The Meaning of
Marketing in Travel and
Introducing Travel and Tourism
Travel and Tourism Demand
Basically, there are three different categories of
visitor demand, each representing a different sector
of the total market:
n Incoming visitors or international visitors who are
traveling to a country but residents of other countries.
This type of travel may be called inbound tourism.
n Outgoing visitors, residents of a country, who are
traveling as visitors to other countries. May be called
n Domestic visitors, residents visiting destinations
within their own country’s boundaries. May be called
n In all definitions of tourism made by the World
Tourism Organization (WTO), we come across with
the following principle terms which are very important
n Visitors to describe all travelers who fall within agreed
definitions of tourism.
n Tourists or staying visitors to describe visitors who
stay overnight at a destination.
n Same-day visitors, or excursionists, to describe
visitors who arrive and depart on the same day.
People who travel to and stay in countries other than
their country of residence for less than a year are
classified as international tourists. International
tourism market is more important than the domestic
because international tourists;
n spend more
n stay longer at the destination
n use more expensive transport and accommodation
n bring in foreign currency
UNWTO Tourism Highlights
n People who travel and stay overnight within the
boundaries of their own country are classified as
domestic tourists. Unfortunately, estimates of this
market is not adequately measured at present in
Turkey. In the USA, where good measurement does
exist, Americans take only one trip abroad for every
100 domestic trips reflecting the size of the USA and
the large distances . For the British, where the
statistics are also good, there are approximately four
domestic trips for every visit abroad.
n Statistics in the early 1990s indicates that in Europe
and North America between a half and three quarters
of the adult population took holidays away from home
every year. Besides, over nine out of ten people take
same-day visits in most economically developed
Definition of Travel and Tourism
n An acceptable definition of tourism should cover all
aspects of travel. Note that tourism is synonymous
with travel. There are no conceptual differences
between the two expressions. So tourism is used
alone covers travel at the same time.
n The WTO defines tourism in 1991 as;
Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling
to and staying in places outside their usual
environment for not more than one consecutive year
for leisure, business and other purposes.
This definition pulls together the three basic elements
of tourism which are as follows;
n Visitor activity
Note that the definition includes;
n same-day visits
n travel for several purposes such as business, social, religious,
educational, sports etc. There is no restriction about the market
for travel whether it is for pleasure or business.
n all tourism includes an element of travel, but all travel is not
tourism. The definition excludes all routine commuter travel, in
other words local travel to, for example, neighborhood shops,
schools or hospitals.
n tourism includes individual leisure time and many recreational
activities, but it is not synonymous with them.
n all travel and tourism trips are temporary movements.
The Component Sectors of the
The “industry” consists of the products of several different
industry sectors. The five main component sectors of the
industry are as follows;
n accommodation: hotels/motels, guest houses/bed&breakfast,
apartments/villas, time share resorts, holiday villages,
conference/exhibition centers, camping sites, marinas etc.
n attractions: theme parks, museums, national parks, wildlife
parks, gardens, heritage sites, sports/activity centers etc.
n transport: airlines, shipping lines/ferries, railways, bus/coach
operators, car rental operators etc.
n travel organizers: tour operators, tour wholesalers, retail travel
agents, conference organizers, booking agencies, incentive
travel organizers etc.
n destination organization: national tourist offices (NTOs),
regional tourist offices, local tourist offices, tourist associations
n As can be seen, each of them is composed of several
sub-sectors which are concerned with marketing
activities both in the design of the products and the
management of demand. Some of the sub-sectors
are fully commercial, operated for profit (e.g. hotels);
some are operated commercially for objects other
than profit (attractions such as safari parks and
heritage sites); and some are in the public sector and
operated mainly on a non-commercial basis (state-
owned national museums, national parks, and most
of the operations undertaken by tourist offices).
The Role of Marketing - Links
between Demand and Supply
n The central activity of marketing managers is
to create and supply the product that best fits
the needs and wants of the customers which
is known as the consumer (marketing)