INVESTIGATIONS ON TENSILE AND FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF WOOD DUST AND GLASS FIBRE

Document Sample
INVESTIGATIONS ON TENSILE AND FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF WOOD DUST AND GLASS FIBRE Powered By Docstoc
					 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
                          AND TECHNOLOGY July - August
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4,(IJMET) (2013) © IAEME


ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)                                                      IJMET
Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 180-187
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI)                  ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




INVESTIGATIONS ON TENSILE AND FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF WOOD
   DUST AND GLASS FIBRE FILLED EPOXY HYBRID COMPOSITES

      Ramesh Chandra Mohapatra 1, Antaryami Mishra2, Bibhuti Bhushan Choudhury3
      1
          Mechanical Department, Government College of Engineering, Keonjhar 758002, India
            2
              Mechanical Department, Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Sarang, India
            3
              Mechanical Department, Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Sarang, India


ABSTRACT

        Experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of hybrid composites consisting of
epoxy reinforced with glass fibre and filled with pine wood dust (PWD) particles have been studied
in the present work. The hybrid composites were prepared by using hand layup technique. Four
identical specimens were prepared with different volume fraction of reinforcement particles
(6.5Vol%, 11.3Vol%, 26.8Vol%, and 35.9Vol%of PWD and 9.6Vol%of glass fibre) to determine the
mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strength of hybrid composites. In this study,
mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strength were measured using same Universal
testing machine (UTM) i.e. Instron Model 1122 testing machine (Instron Corp., Conton, MA). The
experimental results showed that incorporation of glass fibre in pine wood dust filled epoxy resin
improved strength both in tensile and flexural modes of neat epoxy. With addition of
6.5Vol%,11.3Vol%,26.8Vol% and35.9Vol% of PWD and 9.6Vol% of glass fibre, the tensile
strength of epoxy resin improved by 115%,105%,76.5%,and 63.1% and flexural strength of epoxy
resin improved by 110.5%,103.4%,97.3%, and 78.9% respectively.

Key words: Epoxy, Glass fibre, Hybrid Composite, Mechanical properties, Pine wood dust.

1. INTRODUCTION

        Recently, thermoplastic and thermoset polymers are combined with natural fillers to produce
the composites, which possess better strength and good resistance to fracture. Due to an excellent
property profile, these composites find wide applications in packaging, building and civil
engineering fields. Natural fibre as a replacement to synthetic fibre in polymer matrix is the focus of
many scientists and engineers. The reason for focus on natural fibre reinforced polymer matrix is
because of its low cost eco-friendly, low energy consumption, non abrasive nature, and good
insulator of heat and sound. In recent years, major industries such as automotive, construction and

                                                 180
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME

packaging industries have shown enormous interest in the development of new bio-composite
materials and are currently engaged in searching for new and alternate products to synthetic fibre
reinforced composites. It has also become very attractive mainly because of the good mechanical
properties that can be obtained at relatively low cost, highly available and renewable with low
density and high specific properties as well as bio gradable.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

         The objective of this work is to investigate the tensile and flexural properties of pine wood
dust filled epoxy composite reinforced with glass fibre. Numerous theoretical and experimental
approaches have been developed to investigate these properties. Agarwal et al. [1] derived an
equation to find out the theoretical density of composite materials in terms of weight fraction. Liang
et al. [2] studied the interfacial properties and it’s impact on tensile strength in unidirectional. Rong
et al. [3] have investigated the effect of fibre treatment on mechanical properties of unidirectional
sisal reinforced epoxy composites. Sreekala et al. [4] found the significant decrease in the flexural
strength was observed at the highest EFB fibre volume fraction of 100% which was due to the
increased fibre – to – fibre interactions and dispersion problem which results in low mechanical
properties of composite. Premlal et al. [5] used rice husk as organic filler in polypropylene and
observed that these composites exhibit relatively lower yield strength, Young’s modulus, flexural
modulus and higher elongation at break as compared to those of talc filled composites. Yamamoto et
al. [6] reported that the structure and shape of silica particles have significant effects on the
mechanical properties such as fatigue resistance, tensile and fracture properties. Yang et al. [7]
prepared a composite sample with polypropylene as the matrix and rice husk floor as the reinforcing
filler and studied the physical, mechanical and morphological properties. Singha et al. [8] reported a
study on the synthesis and mechanical properties of new series of green composites involving
Hibiscus Sabdariffa fibre as a reinforcing materialin urea – formaldehyde (UF) resin based polymer
matrix. Mahapatra et al. [9] described the development of multi-phase hybrid composites consisting
of polyster reinforced with E-glass fibre and ceramic particulates. Lionetto et al. [10] evaluated the
effect of a new preservative/consolidant system on the mechanical properties of worm -eaten walnut
wood. Aruniit et al. [11] studied to find out how the filler percentage in the composite influences the
mechanical properties of the material. Ibrahim [12] investigated the effects of reinforcing polymer
with glass and graphite particles on enhancing their flexural properties. Dedeepya et al. [13]
measured mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus and thermal conductivity of
natural fibre typha angustifolia reinforced composite using Universal testing machine and Guarded
hot plate apparatus. Ismail et al.[14] studied the solid particle erosion characteristics of the CSP filled
C – E composites and compared the experimental results with those of unfilled C – E composites.
Reem et al. [15] studied the mixture rule of composite material and the effect of volume fraction of
coconut fibres on the mechanical properties of the composite.

3. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

3.1. Matrix material (Epoxy)
       Epoxy (LY 556) resin and the corresponding hardener (HY 951) are mixed in a ratio of 10:1
by volume supplied by Hindustan Ciba Geigy (India) Ltd.

3.2. Filler material (Pine wood dust)
        Pine wood dust has chosen as the filler material mostly for its very low thermal conductivity
(0.068 W/m-0K) and low density (0.52 gm/cc). It is also renewable, eco-friendly, available at low
cost, non toxic and basically considered as waste product.

                                                   181
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME

3.3. Fibre material (E – glass)
        Cross piled E – glass fibres (supplied by Saint Gobain Ltd. India) are reinforced separately in
PWD epoxy resin to prepare a set of glass – epoxy – PWD hybrid composite slab.

3.4. Composite preparation
                                                                            were
        The low temperature curing epoxy resin and corresponding hardener were mixed in a ratio of
10:1 by volume as recommended. Pine wood dust (PWD) particles with average size 100µm were
reinforced in epoxy resin (density 1.1 gm/cc) to prepare the composites. Further, cross plied E –
glass fibers (supplied by saint Gobain Ltd. India) were reinforced separately in PWD filled epoxy
resin to prepare a set of glass – epoxy – PWD hybrid composite slabs. E – Glass has an elastic
modulus of 72.5GPa, density of 2.59 gm/cc and thermal conductivity of 0.04 W /m –0K at room
                 he
temperature. The fabrication of these composite slabs was done by conventional hand – lay – up
                                                                                              (9.6vol
technique. The fillers were mixed thoroughly in the epoxy resin before the glass – fiber mats (
  )                                                                    dimensions
%) are reinforced into the matrix body. A stainless steel mould having dimensions of 210 × 210 × 40
mm was used for this purpose. Silicon spray was used to facilitate easy removal of the composite
from the mould after curing. The cast of each composite was cured under a load of about 50kg for 24
                                  m
hours before it was removed from the mould. Then this cast was post cured in air for another 24
hours. The specimens were prepared having dimension of 165mm×19mm with thickness of 3.2mm     3.2
for tensile test and 55mm×10mm with thickness of 4mm for flexural test.

3.5. Determination of Tensile Strength
        Tensile strength is the maximum ability of a material to withstand forces that tends to pull it
                                                                                     uni-axial load is
apart. The tensile test is generally performed on flat specimens. During the test a uni
applied through both the ends of the specimen. In this experiment the tensile test was determined
                              97                               Univ
according to ASTM D638-97 standard test method using Universal Testing Machine (UTM) i.e.
Instron Model 1122 testing machine (Instron Corp., Conton,MA). The cross head speed for the test is
                      min
maintained at 5mm/min and the test is repeated five times for each sample to get the mean value of
the tensile strength. It was calculated according to the following equation:

           σ t = Fmax A.................................(1)

Where σt = Tensile strength (N/m2), Fmax is the maximum (peak) load (N), A is the cross sectional
area (m2).

Specimen dimension
Width of narrow section - 13mm, Width overall – 19mm, Gage length – 50mm
Length of narrow section - 57mm, Length overall – 165mm, Radius of fillet – 76mm
Distance between grips – 115mm, Thickness – (3.2±0.4) mm




                               Fig. 1. Specimens for Tensile test measurement


                                                              182
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME




                                   Fig. 2. Standard Tensile Test Specimen




                                            Fig. 3. Instron Model 1122

3.6. Determination of Flexural strength
        Flexural strength describes the ability of the material to withstand bending forces applied
perpendicular to it’s longitudinal axis. The three point bend testing method was used to determine the
flexural strength according to ASTM D 790 – 97 using the same UTM machine i.e. Instron Model
1122 testing machine (Instron Corp. Canton, MA).The cross head speed for the test is maintained at
5mm/min and the test is repeated five times for each sample to get the mean value of the flexural
strength. The test specimen for composite sample had nominal dimensions of 55×10×4 mm. The data
recorded during the 3 – point bend test was used to evaluate the flexural strength (F.S) using the
following equation

                σ f = 3PL 2bt 2 .............................................(2)

Where, σf is the flexural strength, P is the maximum load, b the width of the specimen, t is the
thickness of the specimen and L is the span length of the specimen.




                                                            183
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME




                              Fig. 4. Standard flexural strength specimen

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1. Tensile strength
        Comparative picture of the tensile strength values for different filler content with and without
                                                                                        ,
glass fibre is shown in fig. (5). It has been found that with no addition of glass fibre, as the content of
pine wood dust particles increases the tensile strength of the composite decline gradually when
compared with the neat epoxy. With addition of 6.5 Vol%, 11.3 Vol%, 26.8 Vol% and 35.9 Vol% of
                                                         strength
pine wood dust and without glass fibre, the tensile strength of epoxy resin dropped by 8%, 9.8%,
17.3% and 27.4% respectively. There are two reasons for this decline. One is that the chemical
reaction at the interface between PWD particles and the matrix may be too weak to transfer the
tensile load; the other is the corner points of the irregular – shaped PWD particles resulting stress
concentration in the epoxy matrix. However with the incorporation of glass fibre, the tensile strength
                                                                                       Vol%,
improved substantially when compared with neat epoxy. With addition of 6.5 Vol 11.3 Vol%,
26.8 Vol% and 35.9 Vol% of pine wood dust and 9.6 Vol% of glass fibre the tensile strength of
                               %,
epoxy resin increased by 115%, 105%, 76.5% and 63.1% respectively. The values of tensile strength
and flexural strength with and without addition of glass fibre for the composites with two
components i.e epoxy and PWD are given in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively.




     Fig. 5. Tensile strength of composites of different filler content with and without glass fibre
                                            reinforcement

                                                   184
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME

4.2. Flexural strength
        The flexural strength obtained from the experimental study for the particulate filled epoxy
composite with varied proportion of pine wood dust with and without glass fibre is shown in fig.(6).
It is observed that the flexural strength of the composite with no addition of glass fibre is reducing
gradually when compared with neat epoxy. With addition of 6.5 Vol%, 11.3 Vol%, 26.8 Vol% and
                               t
35.9 Vol% of pine wood dust particles the flexural strength of epoxy resin reduced by 5%, 10.4%,
21.6% and 24.1% respectively. However with addition of glass fibre, the flexural strength increased
                                                                              %,
substantially comparing the neat epoxy. With addition of 6.5 Vol%, 11.3 Vol%, 26.8 Vol% and 35.9
Vol% of PWD and 9.6 Vol% of glass fibre the flexural strength of epoxy resin improved by 110.5%,
103.4%, 97.3% and 78.9% respectively.




         Fig. 6. Flexural strength of composites of different filler content with and without glass fibre
                                            reinforcement


   Table 1 Measured Tensile and Flexural strength values of composites without glass fibre

Composite        Glass       PWD     Tensile           Reduction of       Flexural      Reduction of
 Sample          fibre      Content Strength             Tensile          Strength        Flexural
   No.          Content     (Vol %) (MPa)             strength with        (MPa)          strength
                (Vol %)                                  respect                       With respect to
                                                    to neat epoxy (%)                  Neat epoxy (%)
     1             0            0        142.6               0              124.8             0
     2             0           6.5       131.3               8              118.8             5
     3             0          11.3       128.7              9.8             111.8           10.4
     4             0          26.8       117.9             17.3              97.8           21.6
     5             0          35.9       103.5             27.4              94.7           24.1



                                                   185
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME

          Table 2 Measured Tensile and Flexural strength values of composites with glass fibre

Composite             Glass       PWD     Tensile       Improvement of      Flexural   Improvement of
 Sample               fibre      Content Strength       Tensile strength    Strength      Flexural
   No.               Content     (Vol%)   (MPa)          with respect to     (MPa)        strength
                     (Vol %)                             neat epoxy (%)                With respect to
                                                                                       Neat epoxy (%)
          1             9.6        6.5       306.7            115             262.9         110.5
          2             9.6        11.3      292.6            105             253.8         103.4
          3             9.6        26.8      251.7            76.5            246.2          97.3
          4             9.6        35.9      232.6            63.1            223.3          78.9

5. CONCLUSION

•    Fabrication of hybrid composites consisting of glass – fibre reinforcement in epoxy resin filled
     with particulate pine wood dust is possible in simple hand lay up technique.
•    An environmental waste like pine wood dust can also be gainfully utilized for the composite
     making purpose.
•    The incorporation of glass fibre in PWD filled epoxy resin improved strength both in tensile and
     flexural modes of neat epoxy.
•    Thus the incorporation of glass fibre serves the dual purpose of providing strength, both in tensile
     and flexural modes and for reducing the thermal conductivity of neat epoxy, there by improving
     it’s thermal insulation capability.
•    With light weight and improved mechanical properties like tensile and flexural strength, pine
     wood dust and glass fibre filled epoxy hybrid composite can be used for applications such as
     electronic packages, insulation board, food container, thermo flask etc.

REFERENCES

    [1]       B. D. Agarwal, L J. Broutman, “Analysis and performance of fibre composites,” Second
              Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; 1990.
    [2]       J.Z. Liang, R.K.Y. Li, S.C. Tjung, “ Morphology and tensile properties of glass beed filled
              low density Polyethylene composites,” Polymer Testing, 16, 2001, 529 – 548.
    [3]       M.Z. Rong, M.Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, G.C. Yang, H.M. Zeng, “ The effect of fibre treatment on
              the mechanical properties of unidirectional sisal reinforced epoxy composites,” Composite
              Science and Tecnology, 61(10), 2001, 1437 – 1447.
    [4]       M.S. Sreekala, B. Jayamol, M.G. Kumaran, S. Thomas,The mechanical performance of hybrid
              phenol – formaldehyde based composite reinforced with glass and oil palm fibres,”
              Composite Science and Tecnology, 62, 2002, 339 – 353.
    [5]       G.B. Premalal Hattotuwa, H. Ismail, A. Baharin, “Comparison of the mechanical properties
              of rice husk Powder filled polypropylene composites with talc filled polypropylene
              composites,” Polymer Testing, 21, 2002, 833 – 839.
    [6]       I. Yamamoto, T. Higashihara, T. Kobayashi, “Iffect of silica – particle characteristics on
              Impact/ usual fatigue properties and evaluation of mechanical characteristics of silica –
              particle epoxy resins,” Int. J. JSME, 46(2), 2003, 145 – 153.
    [7]       H.S. Yang, H.J. Kim, J. Son, H.J. Park, B.J. Lee, T.S. Hwang,” Rice – husk flour filled
              polypropylene composites ; mechanical and morphological study,” Composite structures, 63,
              2004, 305 – 312.

                                                      186
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME

 [8]    A.S. Singha,Vijay Kumar Thakur, “Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer
        composites,” Bull. Mater. Sci., 31(5), 2008, 791 – 799.
 [9]    S.S. Mahapatra, Amar Patnaik, “Study on mechanical and erosion wear behaviour of hybrid
        composites using Taguchi experimental design,” Materials and Design, 30, 2009,
        2791 – 2801.
 [10]   Francesca Leonetto, Mariaenrica Frigione, “Mechanical and natural durability properties of
        wood treated With a novel organic preservative/ Consolidant product,” Materials and
        Design, 30, 2009, 2791 – 2801.
 [11]   A. Aruniit, J. Kers, K. Tall, “ Influance of filler proportion on mechanical and physical
        properties of particulate composite,” Agronomy Research Biosystem Engineering, 1, 2011,
        23 – 29.
 [12]   A.A. Ibrahim, “Flexural properties of glass and graphite particles filled polymer composites,”
        Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 24(1), 2011.
 [13]   M. Dedeepya, T. Dharma Raju, T. Jayananda Kumar, “Effect of alkaline treatment on
        mechanical and Thermal properties of typha angustifolia fibre reinforced composite,”
        International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (IJMIE), 1(4), 20012, 12 – 14.
 [14]   Mohammed Ismail, Suresha Bheemapa, N. Rajendra, “ Investigation on Mechanical and
        Erossive wear behaviour of cenosphere filled carbon – epoxy composite,” International
        conference on Mechanical, Automative and Materials Engineering (ICMAME), Dubai, 2012,
        7 – 8.
 [15]   M. Sabah Reem, Mohamed Ansari, Mohannad Saleh, A study on Mechanical, Thermal,
        Morphological properties of Natural fibre/Epoxy composite,” Journal of Purity, Utility
        Reaction and Environment, 1(5), 2012, 237 – 266.
 [16]   Hargude N.V and Ghatage k.D, “An Overview of Genetic Algorithm Based Optimum Design
        of an Automotive Composite (E-Glass / Epoxy and Hm-Carbon / Epoxy) Drive Shaft”,
        International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 1,
        2012, pp. 110 - 119, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.
 [17]   Anurag bajpai, Sandeep Agarwal and Suruchi, “Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Based
        Polymer Concrete”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology
        (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 267 - 276, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online:
        0976 – 6359.
 [18]   Sudarshan Rao K, Y S Varadarajan and N Rajendra C, “Investigation of the Abrasive Wear
        Behaviour of Graphite Filled Carbon Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composite - A Taguchi
        Approach”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET),
        Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 101 - 108, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.




                                                 187

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:8/20/2013
language:
pages:8