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Welcome to Language 101

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									Welcome to Language 101

  By Nicole Dickson
Language Types


 l We are going to look at two types of
  language:

     l Figurative   language

     l and   literal language
Figurative vs. Literal

 To understand
          Figurative language

 One has to understand the difference
  between

          figurative and literal
More on Literal

 l To   be literal is to mean what you say.
   l   For example:
        l   If I tell you to sit down! I mean it literally “sit
            down,” as in: “sit in your seat now, please.”

        l   My meaning is exactly what I say.
More on Literal

 l Here’s   another example.
               l   I’m tired and going home

   l   This means “I’m tired and I’m going home”
       there is no other meaning other than what I
       said.

   l   I mean exactly what I say.
Figurative Language

 l To be figurative is to not mean what you
   say but imply something else.
 l For example:


   l   If I tell you: “Let’s go chill!”

   l   I’m not suggesting we get into the freezer.
Figurative Continued

              “Let’s go chill!”

 …means let’s relax together and do
  something fun

     It has nothing to do with the
     temperature.
Figurative vs. Literal

                          Confused?

 l Think    of it this way:

    l   Literal as real

    l   Figurative as imaginary
Why Figurative Language?


 l Itis also known as descriptive language
   or poetic language.

 l Figurative language helps the writer
   paint a picture in the reader’s mind.
Why Figurative Language?



   You know that descriptive is when
       you describe something.
Again: Figurative Language

 l Figurative   language

   l   does not always mean what is being said or
       read


   l   It serves to make it more interesting
Seven Techniques of Figurative
Language


 l There  are seven techniques that we are
   going to look at.

 l Yes,   you will need to learn all seven.
Seven Techniques of Figurative
Language
 l You   will need to:

   l   Understand them

   l   Identify them

   l   Use them in your writing
The seven techniques you need to know :

l   Onomatopoeia     l   Personification

l   Alliteration     l   Idiom

l   Simile           l   Hyperbole

l   Metaphor
Onomatopoeia

 l Examples   of the onomatopoeia:

   l Bang,   went the gun!

   l Swoosh, went the basketball through
    the hoop.
Onomatopoeia

 l The    formation or use of words such as…

              l buzz,   murmur, or boo

 l thatimitate the sounds associated with
   the objects or actions they refer to.
Onomatopoeia in Practice

 l Onomatopoeiais the use of words
  whose sounds make you think of their
  meanings.

          l   For example: buzz, thump, pop


 l Many   comic strips use onomatopoeia.
Alliteration

 lA  poetic device which repeats the same
   beginning sound for effect.

 l Examples      of Alliteration

    l   Sally Sells Seashells by the Sea Shore.

    l   Rolling, Racing, Roaring, Rapids
Alliteration

              is a sentence or phrase that
 l Alliteration
   begins with the same letter and sound.

 l Tongue    twisters are generally
   alliterations.

 l For   example:
    l   Busy batters bat baseballs by bases.
Alliteration

              is the repetition of the
 l Alliteration
   beginning sounds in two or more words.

 l remember    alliteration as a tongue
   twister, such as

    l   Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled
        peppers.
Simile

 lA  Simile is a figurative language
   technique where a comparison is made
   using like or as.

 l Examples   of similes:
   l She is like a rainy day.
   l He is as busy as a bee.

   l They are like two peas in a pod.
Complete Your Custom Simile!!

 l The   cat was as scary as a _____.

 l The   night is like a _____.

 l The   moon is like a _____.

 l The   scarecrow was as scary as a_____.
Metaphor

 lA poetic comparison that does not use
  the words like or as.

 l Examples     of metaphors:
   l   She is a graceful swan.

   l   He is a golden god.

   l   They are honey from the honeycomb.
Metaphor
 Brian was a wall, bouncing every tennis ball back
   over the net.

 The metaphor compares Brian to a wall
   because______________.
   a. He was very strong.
   b. He was very tall.
   c. He kept returning the balls.
   d. His body was made of cells.
Metaphor
 We would have more pizza to eat if Tammy
  hadn’t been such a hog.

 Tammy was being compared to a hog because
   she_________.
   a. looked like a hog.
   b. Ate like a hog
   c. smelled like a hog
   d. was as smart as a hog
Metaphor
 The poor rat didn’t have a chance. Our old cat, a
    bolt of lightning, caught his prey.

 The cat was compared to a bolt of lightning
    because he was_________.
 a. very fast
 b. very bright
 c. not fond of fleas
 d. very old
Metaphor

 Cindy was such a mule. We couldn’t get
   her to change her mind.
 The metaphor compares Cindy to a mule
   because she was_________.
   a. always eating
   b. able to do hard work
   c. raised on a farm
   d. very stubborn
Metaphor

 Even a child could carry my dog, Dogface,
  around for hours. He’s such a feather.

 This metaphor implies that Dogface:
  a. is not cute
  b. looks like a bird
  c. is not heavy
  d. can fly
Personification



 l Personification is a figurative language
   technique in which human
   characteristics are given to nonhuman
   things.
Personification


 Examples of personification:

   The heat ripped the breath from her
   lungs.

   The leaves danced in the wind.
Personification


 l Examples    of Personification:

   l Hunger    sat shivering on the road

   l Flowers   danced about the lawn
Personification

 l Examples:
   l   The sleeping water reflected the evening
       sky.

   l   Humidity breathed in the girls face and ran
       its greasy fingers through her hair.

   l   The tree arrested the oncoming car.
Idiom


 l Anidiom is a figurative language
  technique that does not mean what is
  being said.
Idiom

 l Remember   what literal means? This is
  the opposite.

 l Think   about it.

 l When you tell your hommie, “chill,” are
  you suggesting they walk into a freezer?
  No.
Idiom

     expression “chill,” is an idiom that
 l The
  means:

   l   Relax, take it easy, or don’t worry.


 l Thereare tons of idioms. I’m sure you
  use several all the time, without thinking
  about it.
Idioms

 l More   examples of idioms
   l Mommy says: “Daddy is a little pigeon
     toed.”
   l We were chewing the fat.

   l It’s raining cats and dogs.

   l She’s as sharp as a tack.

   l I wish he would kick the bucket.
Hyperbole

 l Hyperbole    means to exaggerate.

 l Take   for example:
   l   “He never speaks to her.”


 l Never?     That is a very long time.
Hyperbole

 l Hyperbole    Example
   l   We have a ton of work.


 lA ton is a lot of work. (A ton = 2,000
  pounds)
Hyperbole

 l Hyperbole    Example
   l   I ate a thousand pounds of pasta.


 lA thousand pounds is half a ton; this
  person must be obese.
Hyperbole

 l Hyperbole        Example
      l   I told you a million times


 lIdon’t mind repeating myself, but a
  million times? That’s a lot.
We’ve looked at…

         Literal vs. Figurative

             Remember

         Real vs. Imaginary
We’ve looked at…

     Seven Figurative Language Techniques

 l   Onomatopoeia       l   Personification

 l   Alliteration       l   Idiom

 l   Simile             l   Hyperbole

 l   Metaphor

								
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