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A Needs-Based Program for Spouses and Children of International

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A Needs-Based Program for Spouses and Children of International Powered By Docstoc
					Families and the University
Services for International Students’ Dependents

                                              Allison Piippo
                                              ESL Lecturer
                                Eastern Michigan University
                                           MITESOL 2012
                                      Saturday, October 13
Data from: Bureau of Consular Affairs (n.d. 
 b).
                 Overview
• Problems faced by international students’ 
  spouses
• Solutions offered by some universities
• Implications
• Future research
          Visa Restrictions
• F-2 vs. J-2 visas
• Discrepancy between the regulations and what 
  various universities offer
           Visa Restrictions
• “The F-2 spouse of an F-1 student may not
  engage in full time study, and the F-2 child 
  may only engage in full time study if the study is 
  in an elementary or secondary school 
  (kindergarten through twelfth grade). The F-2
  spouse and child may engage in study that
  is avocational or recreational in nature.” (p. 
  294)
• The Code of Federal Regulations
           Visa Restrictions
• From Dartmouth College’s website:
• “F-2 dependent spouses are not allowed to
   participate in full-time or part-time study in 
   a degree program or in taking courses toward 
   the completion of a degree program.” 
(Trustees of Dartmouth College, 2011) 
           Visa Restrictions
• From Carnegie Mellon’s website:
• “Please note that F-2 dependents are not
  eligible for employment or full-time/part-
  time studies in the United States” (2011). 
           Visa Restrictions
• From the Bogota Embassy website
• “…the spouse of an F-1 or M-1 visa holder 
  who does not have his/her own F-1 visa can 
  only study in the United States if such 
  studies are incidental to their primary
  purpose of travel (i.e., to accompany the F-
  1 husband/wife)….”
             Visa Restrictions
• From the Bogota Embassy website (cont.)
• “…So, the spouse could study part-time, because 
  that would be incidental to the primary purpose of 
  accompanying the spouse, but he or she may not 
  enroll in a full time course of study without applying 
  for and receiving his/her own F-1 visa or changing 
  status from F-2…to F-1 (U.S. Department of State, 
  n.d. a)."
Other Problems that Spouses of
  International Students Face
 The four main stressors that the spouses 
    of international students face are: 
 1) financial difficulties 
 2) the language barrier 
 3) a lack of social interaction
 4) a loss of professional identity 
        Financial Difficulties
• From 2 incomes to 1 (DeVerthelyi, 1995)
• Those who work (illegally in the US), have 
  to settle for low-paying, domestic jobs 
  (Teshome, 2008) 
• With recent economic trends, rising wealth 
  of other countries, may be changing?
       The Language Barrier
• Not all spouses, but some (DeVerthelyi 
  1995)
• Leads to a dependency on others (Frias, 
  et al. 2011) 
• Don’t pursue opportunities (Martens & 
  Grant 2008)
    Lack of Social Interaction
• Loneliness, homesickness (DeVerthelyi 
  1995) 
• Would like to interact with nationals 
  (Martens and Platt 2008) 
  Loss of Professional Identity
• First time primarily doing housework 
  (Frias, et al. 2011, Chen 2009, Teshome 
  2010, DeVerthelyi 1995) 
• Lack of family/community support for child-
  rearing (Martens and Grant 2008) 
• Choosing to have children because of 
  work restrictions (Teshome 2010)
  Addressing the Problems

• Community services (Friends of 
  International Women, International 
  Neighbors, etc.)
• English as a Second Language
• Building social networks
• Seminars
   Addressing the Problems
• Decline in volunteerism/community 
  outreach programs (Teshome, 2010)
• Northwood Community English Language 
  Program at the University of Michigan
   Benefits to the University
• Spouse’s well-being affects the student
  – Gehl (1995) and Ojo (1998)
• Recruitment
  – Spouses’ input
  – $$$
• Orientation
              Implications
• Spouses of international students need 
  advocates
• In the University’s best interest to provide 
  programs for spouses of international 
  students
          Future Research
• Husbands
• Children
• Survey of current international students’ 
  spouses
  – Current state
  – Perceived needs
Developing a program for the spouses of 
 international students would:
  – Meet the needs of international students’ 
    spouses
  – Improve the experience of international 
    students themselves
  – Draw international families to the university
                     References
Bureau of Consular Affairs (n.d. a). Student visas. Retrieved 
  from http://travel.state.gov/visa/temp/types/types_1268.html.
Bureau of Consular Affairs (n.d. b). Classes of nonimmigrants 
  issued visas (detailed breakdown). Retrieved from 
  http://www.travel.state.gov/visa/statistics/nivstats/nivstats_4
  582.html.
Carnegie Mellon Office of International Education (2011). 
  Bringing F-2/J-2 dependents and family member visa 
  information. Retrieved from 
  http://www.studentaffairs.cmu.edu/oie/families/inviting.html.
                    References
Code of Federal Regulations (2011). Title 8: Aliens and 
  nationality, Chapter B – Immigration Regulations, Part 214 
  Non-immigrant classes. Retrieved from 
  http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?collect
  ionCode=CFR&searchPath=Title+8%2FChapter+I%2FSubc
  hapter+B&oldPath=Title+8%2FChapter+I&isCollapsed=true
  &selectedYearFrom=2011&ycord=321.
Trustees of Dartmouth College (2011). F-1 Dependent 
  Information: F-2 Visa Holders. Retrieved from 
  http://www.dartmouth.edu/~ovis/updates/f1/dependents.html
  .
                     References
De Verthelyi, R.F. (1995). International students’ spouses: 
  Invisible sojourners in the culture shock literature. 
  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19(3), 387-
  411.
Ojo, P. (1998). A model community program to acclimate 
  spouses of international university students. Paper 
  presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the 
  Study of Higher Education, Miami, FL.
Regents of the University of Michigan (2007). Important 
  Information about F-1 Status. Retrieved from 
  http://internationalcenter.umich.edu/immig/fvisa/f_important.
  html#dependents.
                  References
Teshome, Y. (2010). Social and institutional factors 
  affecting the daily experiences of the spouses of 
  international students: Voices from the Midwest 
  and implications to academic institutions (Doctoral 
  dissertation). Retrieved from ERIC. (3403840)
The Ohio State University Office of International 
  Affairs (2009-2010). F-2 and J-2 dependents. 
  Retrieved from http://oia.osu.edu/international-
  students/f-2-and-j-2-dependents.html.
                 References
U.S. Department of Homeland Security (n.d.). 
  Student process steps: How to navigate the U.S. 
  immigration system. Retrived from 
  http://www.ice.gov/sevis/students/.
U.S. Department of State (n.d. a). Frequently asked 
  questions concerning the F and M visas. Retrieved 
  from http://bogota.usembassy.gov/scofaqfv.html.
U.S. Department of State (n.d. b). Frequently asked 
  questions about student visas. Retrieved from 
  http://japan.usembassy.gov/e/visa/tvisa-niv-
  fmfaq.html#faq11.
Questions?
Thank you!

				
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