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Families and the University Services for International Students’ Dependents Allison Piippo ESL Lecturer Eastern Michigan University MITESOL 2012 Saturday, October 13 Data from: Bureau of Consular Affairs (n.d. b). Overview • Problems faced by international students’ spouses • Solutions offered by some universities • Implications • Future research Visa Restrictions • F-2 vs. J-2 visas • Discrepancy between the regulations and what various universities offer Visa Restrictions • “The F-2 spouse of an F-1 student may not engage in full time study, and the F-2 child may only engage in full time study if the study is in an elementary or secondary school (kindergarten through twelfth grade). The F-2 spouse and child may engage in study that is avocational or recreational in nature.” (p. 294) • The Code of Federal Regulations Visa Restrictions • From Dartmouth College’s website: • “F-2 dependent spouses are not allowed to participate in full-time or part-time study in a degree program or in taking courses toward the completion of a degree program.” (Trustees of Dartmouth College, 2011) Visa Restrictions • From Carnegie Mellon’s website: • “Please note that F-2 dependents are not eligible for employment or full-time/part- time studies in the United States” (2011). Visa Restrictions • From the Bogota Embassy website • “…the spouse of an F-1 or M-1 visa holder who does not have his/her own F-1 visa can only study in the United States if such studies are incidental to their primary purpose of travel (i.e., to accompany the F- 1 husband/wife)….” Visa Restrictions • From the Bogota Embassy website (cont.) • “…So, the spouse could study part-time, because that would be incidental to the primary purpose of accompanying the spouse, but he or she may not enroll in a full time course of study without applying for and receiving his/her own F-1 visa or changing status from F-2…to F-1 (U.S. Department of State, n.d. a)." Other Problems that Spouses of International Students Face The four main stressors that the spouses of international students face are: 1) financial difficulties 2) the language barrier 3) a lack of social interaction 4) a loss of professional identity Financial Difficulties • From 2 incomes to 1 (DeVerthelyi, 1995) • Those who work (illegally in the US), have to settle for low-paying, domestic jobs (Teshome, 2008) • With recent economic trends, rising wealth of other countries, may be changing? The Language Barrier • Not all spouses, but some (DeVerthelyi 1995) • Leads to a dependency on others (Frias, et al. 2011) • Don’t pursue opportunities (Martens & Grant 2008) Lack of Social Interaction • Loneliness, homesickness (DeVerthelyi 1995) • Would like to interact with nationals (Martens and Platt 2008) Loss of Professional Identity • First time primarily doing housework (Frias, et al. 2011, Chen 2009, Teshome 2010, DeVerthelyi 1995) • Lack of family/community support for child- rearing (Martens and Grant 2008) • Choosing to have children because of work restrictions (Teshome 2010) Addressing the Problems • Community services (Friends of International Women, International Neighbors, etc.) • English as a Second Language • Building social networks • Seminars Addressing the Problems • Decline in volunteerism/community outreach programs (Teshome, 2010) • Northwood Community English Language Program at the University of Michigan Benefits to the University • Spouse’s well-being affects the student – Gehl (1995) and Ojo (1998) • Recruitment – Spouses’ input – $$$ • Orientation Implications • Spouses of international students need advocates • In the University’s best interest to provide programs for spouses of international students Future Research • Husbands • Children • Survey of current international students’ spouses – Current state – Perceived needs Developing a program for the spouses of international students would: – Meet the needs of international students’ spouses – Improve the experience of international students themselves – Draw international families to the university References Bureau of Consular Affairs (n.d. a). Student visas. Retrieved from http://travel.state.gov/visa/temp/types/types_1268.html. Bureau of Consular Affairs (n.d. b). Classes of nonimmigrants issued visas (detailed breakdown). Retrieved from http://www.travel.state.gov/visa/statistics/nivstats/nivstats_4 582.html. Carnegie Mellon Office of International Education (2011). Bringing F-2/J-2 dependents and family member visa information. Retrieved from http://www.studentaffairs.cmu.edu/oie/families/inviting.html. References Code of Federal Regulations (2011). Title 8: Aliens and nationality, Chapter B – Immigration Regulations, Part 214 Non-immigrant classes. Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?collect ionCode=CFR&searchPath=Title+8%2FChapter+I%2FSubc hapter+B&oldPath=Title+8%2FChapter+I&isCollapsed=true &selectedYearFrom=2011&ycord=321. Trustees of Dartmouth College (2011). F-1 Dependent Information: F-2 Visa Holders. Retrieved from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~ovis/updates/f1/dependents.html . References De Verthelyi, R.F. (1995). International students’ spouses: Invisible sojourners in the culture shock literature. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19(3), 387- 411. Ojo, P. (1998). A model community program to acclimate spouses of international university students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Miami, FL. Regents of the University of Michigan (2007). Important Information about F-1 Status. Retrieved from http://internationalcenter.umich.edu/immig/fvisa/f_important. html#dependents. References Teshome, Y. (2010). Social and institutional factors affecting the daily experiences of the spouses of international students: Voices from the Midwest and implications to academic institutions (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ERIC. (3403840) The Ohio State University Office of International Affairs (2009-2010). F-2 and J-2 dependents. Retrieved from http://oia.osu.edu/international- students/f-2-and-j-2-dependents.html. References U.S. Department of Homeland Security (n.d.). Student process steps: How to navigate the U.S. immigration system. Retrived from http://www.ice.gov/sevis/students/. U.S. Department of State (n.d. a). Frequently asked questions concerning the F and M visas. Retrieved from http://bogota.usembassy.gov/scofaqfv.html. U.S. Department of State (n.d. b). Frequently asked questions about student visas. Retrieved from http://japan.usembassy.gov/e/visa/tvisa-niv- fmfaq.html#faq11. Questions? Thank you!
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