EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF NEEM AND MIXED PONGAMIA-COCONUT METHYL ESTERS A by iaemedu

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									International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME
                                 AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)                                                        IJMET
Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 232-242
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 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF NEEM AND MIXED PONGAMIA-
     COCONUT METHYL ESTERS AS BIODIESEL ON C.I ENGINE

                NITHYANANDA.B.S(1), ANAND A(2), Dr.G.V.NAVEEN PRAKASH(3)
       (1),(2),(3)
                     Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vidyavardhaka College of engineering,
                                               Mysore, 570002


ABSTRACT

        Bio-diesel is one of the most promising alternatives for diesel needs. The methyl esters of
vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low
environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine and they would not
require significant modification of existing engine hardware. Biodiesel is produced by the
transesterification of triglycerides of edible/non edible oils, and waste vegetable oils using
methanol with alkaline catalyst NaOH/KOH. In this research, methyl esters of neem and mixed
pongamia and coconut are produced through transesterification process. The objective of this paper
is to investigate the mechanical properties and performance characteristics of biodiesel extracted
from Neem and Mixed oil. The objective is achieved by transesterifing the neem and mixed oil using
transesterification unit setup developed inhouse. Experimental investigations have been carried out to
examine fuel properties and performance characteristics of different biodiesel blends in comparison
to diesel. The performance characteristics of blends are evaluated at variable loads at constant rated
speed of 1500rpm and results are compared with diesel.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Mixed pongamia and coconut oil, Neem oil, Transesterification, Engine
performance.

I.     INTRODUCTION

       Biodiesel is environmentally friendly liquid fuel similar to petrol-diesel in combustion
properties. Increasing environmental concern, diminishing petroleum reserves and agriculture based
economy of our country are the driving forces to promote biodiesel as an alternate fuel. Biodiesel
derived from vegetable oil and animal fats is being used in USA and Europe to reduce air pollution,
to reduce dependence on fossil fuel. In USA and Europe, their surplus edible oils like soybean oil,
sunflower oil and rapeseed oil are being used as feed stock for the production of biodiesel [1].


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        Conventional energy sources such as oil, coal and natural gas have limited reserves that are
expected not to lose for an extended period. World primary demand is projected to increase by 1.5%
per year 2007 to 2030, from just over 12,000 million tonnes of oil equivalent to 16800 million tonnes
as overall increase of 40%. As world reserves of fossil fuels and raw material are limited, it has
stimulated active research interest in non petroleum and non polluting fuels. Diesel engines are the
major source of power generation and transportation hence diesel is being used extensively, but due
to the gradual impact of environmental pollution there is an urgent need for suitable alternate fuels
for use in diesel engine without any modification [2].
        There are different kinds of vegetable oils and biodiesel have been tested in diesel engines for
its reducing characteristic for green house gas emissions. Its help on reducing a country’s reliance on
crude oil imports, its supportive characteristic on agriculture by providing a new market for domestic
crops, its effective lubricating property that eliminates the need of any lubricate additive and its wide
acceptance by vehicle manufacturers can be listed as the most important advantages of biodiesel fuel
[2].
        In India there are more than 300 species of trees, which produce oil bearing seeds. In our
country only non edible oil can be used as a raw material for biodiesel production. These non edible
oil seeds like jatropha curcus, pongamia pinnata, moha, undi, saemaruba can be grown in non fertile
land and waste lands. In our country these lands are much available. These non edible oil seeds are
also used for lighting purpose at night. The use of these oils gives a best way to reduce the
production cost of biodiesel. Also the processed vegetable oil can be used in any existing CI engine
without any modification [3].
        The present research is aimed at exploring technical feasibility of biodiesel extracted by
Neem and Mixed Pongamia and Coconut oil in direct inject compression ignition engine without any
hardware modifications. The biodiesel from neem and mixed pongamia and coconut oil are
investigated for its performance as a diesel engine fuel.

II.      METHODOLOGY

        There are two approaches/ processes for the production of the biodiesel. The criterion for the
selection of the process is based on the presence of the Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content in the
pongamia oil [4].

      a) If the FFA content of raw oil is less than 4%, Alkali base catalyzed Transesterification
         process is to be done.
      b) If the FFA content of raw oil is more than 4%, Acid catalyzed esterification process has to be
         undertaken.

Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content of the raw oil is calculated by using Eq 1,


FFA Content =                                        ……………… (1)


a. ACID CATALYZED ESTERIFICATION PROCESS
        The esterification process is effective for oils that contain high free fatty acid (FFA) content.
In this process the excess of the free fatty acid gets reacted and remaining acid content in the oil
undergoes Transesterification. Generally concentrated sulphuric acid is used as a catalyst for this
process.

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        The raw vegetable oil measuring 1litre is taken in a reaction flask and heated to 40⁰C initially
with a continuous stirring. Then oil is filtered using a tissue paper. The filtered oil is again heated to
60⁰ - 65⁰C for 15 minutes in a reaction flask. After the heating of the oil is carried out, then the
mixture containing 300ml Methanol and 10ml conc. Sulphuric acid is poured into the reaction flask
slowly. The reaction takes place at constant stirring with suitable speed and process is carried out at
60⁰C for about 1hour. After the completion of process, the mixture is transferred into a Separating
flask and then allowed to settle down to separate into two phases. The upper layer is dark acid layer
and the lower layer is oil. The esterification reaction is presented in the Eq 2,

                                                                        ……………… (2)

         Now take the sample of the esterified oil and measure the new FFA. If the FFA content of oil
is less than 4%, Transesterification process is carried out.

b. BASE CATALYZED TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS
        The esterified oil is taken in a reaction flask and heated to 60⁰C for about 15 minutes with
continuous stirring. Then the methoxide mixture containing 300ml Methanol and 5 – 8gms of
Sodium Hydroxide is poured into a reaction flask with constant slow stirring at 60⁰C. The reaction
temperature is maintained about 60-65˚C and process is carried out for another 2 hours. Once the
process is completed, the reaction mixture is transferred into a separating funnel and then allowed to
settle down into three phases. The upper layer is biodiesel which consists of methyl esters, the
middle layer is glycerol and the lower layer is NaOH catalyst. The simplified form of its chemical
reaction is presented in the Eq 3.


                                                                           …………… (3)




    Where R1, R2, R3 are long chain hydrocarbons called fatty acid chains.
       The methanol can be recovered from biodiesel and can be reused. The biodiesel obtained is
washed with warm water of 40°C without any agitation in the washing funnel and allowed to settle
for 1 hour. A bottom layer of soap water will slowly start to form and the soapy water is drained
down carefully. The above procedure is repeated 10 to 15 times, till the clean wash water is got back
which indicates that the catalyst is not present in the biodiesel. Later washed biodiesel is heated to
110⁰C to remove moisture from biodiesel. Thus neat biodiesel is obtained.

c. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
        The experiments were conducted on a kirloskar made four stroke single cylinder water cooled
direct inject compression ignition engine without any hardware modifications. Mixed and Neem
biodiesel blends (B10, B20, B30, B40, and B50) and diesel was used to test a conventional engine at
different loads. Performance parameters like brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake
thermal efficiency were evaluated. The technical specification of diesel engine is given in the
Table 1.

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                                   Table 1: Engine specifications
                       Type                     Kirloskar
                       Details                  Single cylinder, four stroke,
                                                water cooled
                       Bore & Stroke            80×110 mm
                       Rated Power              3.75 KW at 1500 RPM
                       Compression Ratio        16:1to 25:1

III.   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

       Table 2 shows the fuel properties of diesel, mixed biodiesel and its blends. Table 3 shows the
fuel properties of diesel, neem biodiesel and its blends Biodiesel blends of neem and mixed
pongamia and coconut methyl esters with diesel on 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% volume basis was
prepared and fuel properties are measured following standard procedure.

                     Table 2 Properties of Diesel, Mixed biodiesel and its blends
         Properties         Units    Diesel   B10       B20      B30      B40     B50    B100

         Viscosity           Cst     3.02     3.201     3.319    3.409   3.84     4.02    4.76

          Density          Kg/m3      816     820       826.7    839.5   850.8   856.2   876.4

                             o
        Flash point              C    52       57           60    64      70      78      121

                             o
         Fire point              C    61       62           65    69      76      85      128

       Calorific value     KJ/Kg 43796 42936            42701    42100   41650   41317   39251



                      Table 3 Properties of Diesel, Neem biodiesel and its blends
         Properties         Units    Diesel   B10       B20      B30     B40     B50     B100

          Viscosity          Cst      3.02    3.78      3.855    3.92    4.074   4.38    6.81

           Density          Kg/m3     816     820.1     825.9    831.4   839.6   843.8   873.2

                                 o
         Flash point             C    52       57           62    68      70      74      168

                                 o
          Fire point             C    61       67           74    75      77      85      184

       Calorific value      KJ/Kg 43796 42111           41863    40780   39460   38643   36496



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       In Fig. 1, the kinematic viscosity of different blends of mixed and neem biodiesel blends B10,
B20, B30, B40 and B50 are higher than the viscosity of diesel. But up to B20 the viscosity of mixed
biodiesel is close to the viscosity of diesel. It can also be observed that the viscosities of all neem
biodiesel blends are higher than the mixed biodiesel blends.




 Fig. 1: Comparison for Kinematic Viscosity of Neem and Mixed Biodiesel blends with Diesel

        The density of different blends of mixed and neem biodiesel is increased with the increase in
blend percentage as shown in Fig. 2. The blend B10 mixed and neem biodiesel are closer to the
density of diesel. The high density of biodiesel can be reduced by heating. It can also be observed
that density of mixed and neem biodiesel blends are nearer to each other.




        Fig. 2: Comparison for Density of Neem and Mixed Biodiesel blends with Diesel

        The calorific values of different blends of mixed and neem biodiesel are lesser than the
calorific value of diesel as shown in Fig. 3. The biodiesel blends B10 and B20 have calorific values
closer to diesel. It is evident from Fig. 3 that the calorific value of mixed biodiesel blends is higher
than the neem biodiesel blends.


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    Fig. 3: Comparison for Calorific Value of Neem and Mixed Biodiesel blends with Diesel

        The flash points of different blends of methyl esters are increased with the increase in methyl
ester percentage as shown in Fig. 4. It is also observed that the flash points of biodiesel blends B10
and B20 are close to diesel.




      Fig. 4: Comparison for Flash point of Neem and Mixed Biodiesel blends with Diesel

        The Fig. 5 to Fig. 9 represents the variation of specific fuel consumption with brake power
for various blends of biodiesel and diesel. It can be observed that the specific fuel consumption of
different blends of mixed pongamia and coconut and neem biodiesel is found to be slightly higher
than the diesel at full load. It is also observed that specific fuel consumption of B10 blend of mixed
and neem biodiesel is very close to specific fuel consumption of diesel at all loads. For blends B20 to
B50 the specific fuel consumption is found to be higher than the diesel.



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      Fig. 5: Variation of Specific Fuel Consumption with Brake Power for B10 Blends




      Fig. 6: Variation of Specific Fuel Consumption with Brake Power for B20 Blends




      Fig. 7: Variation of Specific Fuel Consumption with Brake Power for B30 Blends

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       Fig. 8: Variation of Specific Fuel Consumption with Brake Power for B40 Blends




       Fig. 9: Variation of Specific Fuel Consumption with Brake Power for B50 Blends

        The Fig. 10 to Fig. 14 represents the variation of brake thermal efficiency with brake power
for various blends of biodiesel and diesel. A slight drop in brake thermal efficiency was found with
the biodiesel blends when compared with diesel. This drop in thermal efficiency may be due to poor
combustion characteristics of biodiesel blends due to high viscosity. It can also be observed that the
brake thermal efficiency of neem biodiesel blends except B20 is slightly higher than the mixed
pongamia and coconut biodiesel blends at full load.




       Fig. 10: Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake Power for B10 Blends

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      Fig. 11: Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake Power for B20 Blends




      Fig. 12: Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake Power for B30 Blends




      Fig. 13: Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake Power for B40 Blends



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       Fig. 14: Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake Power for B50 Blends


IV.    CONCLUSION

        The fuel properties of different blends of biodiesel are nearer to the diesel and blends B10
and B20 is giving good results. The fuel properties of biodiesel B100 are not in good agreement with
the diesel so it is advisable not to use B100 biodiesel in CI engines.
        Following are the conclusions based on the experimental results obtained while operating
single cylinder diesel engine with neem and mixed pongamia and coconut biodiesel blends.
    • Mixed pongamia and coconut and neem biodiesel blends can be directly used in diesel
        engines without any engine modifications.
    • The mixed biodiesel shows better fuel properties than the neem biodiesel up to blend B20.
    • The brake thermal efficiency of biodiesel blends is slightly lesser than the diesel. The brake
        thermal efficiency of neem biodiesel blends except B20 is slightly higher than pongamia
        biodiesel blends.
    • Specific fuel consumption of B10 blend of pongamia and neem biodiesel is very close to
        specific fuel consumption of diesel at all loads. For blends B20 to B50 the specific fuel
        consumption is found to be higher than the diesel.
        The neem and mixed pongamia and coconut biodiesel can be used as a substitute to
petroleum diesel. The mixed pongamia and coconut biodiesel can be regarded as a better fuel than
the neem biodiesel even though the brake thermal efficiency is slightly lesser. The biodiesel yield
from neem oil is comparatively lesser than the mixed pongamia and coconut oil.

V.     REFERENCES

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6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME

 [4.] Mishra S.R, Mohanty M.K, Das S.P, Pattanaik A.K, “Production of Biodiesel From
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