If job satisfaction is a worker benefit, surely the worker must be able to
contribute to his or her own satisfaction and well being on the job. The
following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: Seek
opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to more
challenging work and greater responsibilities, with attendant increases in pay
and other recognition.
Develop excellent communication skills. Employer’s value and rewards
excellent     reading,     listening,    writing     and      speaking   skills.
Know more. Acquire new job related knowledge that helps you to perform
tasks more efficiently and effectively. This will relive boredom and often
gets one noticed.
Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Qualities like these are valued by most
organizations and often results in recognition as well as in increased
responsibilities and rewards.
Develop teamwork and people skills. A large part of job success is the ability
to work well with others to get the job done.
Accept the diversity in people. Accept people with their differences and their
imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively.




See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one does
can lead to satisfaction with the work itself. This help to give meaning to
one’s existence, thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction.
Learn to de-stress. Plan to avoid burn out by developing healthy stress
management techniques.


FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION


                                        21
Hoppock, the earliest investigator in this field, in 1935 suggested that there
are six major components of job satisfaction. These are as under:


      The way the individual reacts to unpleasant situations,
      The facility with which he adjusted himself with other person
      The relative status in the social and economic group with which he
         identifies himself
      The nature of work in relation to abilities, interest and preparation
         of worker
      Security
      Loyalty
Herberg, mausaer, Peterson and capwell in 1957 reviewed more than 150
studies and listed various job factors of job satisfaction. These are briefly
defined one by one as follows:


   1. Intrinsic aspect of job
   It includes all of the many aspects of the work, which would tend to be
   constant for the work regardless of where the work was performed.




   2. Supervision
   This aspect of job satisfaction pertains to relationship of worker with his
   immediate superiors. Supervision, as a factor, generally influences job
   satisfaction.
   3. Working conditions
   This includes those physical aspects of environment which are not
   necessary a part of the work. Hours are included this factor because it is


                                     22
primarily a function of organization, affecting the individuals comfort and
convenience in much the same way as other physical working conditions.
4. Wage and salaries
This factor includes all aspect of job involving present monitory
remuneration for work done.
5. Opportunities for advancement
It includes all aspect of job which individual sees as potential sources of
betterment of economic position, organizational status or professional
experience.
6. Security
It is defined to include that feature of job situation, which leads to
assurance for continued employment, either within the same company or
within same type of work profession.
7. Company & management
It includes the aspect of worker’s immediate situation, which is a function
of organizational administration and policy. It also involves the
relationship of employee with all company superiors above level of
immediate supervision.




8. Social aspect of job
It includes relationship of worker with the employees specially those
employees at same or nearly same level within the organization.
9. Communication
It includes job situation, which involves spreading the information in any
direction within the organization. Terms such as information of
employee’s status, information on new developments, information on


                                  23
   company line of authority, suggestion system, etc, are used in literature to
   represent this factor.
   10.Benefits
   It includes those special phases of company policy, which attempts to
   prepare the worker for emergencies, illness, old age, also. Company
   allowances for holidays, leaves and vacations are included within this
   factor.


REASONS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION

Reasons why employees may not be completely satisfied with their jobs:



   1. Conflict between co-workers.

   2. Conflict between supervisors.

   3. Not being opportunity paid for what they do.

   4. Have little or no say in decision making that affect employees.

   5. Fear of loosing their job.




EFFECTS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION


1. HIGH ABSENTEEISM


Absenteeism means it is a habitual pattern of absence from duty or
obligation.
                                      24
      If there will be low job satisfaction among the employees the rate of
absenteeism will definitely increase and it also affects on productivity of
organization.



           J
                High         B
           o
           b

           s
           a
           t
           i
           s
           f
           a
           c
           t      low
                                                                                       A
           i
           n
                                 low                                            High

                                       Rate of turn over and absences


       Perceived personal job inputs
       Fig.no. 1 Curve showing relationship between job satisfaction and rate of turn over
       and absenteeism.




In the above diagram line AB shows inverse relationship between job
satisfaction and rate of turn over and rate of absenteesm.
As th job satisfaction is high the rate of both turn over and absentiseesm is
low and vise a versa.


2.HIGH TURNOVER

                                             25
In human resource refers to characteristics of a given company or industry
relative to the rate at which an employer gains and losses the staff.
      If the employer is said to be have a high turnover of employees of that
company have shorter tenure than those of other companies.


3.TRAINING COST INCREASES


As employees leaves organization due to lack of job satisfaction. Then
Human resource manager has to recruit new employees. So that the training
expenditure will increases.


INFLUENCES ON JOB SATISFACTION

 There are no. of factors that influence job satisfaction. For example, one
recent study even found that if college students majors coinsided with their
job , this relationship will predicted subsequent job satisfaction. However,
the main influences can be summerised along with the dimentions identified
above.




The work itself
The concept of work itself is a major source of satisfaction. For example,
research related to the job charactoristics approach to job design, shows that
feedback from job itself and autonomy are two of the major job related
motivational factors. Some of the most important ingridents of a satisfying
job uncovered by survey include intersting and challenging work, work that
is not boring, and the job that provides status.

                                       26
Pay
Wages and salaries are recognised to be a significant, but complex,
multidimentional factor in job satisfaction. Money not only helps people
attain their basic needs butevel need satisfaction. Employees often see pay as
a reflection of how managemnet view their conrtibution to the organization.
Fringe benefits are also important.
If the employees are allowed some flexibility in choosing the type of benefits
they prefer within a total package, called a flexible benefit plan, there is a
significant increase in both benefit satisfaction and overall job satisfaction.


Promotions
Promotional opportunities are seem to be have avarying effect on job
satisfaction. This is because of promotion take number of different forms.




  WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION?


   Many managers subscribe to the belief that a satisfied worker is
   necessarily good worker. In other words, if management could keep the
   entire worker’s happy”, good performance would automatically fallow.
   There are two propositions concerning the satisfaction performance
   relation ship. The first proposition, which is based on traditional view, is
   that satisfaction is the effect rather than the cause of performance. This
   proposition says that efforts in a job leads to rewards, which results in a
                                       27
   certain level of satisfaction .in another proposition, both satisfaction and
   performance are considered to be functions of rewards.
   Various research studies indicate that to a certain extent job satisfaction
   affects employee turn over, and consequently organization can gain from
   lower turn over in terms of lower hiring and training costs. Also research
   has shown an inverse relation between job satisfaction and absenteeism.
   When job satisfaction is high there would be low absenteeism, but when
   job satisfaction is low, it is more likely to lead a high absenteeism.


   What job satisfaction people need?
   Each employee wants:
      1. Recognition as an individual
      2. Meaningful task
      3. An opportunity to do something worthwhile.
      4. Job security for himself and his family
      5. Good wages
      6. Adequate benefits
      7. Opportunity to advance




      8. No arbitrary action- a voice a matters affecting him
      9. Satisfactory working conditions
      10.Competence leadership- bosses whom he can admire and respect as
         persons and as bosses.


However, the two concepts are interrelated in that job satisfaction can
contribute to morale and morale can contribute to job satisfaction.
It must be remembered that satisfaction and motivation are not synonyms.
Motivation is a drive to perform, where as satisfaction reflects the

                                       28
individual’s attitude towards the situation. The factors that determine
whether individual is adequately satisfied with the job differs from those that
determine whether he or she is motivated. the level of job satisfaction is
largely determined by the comfits offered by the environment and the
situation . Motivation, on the other hand is largely determine by value of
reward and their dependence on performance. The result of high job
satisfaction is increased commitment to the organization, which may or may
not result in better performance.
A wide range of factors affects an individual’s level of satisfaction. While
organizational rewards can and do have an impact, job satisfaction is
primarily determine by factors that are usually not directly controlled by the
organization. a high level of job satisfaction lead to organizational
commitment, while a low level, or dissatisfaction, result in a behavior
detrimental to the organization. For example, employee who like their jobs,
supervisors, and the factors related to the job will probably be loyal and
devoted. People will work harder and derive satisfaction if they are given the
freedom to make their own decisions.




MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTION

There are various methods and theories of measuring job satisfaction level of
employees in the orgnization given by different authers.
List of all the theorise and methods measuring job satisfaction level is given
below:

A MODEL OF FACET SATISFACTION

    Affect theory(Edwin A. Locke 1976)
                                       29
  Dispositional Theory( Timothy A. Judge 1988)
  Two-Factor      Theory      (Motivator-Hygiene     Theory)   (Frederick
     Herzberg’s)
  Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham)
  Rating scale
  Personal interviews
  action tendencies
  Job enlargement
  Job rotation
  Change of pace
  Scheduled rest periods




MODEL OF FACET OF JOB SATISFACTION


Skill
Experience
Training            Perceived personal
Efforts             job inputs
Age                 Fig.no. 1 Curve
Seniority           showing                Perceived
Education                                  amount that
Co loyalty                                 should be
Past                                       received (a)
performance

                                     30
 Level
 Difficulty                                                                    a=b
 Time span                                                                     satisfaction
 Amount of                  Perceived job
                            characteristics                                    a>b
 responsibility                                                                dissatisfaction
                                                                               a<b guilt
                                                                               Inequity
                                                                               Discomfort
 Perceived
 outcome of
 referent others                              Perceived
                                              amount
                                              received
 Actual                                       (b)
 outcome
 received


                  Fig.no.2 Model of determinant of facet of job satisfaction
Edward E.lawler in 1973 propoed a model of facet satisfaction. This model is
applicable to understand what determines a person’s satisfaction with any
facet of job.
According to this model actual outcome level plays a key role in a person’s
perception of what rewards he recieves. His perception influenced by his
perception of what his referent others recieves.




AFFECT THEORY
Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most
famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that
satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job
and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one
values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position)
moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations
are/aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his
satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are
met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who

                                               31
doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the
workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A
would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy
and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to
Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will
produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that
facet.


DISPOSITIONAL THEORY

Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory it is a
very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that
cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction,
regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job
satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over
time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins
have similar levels of job satisfaction.




A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was
the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998.
Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s
disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus
of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-
esteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief
in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an
internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as
opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction.
Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction

                                       32
TWO-FACTOR THEORY (MOTIVATOR-HYGIENE
THEORY)

Frederick Hertzberg’s Two-factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene
Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace.
This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different
factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are
those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide
people with satisfaction. These motivating factors are considered to be
intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out.Motivating factors include aspects
of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory
practices, and other working conditions.
While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have
been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman &
Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may
have been a methodological artifactFurthermore, the theory does not




consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will
react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors..
Finally, the model has been criticised in that it does not specify how
motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured]


JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL




                                      33
Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is
widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics
impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction.
The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task
identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three
critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced
responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn
influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation,
etc.).
 The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating
potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely
a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors.
A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides
some support for the validity of the JCM.




           MODERN METHOD OF MEASURING JOB
                             SATISFACTION
In this method of measuring job satisfaction the comparision between various
orgnizational terms and conditions at managerial level and also the
orgnization at a large.
SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
POLICIES OF THE ORGANIZATION:
                                       34
1. Management has a clear path for employee’s advancement

2. Decisions are made keeping in mind the good of the employees
3. Management is extremely fair in personal policies
4. Physical working conditions are supportive in attaining targets
5. I nnovativeness is encouraged to meet business problems.


SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION
1. I feel I can trust what my supervisor tells me
2. My supervisor treats me fairly and with respect
3. My supervisor handles my work-related issues satisfactorily
4. I get frequent appreciation of work done from supervisors
5. I get enough support from the supervisor
6.Individual initiative is encouraged


SATISFACTION WITH COMPENSATION LEVELS
1. Overall I am satisfied with the company’s compensation package
2. I am satisfied with the medical benefits
3. I am satisfied with the conveyance allowance
4. I am satisfied with the retirement benefits
5. I am satisfied with the reimbursement of the expenses as per the eligibility
6. I am satisfied with the holiday (vacation) eligibilities




SATISFACTION WITH TASK CLARITY
1. Management decisions are Ad Hoc and lack professionalism (reverse
scaled)




                                        35
2. Rules and procedures are followed uncompromisingly
3. My job responsibilities are well defined and clear


SATISFACTION WITH CAREER DEVELOPMENT
1. I have adequate opportunities to learn and grow
2. I get opportunities to handle greater responsibilities
3. My skills and abilities are adequately used at work
From all above we can conclude level of job satisfaction of our employees.


RATING SCALE
   It is one of the most common methods of measuring job satisfaction. The
   popular rating scale used to measure Job satisfaction is to include:
   Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaires: It helps to obtain a clear picture of
   pertinent satisfactions and dissatisfactions of employees.
   Job Description Index: it measures Job satisfaction on the dimension
   identified by Smith, Kendall, Hullin.
   Porter Need Identification Questionnaires: It is used only for management
   personnel and revolves around the problems and challenges faced by
   managers.




CRITICAL INCIDENTS
     Fredrick Hertz berg and his Associates popularized this method of
measuring Job satisfaction. It involves asking employees to described
incidents on job when they were particularly satisfied or dissatisfied. Then
the incidents are analyzed in terms of their contents and identifying those
related aspects responsible for the positive and negative attitudes.


                                       36
PERSONAL INTERVIEWS


   This method facilitates an in-depth exploration through interviewing of
   job attitudes. The main advantage in this method is that additional
   information or clarifications can be obtained promptly.


ACTION TENDENCIES


   By this method, Job satisfaction can be measured by asking questions and
   gathering information on how they feel like behaving with respect to
   certain aspects of their jobs. This method provides employees more
   opportunity to express their in-depth feeling.

   In his study on American employees, hoppock identified six factors that
   contributed to job satisfaction among them. These are as follows:
      1. The way individual reacts to unpleasant situations.
      2. The facilities with which he adjust himself to other persons.
      3. His relative’s status in the social & economic group with which he
         identifies himself.




      4. The nature of work in relation to the abilities, interest &
         preparation of the workers.
      5. Security.
      6. Loyalty.
Because human resource manager often serve as intermediaries between
employees & management in conflct.they are concern with Job satisfaction
or general job attitudes with the employees.
                                       37
Philip apple white has listed the five major components of Job satisfaction
.as
      1. Attitude towards work group.
      2. General working conditions.
      3. Attitude towards company.
      4. Monitory benefits &
      5. Attitude towards supervision
Other components that should be added to this five are individual’s state of
mind about the work itself and about the life in general .the individual’s
health, age, level of aspiration. Social status and political & social activities
can all contribute to the Job satisfaction. A person’s attitude toward his or her
job may be positive or negative.


JOB ENLARGEMENT
The concept of job enlargement originated after World War II. It is simply
the organizing of the work so as to relate the contents of the job to the
capacity, actual and potential, of workers. Job enlargement is oblivious
forerunner of the concept and philosophy of job design. Stephan offers three
basic assumptions behind the concept of job enlargement.




Output will increase if
      1. Workers abilities are fully utilized
      2. Worker has more control over the work
      3. Workers interest in work and workplace is stimulated.
 Job enlargement is a generic term that broadly means adding more and
different tasks to a specialized job. It may widen the number of task the
employee must do that is, add variety. When additional simple task are added


                                         38
to a job, the process is called horizontal job enlargement. This also
presumably adds interest to the work and reduces monotony and boredom.


To check harmful effects of specialization, the engineering factors involved
in each individual job must be carefully analyzed. Perhaps, the assembly
lines can be shortened so that there will be more lines and fewer workers on
each line. Moreover, instead of assigning one man to each job and then
allowed to decide for himself how to organize the work. Such changes permit
more social contacts and greater control over the work process.


JOB ROTATION


Job rotation involves periodic assignments of an employee to completely
different sets of job activities. One way to tackle work routine is to use the
job rotation. When an activity is no longer challenging, the employee is
rotated to another job, at the same level that has similar skill requirements.
 Many companies are seeking a solution to on-the-job boredom through
systematically moving workers from one job to another. This practice
provides more varieties and gives employees a chance to learn additional
skills. The company also benefits since the workers are qualified to perform
a number of different jobs in the event of an emergency.




CHANGE OF PACE
Anything that will give the worker a chance to change his pace when he
wishes will lend variety to his work. Further if workers are permitted to
change their pace that would give them a sense of accomplishment.


SCHEDULED REST PERIODS
                                       39
 Extensive research on the impact of rest periods indicates that they may
increase both morale and productivity. Scheduled rest periods bring many
advantages:
They counteract physical fatigue
They provide variety and relieve monotony
They are something to look forward to- getting a break gives a sense of
achievement.
They provide opportunities for social contacts.




                                      40
       OBJECTIVES OF

                       STUDY




• To find that whether the employees are satisfied or not.


• To analyse the company’s working environment.


• To check the Degree of satisfaction of employees.
                                  41
• To find that they are satisfied with their job profile or not.


• To find that employees are working with their full capabilities or not.




                                    42
                      Research

               Methodology




RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


4.1 INTRODUCTION

Research refers to a search for knowledge. It is a systematic method of
collecting and recording the facts in the form of numerical data relevant to
                                    43
the formulated problem and arriving at certain conclusions over the problem
based on collected data.


Thus formulation of the problem is the first and foremost step in the research
process followed by the collection, recording, tabulation and analysis and
drawing the conclusions. The problem formulation starts with defining the
problem or number of problems in the functional area. To detect the
functional area and locate the exact problem is most important part of any
research as the whole research is based on the problem.


According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining
problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions: collecting,
organizing and evaluating data: making deductions and reaching conclusions:
and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the
formulating hypothesis.
      Research can be defined as “the manipulation of things, concepts or
symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify
knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the
practice of an art”
      In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic
method of finding solution to a problem is research.




4.2 DRAFTING QUESTIONNAIRE

The questionnaire is considered as the most important thing in a survey
operation. Hence it should be carefully constructed. Structured questionnaire
consist of only fixed alternative questions. Such type of questionnaire is
inexpensive to analysis and easy to administer. All questions are closed
ended.
                                      44
4.3SAMPLING
It was divided into following parts:


Sampling universe
All the employees are the sampling universe for the research.


Sampling technique
Judgmental sampling
Sample was taken on judgmental basis. The advantage of sampling are that it
is much less costly, quicker and analysis will become easier. Sample size
taken was 100 employees.

4.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The research has been undertaken with following objectives.
    To study the level of job satisfaction among the employees of SEVA
      Automotive Pvt. Ltd. if any.
    To study the methods of measuring job satisfaction of SEVA
      Automotive Pvt. Ltd.




4.5 DATA COLLECTION

      The task of data collection begins after the research problem has been
defined and research design chalked out. While deciding the method of data
collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two
types of data viz. Primary and secondary data.
Primary Data: -


                                       45
       The primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first
time and thus happen to be original in character. The primary data were
collected through well-designed and structured questionnaires based on the
objectives.
Secondary Data:
       The secondary data are those, which have already been collected by
someone else and passed through statistical process. The secondary data
required of the research was collected through various newspapers, and
Internet etc.

4.6 RELEVANCE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY


       The study was thoughtful for knowing the existing job satisfaction
level of the employees of B.E.O.L., Rewa (m.p.). Limitation for the study,
the study was restricted to B.E.O.L., Rewa only.


4.7 CHAPTERISATION
   1. Introduction
    2. Research methodology
    3. Organizational profile
    4. Data presentation, analysis and interpretation
    5. Conclusions and suggestions




1




                                      46
   COMPANY PROFILE




Birla Ericsson Optical Limited (BEOL), an IS/ISO 9001:2000 and
IS/ISO - 14001:2004 certified company under the M.P. Birla Group of
Industries entered into the field of optical communication, by way of
manufacturing optical fibre cables, in technical and financial
collaboration with Ericsson Cables AB, Sweden (now known as
Ericsson       Network         Technologies       AB,       Sweden).

Ericsson is a leading name in telecommunications for the last 110
years, with activities ranging from turnkey telecom networks to
                                 47
Cellular Mobile Telephone Systems and Business Communications.
M/s Ericsson Cables AB are the pioneers in S-Z stranding and Ribbon
Cable technologies for optical fibre cables.

BEOL has installed capacity of above more than 53,000 cable Kms.
per annum to produce complete range of optical fibre cables including
ribbon type optic fibre cable made to design and construction
conforming to national and international standards. BEOL has the
capability to produce speciality fibre optic cables for use in medical
equipment, computers and local area networks, cable TV network or
any      other    type   as       per     customized      specification.

BEOL also has installed capacity to produce 43.25 lac conductor
Kms. of jelly filled copper telephone cables complying to national and
international standards ranging from 5 pair to 2400 Pair and also has
capability to produce switchboard cables for switching equipment.

BEOL has fully computerized system for process monitoring and
quality control to ensure consistency and reliability of its entire product
range. All production activities are carried out as per approved quality
assurance plan. BEOL, therefore, provides the best possible solutions
with       latest      state       of      the       art       technology.

BEOL has an exclusive marketing agreement with M/s AFL
Telecommunications for sale of hi-tech overhead fibre optic cables,
specially OPGW and associated accessories which find applications
with         electric         power           utilities        etc.

BEOL has marketing arrangement with M/s ILSINTECH Co. Ltd.




                       Quality policy

Birla Ericsson Optical Limited (BEOL), an IS/ISO 9001:2000 and IS/ISO - 14001:2004
certified company under the M.P. Birla Group of Industries entered into the field of
optical communication, by way of manufacturing optical fibre cables, in technical and
financial collaboration with Ericsson Cables AB, Sweden (now known as Ericsson
Network                   Technologies                AB,                   Sweden).

Ericsson is a leading name in telecommunications for the last 110 years, with activities
                                        48
ranging from turnkey telecom networks to Cellular Mobile Telephone Systems and
Business Communications. M/s Ericsson Cables AB are the pioneers in S-Z stranding and
Ribbon      Cable       technologies      for      Optical        Fibre       Cables.

BEOL has installed capacity of above more than 53,000 cable Kms. per annum to produce
complete range of optical fibre cables including ribbon type optic fibre cable made to
design and construction conforming to national and international standards. BEOL has the
capability to produce speciality fibre optic cables for use in medical equipment, computers
and local area networks, cable TV network or any other type as per customized
specification.

BEOL also has installed capacity to produce 43.25 lac conductor Kms. of jelly filled
copper telephone cables complying to national and international standards ranging from 5
pair to 2400 Pair and also has capability to produce switchboard cables for switching
equipment.

BEOL has fully computerized system for process monitoring and quality control to ensure
consistency and reliability of its entire product range. All production activities are carried
out as per approved quality assurance plan. BEOL, therefore, provides the best possible
solutions       with        latest        state         of    the      art        technology.
BEOL has an exclusive marketing agreement with M/s AFL Telecommunications for sale
of hi-tech overhead fibre optic cables, specially OPGW and associated accessories which
find        applications         with          electric     power         utilities       etc.




       ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

Birla Ericsson Optical Ltd. is committed to :

   •   Comply with Environmental legislations and prevention of
       pollution

                                             49
                Make all efforts for continual improvement in the
Environmental performance
We shall conserve the resources and minimize the
Environmental impact of our operations on Air, Water, and Land
By :


  •   Implementing Environmental Management System to meet the
      objectives and targets
  •   Bringing awareness amongst all employees




      PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT



                               50
  Brig. H I S Arora (President)
             Mr. I.M. SHEIKH (DGM)

 Mr. NARSINGH MURTI (PERSONNEL AND
                ADM.
                  MANAGER)

Mr. R.K. LAKHERA (PERSONNEL OFFICER)

  Mr. VINAY NIGAM (ASST. PERSONNEL
                  MANAGER)




 Mr. Harsh V. Lodha   Chairman
 Mr. Janne Sjoden
(Alternate Mr. S.K.
                          51
 Daga)
  Mr. Magnus Kreuger
 (Alternate Mr. Dinesh
 Chanda)


  Mr. A.P. Dadoo
 Dr. Aravind Srinivasan
  Mr. B.R. Nahar
 Mr. D.R. Bansal          Managing Director




 Mr. Y. S. Lodha          President


Marketing
 New Delhi
 Mr. Sandeep Chawla       Sr. Vice President (Marketing)
 Mr. Roby Sood            General Manager (Marketing)


 Mumbai
 Mr. R. Sridharan         Sr.Vice President (Marketing)
 Mr. Devesh R. Dakwale     General Manager (Sales)




Rewa
 Mr. R.K. Shahi           General Manager(sales)



 Mr. Ashish Mishra         General Manager (Sales & Logistics)


 Kolkata
 Mr. Dipankar Chaterjee   Manager(Marketing)


 Technical (Rewa)
                              52
 Mr. Raghu Nair             Sr. Vice President (Works)


 Mr. J.K. Mahajan           Asstt. Vice President(Prod.&QA)
                            Asstt. Vice President (Devp. &
 Mr. Sanjeev Dubey
                            Maintt.)
 Mr. B.S. Sisodia           General Manager (Production)
                            Dy.General Manager (QA & Product
 Mr. Shekhar Banerjee
                            Devp.)
                            Dy.General Manager (Design &
 Mr. Maneesh Nayak
                            Devp.)




                     Core strength
Birla Ericsson Optical Limited (BEOL), has been a major player in
the telecom industry and proven core strengths like –


  •   Pioneer in the field of OFC & Copper Cables since 1992.
  •   Experienced, Skilled Engineers and work force.
  •   Diversified Product Range.
  •   Excellent Financial Strength.
  •   IS/ISO-9001:2000 and IS/ISO-14001:2004 certification.
  •   Collaboration with Ericsson Network Technologies AB of
      Sweden, the world leader in Telecommunication Industries
  •   State of the art Plant & Machinery. Fully computerized & Air-
      conditioned manufacturing facilities
                                53
Approval with TSEC, Indian Railways (RDSO), Engineers India Ltd.,
Director General of Quality Assurance (Ministry of Defence), DGS&D,
Dun & Bradstreet.



                     Certification detail

Birla Ericsson Optical Ltd. Rewa is committed to achieve customer
satisfaction by meeting the customer's requirements as well as the
applicable product related statutory and regulatory requirements and
has also been awarded quality certifications from reputed agencies.




    COMPETITORS OF COMPANY

                    STERLITE INDUSTRIES
       Telecommunication has become the buzzword today the entry of
private sectors into the basic services sector compiled with the government’s
increased allocation of resources and access to leasing/deferred credit is
expected to further accelerate the telecommunication drive in the country.

       The department of telecommunication (Dot) has decided to replace all
trunk lines with optical fiber cables and in tune with this the company has
also commissioned to optical fiber cable plant.

                                     54
                               UNIFLEX CABLES
             UNIFLEX cables limited are an existing profit making company
       manufacturing a variety of power cables, which are sold mainly to
       government org.

              The company is diversifying in to manufacturing telesales optical
       fibers cables (OFC) with a capacity to produce 4,000 cable Km. and in to
       jelly filled telephone cables (JFTC) with a capacity to produce 12.5 lacks
       crores Km. per annum.

             Some others company of telecom sector is as Follows:

  I.             Vindhya Telelinks Ltd.
 II.             Paramount communication Ltd.
III.             M.P. Telelinks Ltd.
IV.              Finolex telecom Ltd.




                    PRODUCT PROFILE

       PRODUCT OF B.E.O.L.-

             The main product of company is: -

                  fiber cables.
                  Optical Jelly filled cables (PIJFTC)
                  Fiber Ribbon Cable (FRC).

       1) OPTICAL FIBRE CABLES: -
                                            55
       Birla Ericsson Optical Limited Manufactures all type of optical fiber
cables for use in communication type of optical fiber cables for use in
communication data transmission, Internet, E-commerce and multimedia.
The company is fully equipped to manufacture all types of Duct/Armored
optical fibro cables including ribbon type optical, custom made to shit the
individual requirement of any customer conforming to any national or
international specification.

COMCENTRIC LOOSE TUBE CABLE: -
      PRIMARY coated fibers are protected in loose tube of
PBTP/Polyamide filled with a special thyrotrophic gel in order to prevent
water penetration. The loose tube containing fibers are standard around the
control strength member of fiber-reinforced plastic for better pulling
strength.

          A later of polyethylene sheath acts as a cushion for the cable core,
the outer jacket is made of polyamide to offer a more resistance to
mechanical and environmental efforts.

CENTRAL LOOSE TUBE CABLE: -
       Primary coated fiber are protected in loose tube PBTP/Polyamide
filled with a special thyrotrophic gel in order to prevent water penetration. To
provide cushioning, a circular layer of polyethylene is executed around




       the loose tube containing fibers. The strength members are embedded
this layer of polythene to provide the required pulling strength.

2) JELLY FILLED CABLES: -
       Birla Ericsson Optical limited manufactures polythene insulated (both
solid and from skin) Jelly filled underground telephone cables for use in local
distribution network and for Junctions between exchanges; these cables form
a vital link for telecommunication distribution system. These can be used for
large capacity exchanges used by department of telecommunication, MTNL,
on Major cities and also for small exchanges used in ruler areas and for local
networks in industries. These are also use by railways defense departments
and various others specials users.

      Cable is available in conductor size 0.4, 0.5, .63 and .9 mm diameter
with cables sizes varying from 10 pair to 2400 pairs.
                                      56
       These cables are generally conforming to Indian P & T department
specification. These can also be custom made suitable to individual
requirement of any customer or to other national or international
specifications.

3) OPTICAL FIBRE RIBBON: -
      After decreasing sales of Optical Fiber Cable Company diversify his
product in to fiber ribbon cable.




           PLANT TOUR OF B.E.O.L.




                                   57
QUALITY FEATURES-
Quality Features are assured through systematically structured quality
planning and its execution covering every stage of operation starting
from Purchase and up to Packing and Dispatch. People at work are
adequately trained and given elbow space to implement quality
infusion and quality check at every stage


                                  58
All the latest equipments and gadgets, required to observe, test,
evaluate and check every feature of Optical Fibre are imported from
world's best manufacturer and installed at our Test Centers.

Proof Testing : Fibre is tested to stand certain specified strain level to
conform strength, using an advance proof testing machine.
 In addition to above, other test facilities for various other tests are
 Environmental Chambers, Ovens, Hydrogen Ageing Equipment,
 System for Static Fatigue and Dynamic Fatigue Tests etc.
 We also take services from Outside Quality Agencies like IICT, CABS,
CACT, RITES, ETDC, IIT, ERDA, Lloyds, Sameer, CSIO etc




      CERTIFICATE OF APPROVALS


      QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      to IS/ISO:9001-2000

                                   59
      ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT
      SYSTEM to IS/ISO:14001-2004

      Registration/Approval with
      BSNL                                   Engineers India Ltd.

                                             Director General of Quality
      Indian Railways (RDSO)                 Assurance (Ministry of
                                             Defence)

      DGS & D                                Dun & Bradstreet
  2




                       Scope Of The Study


The scope of the study is very vital. Not only the Human Resource
department can use the facts and figures of the study but also the marketing
and sales department can take benefits from the findings of the study.


                                      60
Scope for the sales department


The sales department can have fairly good idea about their employees,tat
they are satisfied or not.



Scope for the marketing department


The marketing department can use the figures indicating that they are putting
their efforts to plan their marketing strategies to achieve their targets or not.




Scope for personnel department


Some customers have the complaints or facing problems regarding the job.
So the personnel department can use the information to make efforts to avoid
such complaints.




Sample Size :-
Questionare is filled by 20 employees of Kotak life Insurance, Kaithal.


The questionnaire was filled in the office and vital information was collected
which was then subjects to:-


     A pilot survey was conducted before finalizing the questionnaire.

                                        61
 Data collection was also done with the help of personal observation.
 After completion of survey the data was analysed and conclusion was
   drawn.
 At the end all information was compiled to complete the project
   report.




                                 62
 DATA ANALYSIS
      AND
INTERPRETATION




      63
       I have been passed up at least once for
           a promotion in the past few years.


                                 0%                20%


          50%
                                                     30%



    Strongly Agree                    Agree
    Neither Agree nor Disagree        Disagree
    Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,
20% of employees are agree on the point, 30% are neither agree nor
disagree,50% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                              64
65
       I spend parts of my day daydreaming
                about a better job.


                        10%      0%
           15%



           15%                                        60%




    Strongly Agree                    Agree
    Neither Agree nor Disagree        Disagree
    Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 60% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,
15% of employees are agree on the point, 15% are neither agree nor
disagree,10% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                                 66
            I find much of my job repetitive and
                            boring.


                     10%         5% 0%
               10%



                                                      75%


       Strongly Agree                    Agree
       Neither Agree nor Disagree        Disagree
       Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 75% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 10% of
employees are agree on the point, 10% are neither agree nor disagree,5% are disagree and
rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                              67
             I am mentally and/or physically
          exhausted at the end of a day at work.


                     10%         5% 0%




                                                   85%


       Strongly Agree                    Agree
       Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree
       Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 85% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 10% of
employees are agree on the point, 5% are neither agree nor disagree,0% are disagree and
rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                              68
               I feel that my job has little impact on the
                        success of the company.


                        20%         0%



                                                   50%
                     30%



             Strongly Agree              Agree
             Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree
             Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 50% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,
30% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nor
disagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                      69
          I have an increasingly bad attitude
         toward my job, boss, and employer


                 20%              0%              20%




                                  60%


     Strongly Agree                    Agree
     Neither Agree nor Disagree        Disagree
     Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,
0% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nor
disagree,60% are disagree and rest 20% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                           70
            I am no longer given the resources I
               need to successfully do my job.


                                     0%       10%



                                                     30%
               60%




        Strongly Agree                    Agree
        Neither Agree nor Disagree        Disagree
        Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 10% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 30% of
employees are agree on the point, 60% are neither agree nor disagree,0% are
disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                            71
              I am not being used to my full
                        capabilities.


                                  0%
            40%                                    40%




                                  20%


     Strongly Agree                     Agree
     Neither Agree nor Disagree         Disagree
     Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,
40% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nor
disagree,40% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                         72
         I have received no better than "fair"
                  evaluations recently.


                25%               0%
                                                  40%



                      35%


     Strongly Agree                    Agree
     Neither Agree nor Disagree        Disagree
     Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 40% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,
35% of employees are agree on the point, 25% are neither agree nor
disagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                         73
       I feel as though my boss and employer
                    have let me down.


                                  0%       10%
             35%



                                                  55%



     Strongly Agree                    Agree
     Neither Agree nor Disagree        Disagree
     Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,
0% of employees are agree on the point, 10% are neither agree nor
disagree,55% are disagree and rest 35% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                         74
               I often feel overworked and
                       overwhelmed.


                                  0%
             35%
                                                  45%



                         20%


     Strongly Agree                    Agree
     Neither Agree nor Disagree        Disagree
     Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 45% of employees are strongly agree about the point,
20% of employees are agree on the point, 35% are neither agree nor
disagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                         75
         I am frequently stressed out at work.


                                  0%              20%



         50%                                            15%

                                               15%



     Strongly Agree                    Agree
     Neither Agree nor Disagree        Disagree
     Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point,
20% of employees are agree on the point, 15% are neither agree nor
disagree,15% are disagree and rest 50% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                        76
                I live for weekends and days away
                            from the job.


                                  0%      10%



                                                   30%
                 60%




           Strongly Agree              Agree
           Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree
           Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point,
0% of employees are agree on the point, 10% are neither agree nor
disagree,30% are disagree and rest 60% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                    77
        I find myself negatively comparing my
                situation to my peers.


                  20%        0%       15%



                                              25%
                 40%


     Strongly Agree               Agree
     Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree
     Strongly Disagree




This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point,
15% of employees are agree on the point, 25% are neither agree nor
disagree,40% are disagree and rest 20% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                    78
         I fe e l m y b a d d a y s a t w o rk o u tw e ig h th e g o o d
                                ones.


                                        0%              2 5%
                 45%



                                                      30%


          S t ro n g ly A g re e            A gre e
                                            re e
          N e ith e r A g ree n o r D is a gD is a g re e
          S t ro n g ly D is a g ree




This graph shows that 25% of employees are strongly agree about the point,
30% of employees are agree on the point, 45% are neither agree nor
disagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                                   79
        I o fte n e x p e rie n c e a s e n s a tio n o f tim e s ta n d in g
                      s till w h e n I a m a t w o rk .


                         20%             0%         15%




                                                             35%
                     30%



           S t ro n g ly A g re e            A g re e
                                             g is a
           N e ith e r A g re e n o r D is a D re e g re e
           S t ro n g ly D is a g re e




This graph shows that 15% of employees are strongly agree about the point,
35% of employees are agree on the point, 30% are neither agree nor
disagree,20% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                                  80
           I h a v e b e e n to ld th a t I a m b e c o m in g a m o re
                           c y n ic a l p e rs o n .


                                                    S tro n g ly A g re e

                       0%     10%                   A g re e
        35%
                                        25%
                                                    N e ith e r A g re e n o r
                                                    D is a g re e
                                                    D is a g re e
                       30%
                                                    S tro n g ly D is a g re e




This graph shows that 10% of employees are strongly agree about the point,
25% of employees are agree on the point, 30% are neither agree nor
disagree,35% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                      81
              I fe e l a s th o u g h m y e m p lo y e r h a s b ro k e n
          p ro m is e s a b o u t m y fu tu re w ith th e o rg a n iz a tio n .


                                           0%       10%
                    40%                                        25%



                                              25%


             S t ro n g ly A g re e           A g re e
                                               g re e
             N e it h e r A g re e n o r D is aD is a g re e
             S t ro n g ly D is a g re e




This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 10% of
employees are agree on the point, 25% are neither agree nor disagree,25% are disagree
and rest 40% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                                 82
             I h ave lo st sig h t o f m y career g o als an d
                           asp iratio n s.


                        15%      0%         15%



                                                  25%
                     45%



           S trongly A gree           A gree
                                      Dis
           Neither A gree nor Dis agree agree
           S trongly Dis agree




This graph shows that 15% of employees are strongly agree about the point,
25% of employees are agree on the point, 45% are neither agree nor
disagree,15% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                       83
                I n o lo n g e r fe e l v a lu e d fo r m y w o rk .


                             10%                            25%
               20%




                       20%                                  25%



           S t ro n g ly A g re e           A g re e
                                            D re g
           N e it h e r A g re e n o r D is a gis ae re e
           S t ro n g ly D is a g re e




This graph shows that 25% of employees are strongly agree about the point,
25% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nor
disagree,20% are disagree and rest 10% of employees are strongly disagree.




                                               84
                 Findings

o Employees are not completely satisfied with their job although
   their salary is good enough.


o Employes are not getting value to their work.


o Most of employees think that they are nt on their actual path.


o Most of the employees think that the organization haven’t fulfill
   their promises,what they do in beginning especially regarding
   Promotion.


o There is negatively comparison between peers especially
   regarding targets.


o They often feel overworked.




                            85
   SUGGESTION
      AND
RECOMMENDATION




      86
To increase the job satisfaction level of the employees the company should
concentrate mainly on the incentive and reward structure rather than the
motivational session.




   • Ideal employees should concentrate on their job.


   • Educational qualification can be the factor of not an effective job.


   •   Company should give promotion to those employees who deserves it.




                                      87
          LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

However I shall try my best in collecting the relevant information for my
research report, yet there are always some problems faced by the researcher.
The prime difficulties which I face in collection of information are discussed
below:-


   1. Short time period: The time period for carrying out the research was

      short as a result of which many facts have been left unexplored.


   2. Lack of resources: Lack of time and other resources as it was not

      possible to conduct survey at large level.


   3. Small no. of respondents: Only 20 employees           have been chosen
      which is a small number, to represent whole of the population.


   4. Unwillingness of respondents: While collection of the data many

      consumers were unwilling to fill the questionnaire. Respondents were
      having a feeling of wastage of time for them.


   5. Small area for research: The area for study was Kaithal, which is

      quite a small area to judge job satisfaction level.



                                       88
              BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books: -


    Hitt, Miller, Colella “Organizational Behavior A Strategic Approach”,
       Wiley Student’s Edition.
      Luthans Fred “Organizational Behavior”, McGraw Hill 7th Edition.
      Newstrom John W., Davis Keith, “Organizational Behavior Human
       Resource At Work”, 9th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Edition.
      Pestonjee D. M.     “Motivation and Job Satisfaction”, 1st Edition.
       Macmillan India Limited.
      Kothari C.R., Research Methodology, New Delhi; New Age
       International
        Publication, second edition.


Websites: -
www.hrcouncil.com
www.workforce.com
www.google.com




                                       89
ANNEXURE

   90
          QuestionnaireS for JOB
                      SATISFACTION
NAME: ………………………………………….
DESIGNATION: ……………………………….
COMPANY: …………………………………….

 1. I have been passed up at least once for a promotion in the past few years.

    •   Strongly Agree
    •   Agree
    •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
    •   Disagree
    •   Strongly Disagree

 2. I spend parts of my day daydreaming about a better job.

    •   Strongly Agree
    •   Agree
    •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
    •   Disagree
    •   Strongly Disagree

 3. I find much of my job repetitive and boring.

    •   Strongly Agree
    •   Agree
    •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
    •   Disagree
    •   Strongly Disagree



                                         91
4. I am mentally and/or physically exhausted at the end of a day at work.

   •   Strongly Agree
   •   Agree
   •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
   •   Disagree
   •   Strongly Disagree

5. I feel that my job has little impact on the success of the company.

   •   Strongly Agree
   •   Agree
   •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
   •   Disagree
   •   Strongly Disagree

6. I have an increasingly bad attitude toward my job, boss, and employer .

   •   Strongly Agree
   •   Agree
   •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
   •   Disagree
   •   Strongly Disagree

7. I am no longer given the resources I need to successfully do my job.

   •   Strongly Agree
   •   Agree
   •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
   •   Disagree
   •   Strongly Disagree



                                        92
8. I am not being used to my full capabilities.

   •   Strongly Agree
   •   Agree
   •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
   •   Disagree
   •   Strongly Disagree

9. I have received no better than "fair" evaluations recently.

   •   Strongly Agree
   •   Agree
   •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
   •   Disagree
   •   Strongly Disagree

10. I feel as though my boss and employer have let me down.

   •   Strongly Agree
   •   Agree
   •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
   •   Disagree
   •   Strongly Disagree

11. I often feel overworked and overwhelmed.

   •   Strongly Agree
   •   Agree
   •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
   •   Disagree
   •   Strongly Disagree



                                         93
12. I am frequently stressed out at work.

    •   Strongly Agree
    •   Agree
    •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
    •   Disagree
    •   Strongly Disagree

13. I live for weekends and days away from the job.

    •   Strongly Agree
    •   Agree
    •   Neither Agree nor Disagree
    •   Disagree
    •   Strongly Disagree

14. I find myself negatively comparing my situation to my peers.

•   Strongly Agree
•   Agree
•   Neither Agree nor Disagree
•   Disagree
•   Strongly Disagree

15. I feel my bad days at work outweigh the good ones.

•   Strongly Agree
•   Agree
•   Neither Agree nor Disagree
•   Disagree
•   Strongly Disagree



                                        94
16. I often experience a sensation of time standing still when I am at work.

•   Strongly Agree
•   Agree
•   Neither Agree nor Disagree
•   Disagree
•   Strongly Disagree

17. I have been told that I am becoming a more cynical person.

•   Strongly Agree
•   Agree
•   Neither Agree nor Disagree
•   Disagree
•   Strongly Disagree

18. I feel as though my employer has broken promises about my future with the
    organization.

•   Strongly Agree
•   Agree
•   Neither Agree nor Disagree
•   Disagree
•   Strongly Disagree

19. I have lost sight of my career goals and aspirations.

•   Strongly Agree
•   Agree
•   Neither Agree nor Disagree
•   Disagree
•   Strongly Disagree

                                         95
20. I no longer feel valued for my work.

•   Strongly Agree
•   Agree
•   Neither Agree nor Disagree
•   Disagree
•   Strongly Disagree




                                           96
f




s




    97