The Meaning of Marketing in Travel and Tourism

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					The Meaning of
Marketing in Travel and

Introducing Travel and Tourism
Travel and Tourism Demand
  Basically, there are three different categories of
  visitor demand, each representing a different sector
  of the total market:
n Incoming visitors or international visitors who are
  traveling to a country but residents of other countries.
  This type of travel may be called inbound tourism.
n Outgoing visitors, residents of a country, who are
  traveling as visitors to other countries. May be called
  outbound tourism.
n Domestic visitors, residents visiting destinations
  within their own country’s boundaries. May be called
  domestic tourism.
n In all definitions of tourism made by the World
  Tourism Organization (WTO), we come across with
  the following principle terms which are very important
  to know.
n Visitors to describe all travelers who fall within agreed
  definitions of tourism.
n Tourists or staying visitors to describe visitors who
  stay overnight at a destination.
n Same-day visitors, or excursionists, to describe
  visitors who arrive and depart on the same day.
International Tourism
    People who travel to and stay in countries other than
    their country of residence for less than a year are
    classified as international tourists. International
    tourism market is more important than the domestic
    because international tourists;
n   spend more
n   stay longer at the destination
n   use more expensive transport and accommodation
n   bring in foreign currency
UNWTO Tourism Highlights
Domestic Tourism
n People who travel and stay overnight within the
  boundaries of their own country are classified as
  domestic tourists. Unfortunately, estimates of this
  market is not adequately measured at present in
  Turkey. In the USA, where good measurement does
  exist, Americans take only one trip abroad for every
  100 domestic trips reflecting the size of the USA and
  the large distances . For the British, where the
  statistics are also good, there are approximately four
  domestic trips for every visit abroad.
n Statistics in the early 1990s indicates that in Europe
  and North America between a half and three quarters
  of the adult population took holidays away from home
  every year. Besides, over nine out of ten people take
  same-day visits in most economically developed
Definition of Travel and Tourism
n An acceptable definition of tourism should cover all
  aspects of travel. Note that tourism is synonymous
  with travel. There are no conceptual differences
  between the two expressions. So tourism is used
  alone covers travel at the same time.
n The WTO defines tourism in 1991 as;
  Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling
  to and staying in places outside their usual
  environment for not more than one consecutive year
  for leisure, business and other purposes.
   This definition pulls together the three basic elements
   of tourism which are as follows;

n Visitor activity
n Travel
n Destination/facilities
Note that the definition includes;
n same-day visits
n travel for several purposes such as business, social, religious,
  educational, sports etc. There is no restriction about the market
  for travel whether it is for pleasure or business.
n all tourism includes an element of travel, but all travel is not
  tourism. The definition excludes all routine commuter travel, in
  other words local travel to, for example, neighborhood shops,
  schools or hospitals.
n tourism includes individual leisure time and many recreational
  activities, but it is not synonymous with them.
n all travel and tourism trips are temporary movements.
The Component Sectors of the
Tourism Industry
    The “industry” consists of the products of several different
    industry sectors. The five main component sectors of the
    industry are as follows;
n   accommodation: hotels/motels, guest houses/bed&breakfast,
    apartments/villas, time share resorts, holiday villages,
    conference/exhibition centers, camping sites, marinas etc.
n   attractions: theme parks, museums, national parks, wildlife
    parks, gardens, heritage sites, sports/activity centers etc.
n   transport: airlines, shipping lines/ferries, railways, bus/coach
    operators, car rental operators etc.
n   travel organizers: tour operators, tour wholesalers, retail travel
    agents, conference organizers, booking agencies, incentive
    travel organizers etc.
n   destination organization: national tourist offices (NTOs),
    regional tourist offices, local tourist offices, tourist associations
n As can be seen, each of them is composed of several
  sub-sectors which are concerned with marketing
  activities both in the design of the products and the
  management of demand. Some of the sub-sectors
  are fully commercial, operated for profit (e.g. hotels);
  some are operated commercially for objects other
  than profit (attractions such as safari parks and
  heritage sites); and some are in the public sector and
  operated mainly on a non-commercial basis (state-
  owned national museums, national parks, and most
  of the operations undertaken by tourist offices).
The Role of Marketing - Links
between Demand and Supply
n The central activity of marketing managers is
  to create and supply the product that best fits
  the needs and wants of the customers which
  is known as the consumer (marketing)
  orientation concept.

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