A Walking History of Middlebury by Glenn M. Andres, revised and edited by Greg Pahl Since it was first published in 1975 by the Bicentennial Committee, A Walking History of Middlebury by Glenn M. Andres has been one of Middlebury's perennial favorites, providing local residents and visitors alike with a compact but informative guide to many of the significant districts and structures in town. Due to popular demand, the book was reprinted by Middlebury's Sheldon Museum in 1981, 1983, 1987, 1990, and 1994. By the tie supplies of the volume again began to run low in 1996, it had become painfully apparent that the numerous changes that had taken place in Middlebury since 1975 required a major revision of the text. The Sheldon Museum assumed the considerable responsibility of publishing the new book, and in September 1996, a small but dedicated group of volunteers took on the many tasks associated with the project and pushed it through to a successful completion by early spring, 1997. Wherever possible, the original text by Glenn Andres was left substantially unaltered, but some sections had to be revised or deleted due to changes in use or appearance of the structures involved. The section on the College received some of the heaviest editing. Numerous corrections or addition to many of the other entries were made where recent research or remodeling activities uncovered new information. Readers who are unfamiliar with the many architectural terms used in the text are encouraged to check the extensive glossary at the end of the book. The editor is indebted to many people for the production of this revised book: to Robert and Anita Duclos, Marshall Hoagland, Salley Forbes and especially Glenn Andres and Robert Cushman for their assistance in gathering, updating and checking information; to Middlebury College student Carey Field and Professor Robert Churchill for their work on the map; to Rosemary Bottum and Nancy Rucker for their proofreading, and to Liz Fitzsimmons, director of the Sheldon Museum, for her proofreading, guidance, encouragement and support. Every effort has been made to provide the most accurate and up-to-date guide that hopefully be useful and entertaining well into the 21st century, but no human endeavor is without failings, and I accept responsibilty for any that have occurred here. Greg Pahl, editor Middlebury, Vermont, 1997 What a sequence of delights! The church spire sharp and fresh above summer's lush green masses or matching the sparkle of winter's snows on the Green. The mellow old brick and glowing windows of the inn in early evening, exuding a sense of warmth and hospitality. The soldiers' monument rearing up its cool gray granite before Pleasant Street's blazing maples. The creek lazing its way between leafy banks past bridge and mill and tumbling over thunderous falls to compliment a warm summer's afternoon. The old stone row of the College seen through the yellow-green haze of the campus in spring bud. The vista from College Hill, back over trees and valley, housetop and spire, to the surrounding hills, and from the hills to the mountains, and from the mountains to the changing moods of clouds and sky. It is an environment, natural and manmade, prettier than a postcard. But Middlebury is much more than a boon to the snapshot industry. Always beautiful in its own ways, it has always also been a vital, throbbing, on-going community. Almost from the year of its founding, Middlebury has been a town of significance in the state of Vermont—a leader in invention, manufacturing, agriculture, and education. The Vermont marble industry was born here, supplying markets from Quebec to Georgia. Here, too, were found the second set of power looms built in New England, the first nail and window sash factories in Vermont, and later, mills supplying Victorian wood detailing for much of the west central part of the state. Middlebury was the home of the first community-founded college in the United States, the first institution of higher learning for women, and the first chartered village museum. It was a center for the Merino sheep industry and later for the breeding of Morgan horses. As early as 1810 the booming village on the Otter inspired President Timothy Dwight of Yale to write: "On the whole Middlebury is one of the most prosperous and most virtuous towns in New England." By the 1830s it had the largest population in Vermont. However, about the time of the Civil War there was a leveling off in the local economy and a gradual slowing down in the town's development, as sister cities to the north and south moved ahead. Middlebury's horizons became narrower, her pace more sedate. Nevertheless, through her roles as seat of Addison County and home of Middlebury College, the town has never relinquished her central economic and cultural position in the immediate region nor her contact with the world beyond the Green Mountains and Lake Champlain. Concentrated on the banks of Otter Creek around the focal falls and bridge, Middlebury has remained to a remarkable degree the village that the 18th and 19th centuries built. Homes of town fathers, churches, mills, inn, public buildings, stores—the buildings of the compact village core document its progression from frontier community to manufacturing center, to agricultural center, to local service center. Not merely of local historic interest, however, these structures from Middlebury's past are of such range and quality that they can be taken as representative as well of almost every major style of American building from the colonial period onward. They present a precious glimpse of days now gone, slower days when there were both the impulse and the call for craftsmanship, individuality, and ingenuity in plan, structure, and detail. These buildings merit examination at a pace similar to that for which they were intended—horseback, wagon, sleigh, or foot. Main Street is no longer all that comfortable a place for horses, so we suggest instead a tour on foot. It is to such an end that this walking history has been compiled. Its two foci are on the core of the village and the college campus, neither presenting too wearying a walk. Distances are short, scenery is beautiful, and details are fascinating. Other points of interest, accessible by car (though also for the most part by foot, for the mildly energetic), have been noted as well at the end of the booklet. The French and Indian War was over, and in 1761 the valleys of western Vermont were temporarily at peace. They seemed to offer promise of a new and good life to those tired of the more populous parts of New England and of a profitable investment to others who did not choose, themselves, to face the wooded wilds. Thus, with mixed motives, a group of citizens from Salisbury, Connecticut, applied to Governor Benning Wentworth of New Hampshire for land in the newly opened New Hampshire Grants. In November, 1761, they were granted charters for four towns—Salisbury and Middlebury on November second, New Haven and Cornwall on November third. Middlebury, purportedly so-named because it was between Salisbury on the south and New Haven on the north, was approximately six miles square. To the east were the Green Mountains. To the west was Otter Creek. In its northwest corner were the falls on the creek and the prominence later to be known as Chipman Hill. In its southern portion the Middlebury River meandered from mountains to creek. And in the middle, in the neighborhood of the present Case, Munger, and Foote Streets, was a large, relatively level tract of land. It was here that the original one-hundred-acre homelots of the proprietors of the new town were plotted in two tiers running on a slight diagonal across the town from north to south. In the center of this area a one-hundred-acre church lot was set aside and an adjacent two-hundred-acre town plot was reserved, to be divided into one-acre house sites. This was the area originally intended for the development of the village. It was settled slowly and not precisely according to the original survey. Some one thousand acres of the land in the area would be claimed beginning in 1784 by the vigorous sixty-year-old Daniel Foot and his five grown sons and married daughter. Under Foot's determined leadership, it would remain an active contender until the turn of the century for the honor of being the town center, though in the end neither village nor church would be located near this geographic center of town. A second area for early development within the town was on the Middlebury River, near its confluence with Otter Creek. Here in 1766 John Chipman had arrived by boat, built a lean-to, and cleared the first land in Middlebury. Here, as well, in 1773 Chipman, his brother-in-law Gamaliel Painter, and townsman Benjamin Smalley and their families began the first permanent settlement in town. They quickly cleared land, planted their first crops, and built log cabins and barns. Of these buildings, only Chipman's barn withstood the torches of raiding parties during the Revolution, its green logs refusing to catch fire. (It survived on the Seeley family farm until it was blown down in a storm in this century. A piece of the wood can be found in the Sheldon Museum.) The owners of the buildings were swept up in the war, and their families abandoned Middlebury for safer points south. It was not until 1783 that the settlers began to return to and rebuild their abandoned farms and homes. The Painters and Chipmans were back in 1784. Chipman soon built a fine brick house (burned in the 1830's), which through his hospitality became a favorite local gathering place and the goal of the early town road along the east bank of the creek (known popularly in the nineteenth century as "Love Lane"). Painter's prospects in 1784 looked equally bright. His buildings were rebuilt, his farm prospering, and his standing in the community on the rise. However, his future would be tied ultimately to the other end of Love Lane. In 1784 a general re-survey of the towns along the creek uncovered errors in the plotting of the original town lines and moved that of Salisbury northward. In the process Painter's cabin and some one-hundred seventy of his two hundred acres proved actually to be on someone else's claim. One of Middlebury's leading citizens had become a mere squatter in Salisbury instead. The following April, Painter was given permission by his fellow townsmen to replace his lost land by claiming an equal area not previously assigned in Middlebury. However, the best farmland was already taken, the task of reclearing was too disheartening and Painter decided to change his course. In 1774 on the east bank of Otter Creek at Middlebury Falls, Abisha Washburn (Chipman's father-in-law) had built a sawmill which was subsequently destroyed during the Revolution. Painter joined Washburn in rebuilding the mill in 1784 – 85 and claimed an adjoining fifty-acre mill lot for himself. When Washburn's new mill was swept away in the spring freshet of 1786, Painter took over the mill business altogether along with Washburn's fifty acres. He now owned one hundred acres adjacent to water power and at the convergence of area trails leading to the falls and the fording spot to Cornwall just upstream. Concurrently, in 1785 he was named a judge of the newly formed Addison County, and the next year became county sheriff. Agriculture now a thing of his past, Painter was ready to launch a new life as an industrialist, land speculator, and public figure and, in the process, to father Middlebury Village. The Village Tour The bridge places one at the very heart of Middlebury, its traffic jams, its history, its life forces. Here come together two of the major elements which assured success to Painter's unprepossessing rocky, tangled one hundred acres. First is the creek, longest waterway in the state of Vermont and a major transportation route through the virgin forests at the time of the settlement of Addison County. To the northwest of the bridge are Middlebury Falls, a dramatic source of water power for cutting the wood and milling the grain of frontier society. Here at the northern brink of the falls and safely away from its ice floes and floods, Painter built a sawmill in 1787 and a gristmill by 1788. At the southern brink Daniel Foot had claimed one hundred acres in Cornwall in 1786 and done the same. Two rival centers began to grow on Foot's and Painter's properties. At first the only connection between the two sides was a short distance upstream (around the bend and near the present railroad trestle), where a ford and, briefly, Hop Johnson's ferry joined Middlebury and Cornwall. Here was the germ of the second major force in Middlebury's success—roads. The early trails in the area had focused on the falls and the ford. In 1787 they received a new focus. Foot, whose major landholdings were in Middlebury anyhow, built a bridge above the falls to link the towns and to enhance his potential mill business, successfully petitioning the legislature the next year for state compensation of his costs. It was a wooden bridge with log piers and abutments and a clear span of seventy feet. One approached it down muddy banks and crossed the springy, open-sided structure only twelve feet above the rushing water. Some must still have preferred the ford. The present bridge, built in 1892 – 93, is the last of a long series of rebuildings after floods and fires. When the wooden structure was destroyed by the fire of 1891, the town determined to rebuild it in fireproof materials. However, only after lengthy debate, numerous town meetings, canceled contracts, and the offer of a substantial subsidy by Col. Joseph Battell, could the town decide to rebuild in stone rather than iron. Having bought a voice in the proceedings and desiring a structure suited to the beauty and importance of Middlebury, Mr. Battell proposed that the new construction be modeled on the Ponte Sant' Angelo in Rome, built across the Tiber River about 130 A.D. as access to the tomb of the Emperor Hadrian. The tomb later having been adapted for use as the papal fortress and renamed Castel Sant' Angelo, in the seventeenth century the great sculptor Bernini and his shop had embellished the bridge with a suitable flock of Baroque marble angels to make it the most elegant crossing place in Rome. The Middlebury bridge was spared the angels but received its model's great stone arches, in the process necessitating the raising of the road level of the bridge, and thus also of Main Street, by some ten feet. In building the first bridge, Foot contributed to the ultimate failure of his dream to establish the town center on his family's Foote Street acreage. The bridge acted on regional roads as a magnet does on iron filings, serving as the focus for a radial network spreading outward from the falls across the town and county. With power and communication the falls were a natural place for the development of commerce and a population center. Two centers at first, the lands of the two rival squires, one on the Cornwall and one on the Middlebury bank of the creek, supported two growing communities that were so inextricably linked by the bridge and the falls that in 1796 the Cornwall side was annexed, and Middlebury began a politically unified development. The village and its surrounding region grew quickly, indeed too quickly for Foot. Already in 1793 a resident reported some sixty-two buildings, mostly log, at the falls (or Painter's Mills, as the village was informally known). By 1801 it was altogether too civilized, and the seventy-seven-year-old Foot determined to start over in a new wilderness. Dividing his land among his twelve children and leaving the town leadership to his rival, Painter, he set out for Canton, New York, where he died the same year. (Leaving the bridge, walking northward to Merchants Row and the south side of the Green.) The Green Gamaliel Painter is the third great force determining Middlebury's successful development. Much of the village northeast of the creek was built upon Painter's mill lot, and its early quality and character were due to his efforts and those of the men whom he cannily drew to Middlebury Falls. Painter had become sheriff of Addison County in 1786, and as sheriff it was his prerogative to establish the location of the stocks "in the most public place in each respective town"—the town center. Painter placed Middlebury's stocks and whipping post in the area adjacent to his mills, on what is now the village Green (which he formally deeded to the town in the 1790s). The primeval tangle was slashed down and in later, temperance times the penalty for backsliding was reputedly to dig up a stump on the Green. The location of the stocks has since been marked by a marble post. The Green now caters to pleasure instead of punishment, serving as a site for public events, for shady relaxation, and for listening to concerts and other entertainment. The bandstand, replacing a structure burned in the early 1940s, was erected in 1975 as a gift of the Rotary Club and dedicated in memory of beloved local author William Hazlett Upson, creator of the Alexander Botts stories in the Saturday Evening Post. The Painter House (head of Merchants Row at South Pleasant Street) In 1787 Painter hired away Foot's mill foreman, Simeon Dudley, to help construct and look after his own milling operations. Dudley soon built himself a simple, one-story frame dwelling on the crest of the hill above the mills and developing Green, the first house in Painter's village. He did not occupy it for long, however, for having been named a judge, Painter decided to move to town and make the new house his own. He raised the roof to accomodate a low second story and perhaps added the lean-to to the rear and then on Christmas Day 1787 held what was for the region a memorably lavish house-warming. Here the Painters lived until 1802, when work was completed on their grand new mansion, further back on the property, and the Dudley House was moved out of the way to its present location at 7 Seymour Street. The new Painter residence, still presiding over its dominant site, was an index of the rapidly increasing stature not only of its owner but also of his town. The finely proportioned two-story structure, traditionally attributed to joiner Samuel D. Coe (who reputedly was murdered shortly after its completion), had major rooms with handsome fireplaces on each floor surrounding a central hall with, originally, a curving staircase. There was a first-floor ballroom across its eastern side and a rare monitor that formed a partial third floor, surrounded by a rooftop walk. Early accounts and views attest to the fact that it was simple and dignified, embellished only by eaves balustrades and a square-headed Palladian window facing toward Merchants Row. However, it underwent several remodelings. In 1813, responding to the fact that the new Centre Turnpike (Court Street) now entered the town past its back door, Painter formalized that front of the house with a marble facing for the basement and a new fan-lighted door. It is likely at that time as well that the house received its elegant exterior embellishment—pilasters with rope mouldings, wooden string course, and frieze—very likely by the talented house joiner Lavius Fillmore (who also built the Congregational Church across the Green for Painter). The house's susbsequent owner, Rufus Wainwright, had all the windows enlarged and shifted in a remodeling of 1823. Subsequent generations of Wainwrights added the classically detailed doorway in a Greek Revival vocabulary (probably in the 1840s), rebuilt the staircase several times in a straightened format, subdivided the ballroom, and added the wing. In the 1980s the house was given to Middlebury College, which restored it and made it available as a home for such non-profit organizations as the Addison County Chamber of Commerce and the Vermont Folklife Center. Painter could hardly had selected a better site for his house. Not oly did it dominate the mills and the Green, but it was also at the head of Love Lane (now South Pleasant Street), the first major entry to the village from the south. South Pleasant Street At first perhaps the most important street in town, Pleasant Street retained a prestigious residential character throughout the 19th century. This fact is witnessed by the range of styles present in the high quality buildings built for merchants and professionals along the street between Painter House and Cross Street. 71 South Pleasant Street Built in 1803 on a lot purchased by the brilliant young lawyer Loyal Case, an ardent reformer and opponent of slavery. It was Victorianized with Italianate brackets and mansarded tower probably in the early 1880s. Memorial Baptist Church Built in 1905 – 06 to the designs of Burlington architect W.R.B. Wilcox, this handsome building with its Romanesque-derived towers succeeded the smaller church (now the Grace Baptist Church) on Merchants Row, built for the congregation by Smith and Allen of Middlebury in 1882. The new $75,000 church, constructed with textured rusticated marble blocks from the Brandon quarries of the Brandon Italian Marble Company, was the gift of Col. Silas Ilsley as a memorial to his father. The marble-lined vestibule contains two large bronze tablets identifying the donor and the reason for the memorial gift. The ceiling of the main auditorium as well as the lower portion of the walls are finished in antique oak, while the pews, of the same material, are decorated with elaborate Gothic designs. The actual construction was accomplished under the close supervision of Rev. George R. Stair, describing the Middlebury Register as an "extremely practical preacher who is a builder of structures as well as a molder of men." 111 South Pleasant Street Built in 1801 for Josiah Fuller across the street from his creek-side tannery and on the site of a house built by William Sloan in 1788. Beginning in 1818 it served as the home of Middlebury College presidents Bates and Labaree. A handsomely solid structure, it is notable for the Doric frieze below its eaves and the elegant Federal Style fireplaces in its north parlors. Oft-remodeled, it has received from its numerous owners a Greek Revival doorway and a gabled slate roof (placed over the original hipped wood shingle roof that still exists in the attic), a Doric-style portico (1970) modeled after that of the jail at  Court Street, and two back wings. The wing at the rear was added in 1991 and was designed to replicate the style of the original house. 135 South Pleasant Street Built in the 1860s for James Negus (on the site of the 1795 house of Oliver Brewster), this house is generally known as that of Governor Weeks, whose family occupied it in the first half of this century. Its belvedere, mansards, polychromed slate roofs, and elaborate brackets are exemplary of the local interpretation of the Second Empire (or "General Grant") style, which became popular in the years following the Civil War. The etched cranberry-colored glass around the door is another feature typical of Middlebury's finer homes in the third quarter of the century. 161 South Pleasant Street Built in 1822 by Peter Starr (on the site of the 1792 house of Festus Hill), this large frame home boasted a fanlighted Federal Style doorway and a fine series of fireplaces (since removed). It was remodeled (probably in the 1880s) with a new and steeper roofline and Victorian brackets and bay window. To the southeast of the house is a charming board-and-batten Gothic Revival carriage house. The Starr family were instrumental in the construction of two prominent buildings on the college campus—Starr Hall (1861) and Egbert Starr Library (1900). 190 South Pleasant Street A large frame house erected on one of the more prominent sites in town in 1800 – 01 for Joshua Henshaw, a director of the Vermont State Bank. In 1814 the bank was robbed of some $28,000 in what looked like an inside job. The next morning Henshaw left town for Canada, never to return, and subsequently a duplicate key to the bank was found concealed in the attic of his house. Later in the century the house earned a less notorious reputation as the Congregational parsonage. It was remodeled with a central pavilion (originally capped by a mansard tower), elaborate window frames, and enlivened roofline by Smith and Allen in 1882. 182 South Pleasant Street A house built in 1808 for Dr. Edward Tudor and subsequently owned by Harvey Bell, a lawyer, one of the first members of the Vermont State Senate, and long-time secretary of the Corporation of Middlebury College. The former elegance of this house is witnessed by the dentil cornice, the attic windows, the simple classical front door, the keystone lintels over the windows to either side of the door, and a fine parlor fireplace. Other houses on the west side of South Pleasant Street were built by tradesmen and are more modest. Though not as elegant as some of their neighbors to the east, they do preserve some of the fine details from the era in which they were built and suggest that the desire for quality was not restricted to those of large means: e.g., the handsome classical doorway (probably 1830s or early 1840s) of 6 South Pleasant Street, and the sensitive window placement and beautiful attic light on the north end of the substantially proportioned  South Pleasant Street (1806). 76 – 88 South Pleasant Street This house presents a definite change in taste. It was built in 1884 by Middlebury's influential Victorian architect, Clinton Smith, as his own home. Born in 1846, Smith began his building career as a carpenter in partnership with his father. In the 1870s he formed a building firm with William Allen, and they began a series of remodeling and construction projects in the area. In the early 1880s they purchased a mill in Frog Hollow to turn out the elaborate window frames, mouldings, and brackets that marked Smith's frame style, dominated the Victorian scene in much of west-central Vermont, and can be found up and down South Pleasant Street. At the same time Smith designed and Allen built a series of prominent masonry structures in the heart of town reflecting the latest tastes in such centers as New York and Boston. Smith's own house incorporates these latter tastes in its complex but controlled massing, its combination of materials (brick, wood, slate, stucco), its craftsmanly delight in brick detailing, and its Stick Style porches with their turned woodwork. Built at the time that Smith was working on the neighboring Town Hall, the house gave rise to the story that contemporaries grumbled about the architect's using all of the best town bricks for his own project. This Middlebury architect was prominent not only locally, but built structures from Montpelier and Waterbury to Wallingford and Rutland. His firm continued activity until the turn of the century, though he himself moved to Washington, D.C. in 1891, where he served until his death in 1905 as chief of construction and repair for the War Department. He is commemorated by a noteworthy monument in Middlebury's Foote Street burial ground. Old Town Hall Built in 1883 by Clinton Smith on the site of Epaphrus Miller's fine 1811 brick house and tavern, which was removed so that the Town Hall could stand as a focal feature for those entering the town from the north on Pleasant Street. Here one meets the vocabulary of Smith's house used for a public structure. Described in contemporary accounts as being in a "modern" style, it is a vigorous building, with powerful asymmetric massing and a bold use of contrasting stone and brick. The brickwork itself is a mason's delight, creating flush patterns and sculptured textures to pick out and enliven various portions of the facade. The marble details not only emphasize certain elements of the building, but also serve to tie together the various masses. There were originally four cherry doors at the entrance, and the gaslit interior had a stage with an ash and cherry proscenium and a scenic curtain of the Gulf of Venice done after a painting by the English artist Stanfield. Further underlining the importance which the town attributed to this building was the historic cornerstone, containing records and memorabilia, set into the foundations by Henry Sheldon on June 15, 1883. Since that time town tastes, needs, and options have changed, and the building's status has altered with them. It was used variously as a furniture store and, until 1960, a movie theatre, its lateral Palladian windows being blocked for the purpose. The bell from the tower is now set in the garden of the Sheldon Museum. Civil War Monument Presented to the town in 1905 by Col. Silas A. Ilsley, this granite monument stands at the head of Merchants Row over one of the old Middlebury fire protection cisterns (rendered obselete when a village water system was installed in 1902). It is said that this gift from a relative newcomer to the town spurred Col. Joseph Battell to present a counter monument, an elaborate cast-iron public fountain (removed in 1938 and replaced with a similar one in 1976) in the corner of the Green known as Triangle Park at the other end of Merchants Row. Court Square Formed in 1785, Addison County had, at first, no permanent county seat. West Addison near Lake Champlain, the first proclaimed site for court sessions, looked like a prime contender, though Middlebury was certainly more centrally located. Soon after deciding to move to his property at Middlebury Falls, the canny Painter decided to tip the scales a little in favor of his intended town. He deeded a lot, just north of his own house and fronting or the line of Pleasant Street, to the County, and his persuasion seems to have worked. In 1790 Middlebury was proclaimed shire town of the County. The first construction in the area now known as Court Square was a wooden jail built in 1794 (moved in 1812 to  Washington Street and subsequently remodeled as a residence and law offices). In 1796 work began on the courthouse itself. Not elaborate, it was nonetheless an impressive structure for the newly settled region. Without, it was a large, simple two story block with a belfry and fan window in its gable as its only embellishments. Within, it had one large room with a coved ceiling, a sloping floor with benches and a rear gallery. Noble but Spartan, it was reputedly very uncomfortable and cold, and the court preferred to continue meeting in an adjacent tavern. Not that the courthouse wasn't used. The state legislature met there in 1800 and 1806. In 1800, as well, Miss Ida Strong opened her female seminary, the feminine counterpart to the Addison County Grammar School, in the cold courthouse. The Congregational Society was a regular user of the hall until their church across the green was completed in 1809, and the Episcopal Society met there from 1810 – 1815. Another of Painter's schemes for Middlebury ran counter to the placement of the courthouse, however. This was the development of the Centre Turnpike, a stage route down what is now the line of Highway 7 to East Middlebury, across Middlebury Gap, and on to Woodstock, where it connected with stages to Boston. Begun in 1799, the new road entered the village on what is now Court Street and terminated at the back side of the courthouse. Accordingly, the building was moved across the street onto more Painter-donated land in 1814, and its old site became Court Square. In 1829 the building was divided into two more-heatable floors, the upper continuing as courtroom, the lower serving as town hall. Repaired and remodeled in 1844, it was determined inadequate and old fashioned in 1882 and moved to the Addison County Fair Grounds (now the recreation park) down Court Street, where it served variously as a harness shop and floral hall until it was torn down in 1939. Its replacement, by Clinton Smith of Middlebury, was described in the Middlebury Register in 1883 as of "mixed architecture with Queen Anne features," and declared the handsomest courthouse in the state. The facade is both picturesque and ordered. Its asymmetric massing and variety of detail in stone, brick, wood, slate, and glazing are held in line by articulating brick panels and "structure." This was very up-to-date design for Vermont. The panel-brick style (as it since has been dubbed) was just being popularized by leading architects in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. Yet the courthouse is hardly a pure import. Its architect is local, and he has put the stamp of his personality and craftsmanship on its design. He also has maintained a sensitivity to its setting. Vigorous in its detail, the courthouse remains a good neighbor to the earlier structures on Court Square, prominent, but not too assertive for the good of its surroundings. Among its neighbors, the house to its right with the elaborate center chimney was built in 1825; the Masonic Hall to its left was built in 1823. By the 1990s, the 1883 courthouse was considered to be inadequate and a new courthouse, named after Judge Frank Mahady, was constructed on a more spacious site behind the previous one in 1995 – 96. The new building features a hipped roof, a central cupola and a pedimented entry bay. The old courthouse, no longer used by the court system, passed to the ownership of Middlebury College in accordance with provisions in Painter's deed. Middlebury Inn On the north side of Court Square and serving as a focus for travelers entering the town on the old Centre Turnpike (Court Street) is the Middlebury Inn. Painter had deeded this prime site just north of the court lot to Simeon Dudley in September of 1788 for the construction of a tavern, but Dudley did not carry through. In 1794 Samuel Mattocks did, however, building a tavern that stood on the site until a fire destroyed it and neighboring structures in 1816. The brick house of Nathan Wood [(on the Knights of Columbus site)] served as an interim tavern until Wood rebuilt on Mattock's lot in 1826. Wood's new inn, the Vermont House, was a grand three-story brick building with fifty rooms. Since its opening on April 16, 1827, the inn has changed its name twice (Vermont House 1827 – 52; Addison House 1852 – 1927; Middlebury Inn 1927 – present), been Victorianized and un-Victorianized (1851, 1865, 1897, 1927), and grown considerably. Once it had a cupola, later a wrap-around piazza, and later still was painted yellow. Indeed, perhaps the only bit of the original building other than the basic masonry of the main block to survive all the changes is the fan-lighted doorway with elliptical carved decorations looking out onto Pleasant Street and the Green. The basement and part of the first floor have housed at times office stores, a barber shop, and the Middlebury Post Office. For all the changes, however, the building has a continuous history of service to the town as its principal inn and a favorite meeting spot since Nathan Wood's day. North Pleasant Street Running northward from Court Square, Pleasant Street was originally known as the New Haven Road and served in earlier times as it does now as the principal entry to the village from the north. Here were located from the start the homes of the professionals who would bring status to Middlebury and the craftsmen who would supply the town's needs for quality goods. Here, adjacent to the Green, Painter quickly deeded lots to such people as a lawyer, a doctor, a cabinetmaker, and a blacksmith. In time a series of quiet elegant buildings were constructed in the area. 23 North Pleasant Street This fine brick structure was built in 1816 as a store for Thomas Hagar and subsequently housed the National Bank of Middlebury until its move to new quarters across the Green in 1910. The second floor was occupied for many years by the predecessor of Middlebury's public library, the Ladies' Library, founded in the 1860s. In the course of its history the building had a balustraded roof line; first a Federal, then a Greek Revival, and then a Victorian doorway; and shared with the inn a beautiful stretch of cast-iron fence toward the Green. Inn Annex The brick house just north of the Inn and bank was erected in 1825 for Jonathan Wainwright, whose brother Rufus purchased the Painter mansion not long after Gamaliel's death 1819. The brothers were merchants and owned a foundry, first in Frog Hollow and later near Pulp Mill Bridge, where they cast (among other things) the widely-sold Wainwright stove. Jonathan's house was both substantial and soberly elegant with its great brick mass, even rhythm of windows, and beautifully proportioned and detailed doorway. This last is noteworthy for its fine leaded fan and side lights and its sophisticated combination of pilasters and colonnettes. Beyond this doorway are to be found moulded ceilings, paneled window embrasures, classically detailed marble fireplaces, and one of Middlebury's finest curving staircases. In 1881 Smith and Allen remodeled the house, changing the gabled roof into a fashionable Second Empire mansard and adding the Palladian window, the bay window toward the inn, and the dominating piazza. The house remained a residence for prominent Middlebury families until its purchase in 1941 as an annex for the inn. Charter House In 1789 Painter deeded a lot on the New Haven Road (just north of the later Wainwright House) to Samuel Miller, a lawyer from Springfield, Mass. Here Miller built first a small law office and then his home. Not only a leading and reputedly very courtly lawyer, but also representative to the General Assembly in 1797 and recipient of an honorary degree from Yale, Miller was a prominent participant in the affairs of his new town. On September 30, 1798, he was host to a meeting in his home that wa s to have long-lasting significance to the community. Timothy Dwight, president of Yale, was stopping off briefly at the home of his friend, the Middlebury lawyer Seth Storrs. Storrs quickly gathered the trustees of the newly chartered Addison County Grammar School, and in conference at Miller's house and with Dwight's advice and encouragement, they determined to apply for a charter for Middlebury College. As a result the house came to be known as Charter House. A building much altered and augmented, Charter House seems to defy precise dating and discussion. The 1789 law office was most likely shifted to the rear to make room for the newer front structure of the 1790s. This had a hipped roof, which still exists beneath its mid-century gabled slate roof, and most likely a center chimney and a straight-headed Palladian window. After Miller's death in 1810, the house was purchased by Edward D. Barber, who purportedly altered it extensively. Under Barber and later owners it received its mix of fine Federal, Greek Revival, Victorian and Colonial Revival details. Particularly noteworthy are the leaded glass of the front dour, the beautiful fireplaces with eagles, urns, and swags in the front parlors, and the fine interior door casings. In 1970 the house, which had fallen into sad disrepair, was purchased by the Congregational Church, laudably renovated, and restored to a significant place in the life of the community. 31 North Pleasant Street To the north of Sam Miller was originally the lot of Dr. Matthews, and to the north of that a double lot originally deeded to William Young, Middlebury's first cabinetmaker. On this latter site, in 1805, was built the house of lawyer, businessman, selectman, and college officer John Simmons. A graduate of Brown University, Simmons established his Middlebury law practice in 1801, and in 1804 compiled The Law Magazine, the first book of legal forms ever published in Vermont. His house is significant both for its plan and for its elegant detailing. The typical prestigious residence of the eighteenth century had been broadside to the road with a central doorway, either a central chimney mass or center hall, and major rooms to either side. Simmon's house is an early example of a more townhouse-like plan that would become popular in Middlebury in the first third of the nineteenth century. It is arranged with its narrow, or gable, end toward the road. An off-center entrance and staircase occupy a front corner of the house, and chambers are arranged to one side and the back of a central chimney mass. The gable is treated as a pediment and decorated with fine rope and lentil mouldings. Set into it is a gracefully-muntined elliptical attic window with a star-shaped central decoration. The doorway (beneath the Victorian porch) is typically deep-set with paneled returns and a semicircular fanlight. Within are three of four very fine original fireplaces with lentils, sunbursts, and pilasters, and beneath the first floor windows is a series of framed panels which a later resident painted with lovely impressionistic landscapes. Not as grand, perhaps, as the Painter and Wainwright houses, it was without a doubt one of Middlebury's most sophisticated residences. 37 North Pleasant Street This Federal-Greek Revival style house, built in 1803 by local merchant Joseph Dorrance, on a site previously owned by Cyrus Brewster, later became the residence of Vermont governor William Slade. The main features include a Georgian porch, sidelights, transom, paneled entry pilasters, entry entablature and a Queen Anne porch. 39 North Pleasant Street One of Middlebury's few surviving early hipped-roof houses, this structure was the first (1804) of three houses in the neighborhood built and lived in by blacksmith Ruluff Lawrence. His first house was built on the site of a 1793 home of Dr. Joseph Clark which was moved to Seminary Street. Much altered inside, Lawrence's two-story Federal style house still has a staircase which agrees in detailing with his 11 Seminary Street house. Other features include a Georgian plan, leaded glass, sidelights, transom, cornice caps, and a distinctive porch. Methodist Church In 1805 Hastings Warren purchased this lot from Daniel Chipman and built a cabinet shop. Warren was the son-in-law and successor in business to William Young, Middlebury's first cabinetmaker, and pursued his trade well into the 19th century, filling the local papers with ads for "sideboards, commodes, secretaries, bookcases, bureaus, wardrobes, tables, chairs, clock-cases," etc. The Henry Sheldon Museum contains interesting examples of his fine work. During the war of 1812, Warren, who achieved the rank of General, mustered and led the local troops for the Battle of Plattsburgh. As recounted in Swift's History of Middlebury: "He came on to the village common, followed by martial music, and invited all who were so disposed to join him as volunteers. After marching once or twice around the common, forty or fifty men had fallen into the ranks, and the number was afterwards increased. When a dozen or two were ready to start with him, they marched for the field of battle, and others, as fast they were ready, followed." Warren's first shop burned, as did its successor. In 1815, therefore, he went "fireproof," building a fine two-story brick structure next door (9 Seminary Street—demolished in 1975). He was among the earliest members of the Methodist Society in Middlebury, and it is probably through his connection that in 1837 the Society gained possession of the Pleasant Street site for its new frame church. This building burned in 1891 and was replaced by the present structure in 1892 – 93. The plans for this building were drawn by Valk and Son of Brooklyn, N.Y.; but not entirely satisfying the congregation, they were altered by Clinton Smith, whose firm of Smith and Piper built the edifice. It is a fine example of late Victorian architecture and much under the influence of the work of Henry Hobson Richardson with its combination of gray and brown stone, brick, and slate, its vigorously massed tower, its strongly expressed stone base from which rise swelling brackets to "carry" the load of the dominating roof, and its Shingle-Style, slate-covered gable ends. It is a design in which materials and forms are used with vigor and unity to express emphatically the forces at work in the architecture. Essentially intact down to the non-figured stained glass of its windows, the building is one of the best examples of quality late Victorian architecture in the Champlain Valley. Cross to the west side of North Pleasant Street and head back towards the center of the village. 32 North Pleasant Street Across the street and partly concealed by a later layer of stucco and pebble masonry, is another interesting old house. It was built in two sections—the earlier, southern half by Loudon Case, the later northern half by Olcott White in or soon after 1807 to house his book bindery and shop. The lentil moulding beneath the eaves, the attic window, and the handsome chimneys bespeak the former quality of this building. Congregational Church The prominent site at what is now the intersection of Main, Seymour, and North Pleasant Streets was not always that of the Congregational Church. It was originally deeded by Painter in 1789 to John Deming for the construction of a blacksmith shop and tavern. Painter himself helped to underwrite the cost of this latter, a two-story building which could accommodate twenty-five guests at a time and served as seat of the Addison County Court both before and after the construction of the courthouse. Where was the church then? The location of the church had been a principal feature of the long-lasting feud between Painter and Daniel Foot. Painter wanted it at the falls, Foot wanted it near his homestead at the center of town. Each side had its strong supporters who threatened to withdraw if the conflict were not resolved to their satisfaction. At the town meeting of 1788 Foot's barn had been chosen as the best available site for worship, and in 1790 a site committee voted three to two in favor of a meetinghouse location near Foot's homestead. The two were Painter and John Chipman, and they managed to block the final decision, so much to Foot's anger that he withdrew the use of his barn and eventually became a Baptist. In 1794 worship moved out of Middlebury's barns and into the newly completed Mattock's Tavern, where it stayed until the completion of the suitably uncomfortable courthouse in 1798. By 1806 there was little question as to the location of the functional center of town, and Daniel Foot had moved on. Painter finally convinced his townsmen and picked the site at the head of Main Street. The lot was purchased from current owner Loudon Case, the tavern was moved down Seymour Street (and demolished in this century), and the town finally prepared to build its church. It was a bit embarrassing. There was Middlebury, a sophisticated and increasingly attractive and important town with mills, stores, fine homes, inns, a courthouse, and a college—but still no church. The embarrassment was remedied, however, by the construction between 1806 and 1809 of a church the town could never have considered in 1790—one of the finest Federal style churches in New England. As head of the building committee Painter called on Lavius Fillmore, a Connecticut-born house joiner who had moved to Middlebury in 1796 and had built four previous churches (East Haddam, Conn., 1794; Middletown, Conn., 1798; Norwich, Conn., 1901; Bennington, Vt., 1804 – 06) and, especially in the Bennington area, a series of magnificent houses. The Middlebury church was to be Fillmore's masterpiece. Three years in the construction, budgeted at about $9,000 (some fifteen per cent more than the Bennington church), and financed by the sale of pews for cash, building materials, and livestock, the building was similar to but larger and more elaborate than its Vermont sister. The general mass of the church is based on meeting houses built by Charles Bulfinch in Taunton and Pittsfield, Mass. in the late 18th century. Fillmore's early refinement of this type in East Haddam so influenced the design published by Asher Benjamin in his 1797 Country Builder's Assistant that for many years it was thought the Middlebury church was based on the Benjamin illustration. Many of the details of the Middlebury church bespeak its ultimate descent from the work of the English architect James Gibbs, who published designs for his most famous church (St. Martins-in-the-Fields, London) in his Book of Architecture, 1728. This last was a definite influence on the construction of John Brown's First Baptist Meeting House (1775) in Providence, R.I., which Fillmore might have known. Fillmore studied his sources and then adapted and combined elements from them with a sure sense of detail and proportion to arrive a building that was his own. The remarkably sophisticated galleried sanctuary (seating 725) was derived by Fillmore from another Bulfinch prototype, the short-lived Hollis Street Church in Boston, built in turn under the direct inspiration of Christopher Wren's St. Stephen Wallbrook in London. Its basic rectangle has been skillfully manipulated through the use of groined vaults into a cross with a central dome carried on a series of ionic columns, each of which was cut from a single tree trunk in Court Square. Minor columns with Egyptian-derived lotus capitals carry the gallery. Originally there was a raised pulpit before the Palladian window, and the pews were arranged in a semicircular fashion. These last aspects and others were significantly altered in 1854, when the entire interior of the church except for the shell, ceiling, and columns was reworked, partly to permit the development of usable spaces in the basement. In 1925 the church was somewhat restored to its former character. The product of controversy, sacrifice, and care, the church since 1806 has played a functionally as well as a physically central role in the life of the village. The frame and roofing were rushed to completion in time for the opening of the 1806 session of the state legislature in Middlebury, when townspeople and dignitaries alike sat on planks on kegs and shuffled their feet in the shavings. Since that date the church has served as a principal place for public meetings, dinners; and functions, including for many years the commencement exercises of the College and the annual Forefather's Day celebration (the oldest in the nation, instituted by Phillip Battell and the Middlebury Historical Society in 1842.) Emma Willard Monument The small triangle of land between the church, the Green, and the Charter House was dedicated in 1941 to Emma Willard, pioneer in women's education. Middlebury, which had founded a male grammar school in 1797, decided in 1800 to do the same for females and invited Ida Strong to establish a female seminary in the courthouse. In 1803 a building was built for the new school with town contributions and on a Seymour Street site donated by Horatio Seymour. Miss Strong died in 1804; and in 1807 the town invited Miss Emma Hart from Berlin, Connecticut, to revive the enterprise. It was not an easy commission. Her first winter in town was so cold that she and the students spent a good deal of time contra-dancing to keep warm. In 1809 she married local doctor and man of affairs, John Willard, and retired from teaching to an impressive new house on South Main Street. However, the bank robbery of 1814 found the directors (including Dr. Willard) personally liable for the repayment of the $28,000 loss. The Willards were suddenly in financial straits, and Emma went back to teaching young ladies. This time the teaching was in her home and was directed not at a grammar school but rather at a collegiate level—the goal being to train teachers. The new curriculum, which Mrs. Willard published in 1818 as A Plan For Improving Female Education, included art (up to that time being taught in the United States only at West Point). The Willards moved from Middlebury, eventually establishing themselves and Emma's school in Troy, N.Y., where it became known as the first full-fledged normal school in America. The credit for the beginning of women's collegiate education, however, is Middlebury's (Middlebury's and the bank robbery's, that is). Seymour Street To the southwest of the church begins Seymour Street, laid out in 1799 and incorporated in 1805 as the first leg of the Waltham Turnpike (another road-building venture in which Painter was involved). The turnpike ran down Seymour Street, across the picturesque Pulp Mill Bridge. Constructed possibly as early 1808, this historic bridge is one of only a handful of double covered bridges left in the United States and ranks as one of the oldest examples of the Burr Arch truss and as the oldest surviving covered bridge in Vermont. From here the turnpike made its way to Vergennes and was intended ultimately to serve as Middlebury's stage link to Montreal. Down this street can be found the 1891 shingle-style former railroad station and at number 7 the Dudley-Painter House, oldest extant house in Middlebury Village, moved from its original site on the Green in 1802. 3 Main Street At the corner of Seymour and Main Streets stands the house built for the Honorable Horatio Seymour in 1816 – 17. A Yale graduate of 1797, Seymour came to Middlebury in 1799 and opened his law practice the next year. Postmaster, director of the Vermont State Bank, member of the corporations of Middlebury College and the Addison County Grammer School, instigator and supporter of the female seminary, U.S. Senator from Vermont from 1821 – 1833, and recipient of an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Yale in 1847, he must be counted one of Middlebury's leading citizens. His house was suitably elegant. Set atop a stone terrace with a fine old fence (the last survivor of a series of such fences that once defined house lots around the Green), and a handsome flight of brick steps. It is of brick (painted at an early date to seal its walls from the moisture-induced spalling experienced by many of Middlebury's first brick buildings), with marble-capped walls and chimneys carried above the roofline and joined across the front and back by fine eave balustrades. The ogival door hood is a unique survivor of several that once graced a series of grand Middlebury houses. The unusually-shaped pilasters that support it are a device to be found as well on a number of particularly interesting early-19th-century fireplaces in town. The interior is notable for many reasons. The attic boasts forty-foot hemlock beams. The original kitchen, in the basement but exposed to the south and west by the slope of its site, retains its four-foot-wide back door and large fireplace with bake oven and laundry vats. The first floor centers about an entry hall with a lovely curving staircase (and a curved door set into its back wall). There are ten fireplaces in the house, fitted with some of the most elaborately decorated mantles in Middlebury. Everywhere there are fine details, such as the paneled window embrasures, decorated door frames, rope mouldings, and cloisonné hardware (this last imported from Russia and added by Seymour's son-in-law, Philip Battell in the 1880s). The Battells also modernized the plumbing, adding a marble bathroom and a new (upstairs) kitchen. They replaced the small-paned windows with Victorian single sheets of glass and added the facing and brackets under the eaves. The house was then occupied by Philip Battell's son-in-law, Governor (and subsequently U.S. Senator) John W. Stewart and his family. The Governor's daughter, Mrs. Charles M. (Jessica Stewart) Swift, donated the house and its furnishings to the community in 1932, and it has since been open for community affairs. In his History of Middlebury, Samuel Swift recorded: "While building his large and very expensive brick house… [Seymour] expressed to the writer of this notice his regret to lay out so great an expenditure on a house." It took him two years to pay for it. Through his great-granddaughter's generosity, Seymour's expense has become the community's great gain. Post Office Utilizing the site of the 1837 Brewster commercial building and the village's 1856 fire house, the Post Office was built in 1932 – 33 using WPA funding and labor. Supervising architect was James A. Wetmore, one of the designers of the Grand Central terminal and office tower in New York City. The original cornerstore was installed during 1932, under a Republican administration, and identified Ogden L. Mills as Secretary of the Treasury. By the time the building was completed in 1933, power had shifted to the Democrats, and the original cornerstone was replaced by the present one identifying William H. Woodin as Treasury Secretary. St. Stephen's Episcopal Church The Episcopal Society, first in Addison County, was founded in 1810, counting among its early members Horatio Seymour and Lavius Fillmore. Between 1810 and 1827 the Society met first in the courthouse, then in Seymour's house, and finally in Osborne House (77 Main Street). In 1825 the town voted to permit them to construct a church on the Green so long as it was to be of brick or stone (in accord with provisions of Painter's original deed for the land). The stone Gothic-inspired building was constructed in 1826 – 27. The shell with its pointed windows and western tower was contracted out for $1,600. Its stone was brought from Weybridge, stored on the site of the inn, and wheeled down elevated ramps to the top of the rising walls. The finishing of the interior and the exterior window frames and woodwork appear to have been by Fillmore. Total insured value on completion was $6,000. The choice of the Gothic style for the building at this early date is quite remarkable. (While architects in England had added the style to their working vocabulary by then, it was not until the 1830s and 1840s that it achieved real popularity in the United States.) The original interior, however, was rather more Federal than Gothic, with light colored plaster and a shallowly coved ceiling. Stained glass windows were installed in 1853; in 1872 the roof and tower were restated; in 1876 the whale interior was remodeled with pseudo-structure supporting a false ceiling; and in 1879 the chapel was built. The crenellations that originally topped the tower were reconstructed in the 1980s after decades of absence, but the tower still bears Fillmore's wooden tracery about the door and still houses the Revere bell commissioned by the builders of the church. (Crossing the railroad tracks on Main Street, one enters the mercantile and manufacturing area that gave early Middlebury its prosperty and vitality.) Railroad The first train on the Rutland & Burlington Railroad puffed into town on September 1, 1849, followed by the first passenger train on September 19th and the first run to Boston in December. The line's name was changed to the Rutland Railroad in 1867. Initially, trains were served by a passenger and freight depot located at the end of the first Depot Street (now a driveway, just south of present day Cross Street) and the creek. A marble finishing shop (long gone) was nearby. This was also the location of the early ford and ferry across Otter Creek. The freight depot burned down in 1871 and was rebuilt on a more spacious site along Seymour Street. The original passenger depot also burned down in 1889 and was replaced by a new one on the west side of the tracks adjacent to Seymour Street and the new freight depot in 1891. Prior to 1908, Elm Street was known as Depot Street (the second so named) in honor of the new passenger depot. In 1912, the station was jacked up and moved to a new foundation on the east side of the tracks to make way for the construction of the Seymour Street underpass that replaced the original grade crossing. The underpass was completely rebuilt in 1992. The passenger station and freight depot, originally separate structures, have been connected and considerably altered for retail use, but are still recognizable. The railroad's man line crossed the heart of town in a deep cut beneath Merchants Row, through the Green, and under Main Street. This arrangement made the railroad less obstrusive and far safer for the townspeople, but it was not without its disadvantages, for there are numerous accounts of horses being frightened by the locomotive's whistle, often resulting in injury, or on some occasions, even death. The arrangement with the sunken track caused additional problems for the town. Whenever larger equipment was introduced on the railroad, the Main Street and Merchants Row bridges had to be raised and street levels adjusted accordingly. The streets were regraded three times between 1849 and 1907, the last instance causing particular constroversy, since the town had just repaved the streets when the railroad announced that they would have to be raised again. Economically, too, the railroad proved to be a mixed blessing. Not only did it make distant markets more accessible to Middlebury's manufacturers, but it also acted as a conduit into Middlebury's home territory for the goods of cheaper competitors. In the end, Middlebury lost the contest, and her days as an important manufacturing center passed. The Rutland Railroad discontinued passenger service during a strike in 1953, and all service in 1961 due to a series of bitter strikes. Much of the railroad was subsequently abandoned, and the Burlinton to Bennington section was bought by the State of Vermont in 1963 and leased to a new operator, the Vermont Railway, which continues to operate the line. The Marble Works District Down the alley just beyond the railroad track can be seen a handsome stone warehouse-like structure now occupied by offices. This building, constructed as a gas works in 1836, is typical of the mill structures built in town in the first half of the 19th century. Its limestone and marble walls are from twenty-four to thirty inches thick and carry the great beams (some of them over eighteen inches thick) that support the floors and roof. Beyond it are a series of marble-walled industrial buildings constructed in 1898 – 1899 as sawing and finishing mills for the Brandon Italian Marble Company, whose previous mill in Brandon had burned down. The mills were powered by a series of long cables, supported by tall wooden towers with pulleys, that were driven by a huge 250-horse-power water turbine located in what was referred to as "the wheel house," located just below the falls (the "wheel house" was reconstructed from the remains of the old cotton mill, which had burned in the fire of 1891). The cables turned a series of shafts in the mills which in turn were connected to the machinery by leather belts that had a nasty habit of snagging the clothing of careless workers, occasionally dragging them to their deaths in the machinery. The company, which soon became the largest employer in town, was lured to Middlebury by both excellent water power and attractive tax incentives. The complex of mill buildings was located conveniently near the railroad, and a new siding was constructed which facilitated the arrival of the huge blocks of marble from the quarries, most of which were now located out of town. The blocks were unloaded by a heavy overhead crane that operated between the siding and the sawing mills, where the blocks were cut up into slabs of different thicknesses. The slabs were then transformed into finished products in the finishing mill located on the north end of the complex. The finished marble products were then shipped to customers by mail. The Brandon Italian Marble Company was bought out by the Vermont Marble Company in 1909, which continued to operate theh plant until the depression caused its final closure in 1931. The mills, as well as other buildings constructed later, became known as the Cartmell Complex, and were converted to a variety of commercial uses. In 1987 the complex was purchased by the Marble Works Associates, who restored many of the structures to their earlier appearance and re-adapted them for a variety of commercial and retail uses. Among the long-time tenants of this district is the Addison County Independent, a participant in Middlebury's long tradition of journalism and publication. The first printing offices in town opened for business in 1801 and over the next years published the Middlebury Mercury (1801), the Vermont Register (1802), and a number of books and pamphlets. Thereafter, both newspaper and book publishing and binding were to become significant industries for the town in the 19th century. From 1812 on Middlebury readers benefited from at least one and sometimes two and three local weekly papers, among them the: Vermont Mirror, Columbian Patriot, National Standard, Religious Reporter, Vermont American, Middlebury Free Press, Northern Argus, People's Press, Northern Galaxy, Middlebury Galaxy, Middlebury Register, Addison County Independent and Valley Voice. All are preserved in the Sheldon Museum—a treasured record of the tastes, and topics of Middlebury's past. Commercial Main Street Main Street between the railroad tracks on the north and Cannon Green on the south is the most rebuilt stretch of real estate in Middlebury, if not in Addison County. Ravaged by a whole series of fires in the second half of the 19th century, the area has experienced two total changes of character as well as many individual replacements and remodelings. In the first half of the century the notoriously muddy street was lined with shops and mill fronts with residences upstairs. Early views from the area of the churches show the ranks of these tightly-packed two and three-story house-like buildings of wood, stone, and brick along Main and Merchants Row converging on the town watering trough at the bridgeward corner of the Green and then running down to the creek. Here, just before the bridge and virtually overhanging the falls was the site of the first store in the County. The lot was deeded in 1789 by Painter to Benjamin Gorton of New York, whose nephew, Jabez Rogers, built a store in 1790 and then developed in close proximity brewery and potash operations. The shops that grew around Rogers' store held hardware and hatters, tailors and tanners, saddlers and silversmiths, serving the entire region. Only two store buildings from this era remain, and those (3 and 6 College Street) being across the bridge, will be mentioned later. In its second phase, after the fires of mid-century, Main Street looked much like a Western boom town—wooden sidewalks, quite uniform wooden store fronts with large show windows, awnings or porches, elaborate upstairs window frames, and more elaborate brackets supporting heavy cornices. Destroyed in the great fire of 1875 and rebuilt, they perished again in 1891. By this time tastes had changed, as witnessed by the sole survivor of the 1891 fire north of the bridge, the Beckwith Block (22 – 26 Main Street). Here is post-Civil War commercialism changing the previously domestic scale and character of downtown Middlebury. This building is of an era in which commercial structures vied for and were accorded the prestige and attention formerly reserved for public buildings and churches. It is big, bold, attention-drawing. With its elaborate multi-color brickwork and insets of stone and terracotta, windows of varied shape and size (including stained glass), grander scale, and busy cornice line, this building of 1882 – 83 was considered by its contemporaries to be the finest store in the county if not in the state. Its impact was such that the architect and contractor, Smith and Allen, were commissioned to build the new town hall and courthouse on the Green in a similar, if slightly more controlled, style. In 1996 the Beckwith Block was purchased by the National Bank of Middlebury and was physically connected to the bank to serve as its offices and as an expanded customer service area. Battell Block (Main Street and Merchants Row) Rich and interesting as the Beckwith Block was, the proliferation of such individualistic structures would eliminate any communal unity the core of the village enjoyed. Fortunately, by the rebuilding after the great fire of 1891 a compromise between the unity of the seventies and the vivacity of the eighties had been found. The theme for rebuilding was set by Joseph Battell and his architect (probably Clinton Smith) in the construction of the Battell Block. By any standards Joseph Battell would have to be considered one of the most influential and interesting figures in the history of Middlebury. He was a publisher, author, authority on Morgan horses, conservationist, and the largest landholder in Vermont. Opinionated and idiosyncratic, he was motivated by his own strong sense of what was right and by a deep love for his town and state. The automobile was his bête noire. As publisher of the Middlebury Register, he pursued a single-handed campaign against the motor car, filling his pages with news of every bizarre and ghastly accident in the entire country in which the machines were involved. Balancing this great hatred was an equally consuming love for the mountains. He loved them as an escape from the bustle of town life and developed an inn near Bread Loaf Mountain up in Middlebury Gap for the relaxation of his friends and himself. Guests would often be met personally at the station in town and be taken up to the overgrowing mountain retreat behind a team of Morgans. To protect his refuge, Battell began buying all the land visible from the inn—as he put it, buying mountains the way his turn-of-the-century contemporaries bought artwork. He wanted to preserve the natural mountainscape for the enjoyment of future generations. In the end he owned some 30,000 acres, which he left to Middlebury College, giving it in essence the largest college campus in the world. Battell land now forms a significant part of the Green Mountain National Forest, though the College has retained ownership of its fine ski area, the Snow Bowl, and of the Bread Loaf Inn. The latter serves as home of the Middlebury summer Graduate School of English and The Bread Loaf Writers' Conference (in which Robert Frost participated for many years). Battell was also a great, if somewhat difficult, benefactor of the town. He tied up town politics for a year in his desire for a stone Main Street bridge (which he felt would be suited to the quality of the town), and he ended up paying more than half the cost to get his own way. In the aftermath of the 1891 fire, he had a vision of a modern, unified rebuilt downtown and constructed his own huge block to set the style. To build it, Battell purchased the sites of five separate buildings and arranged to close an alley running from the Main Street-Merchants Row intersection down to the creek. The Merchants Row portion of the structure was built in 1892; the final bays along Main Street not until 1898. Here is a combination of unity, visual interest, and grand scale—marking Middlebury, as had the Beckwith Block, as a major commercial center. It is a "fireproof" structure, with stone piers, steel girders over broad show windows, and paneled brick upper floors. The basic structural theme unifies the building and permits for variations in rhythm and dimension and for such embellishments as the corner tower (originally with an arched additional story and a conical cap—removed after the hurricane of 1950), the elaborate brickwork of the cornice, and the charming bay windows along Merchants Row without disrupting an overall sense of unity. This became the guiding theme for the other new construction along Main Street, whether by Battell or by others, whether one story or two. The street level construction followed Battell Block materials and scale, and upper floors were free to delight in individual window forms and cornice elaborations—unity and diversity. Another aspect shared by the Main Street stores and the Battell Block is that of basements exposed to the rear. Battell's new bridge had necessitated elevating Main Street ten feet above its pre-1891 level, and thus the rebuilt stores were entered at what had originally been their second floor level. Triangle Park The corner cut off from the rest of the Green by the railroad was embellished in 1908 by Joseph Battell and the Century Club with a three-tiered cast iron fountain carried by figures of cranes. Increasingly unpopular because its wind-driven spray would dampen the interiors of open cars parked around it, the fountain was dismantled by the town in 1938 and sold for scrap. Another fountain was placed in the park by the Middlebury Garden Club at the time of the national bicentennial. The fountain urn (from the same foudry and patterns as the larger original fountain) was discovered in the gardens of Battell's niece, Mrs. Jessica Swift and acquired from her estate. National Bank of Middlebury The only building after 1891 north of the bridge to ignore completely the theme set by Battell was the National Bank. Designed by Burlington architect F. L. Austin in 1910, this is a structure in an altogether different tradition. Although Middlebury's bank had been housed in its conservative brick townhouse next to the inn, nationally there had been a long-standing association of banks with classical, temple-like architecture, dating back to the early days of the Republic (when Benjamin Latrobe used the style for the Bank of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia in 1799). Then, by 1910 there way a new force afoot, the City Beautiful movement. This had grown out of the highly theatrical classicism of the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. Excited by the fair's display of grand formal architectural and landscape composition, towns across the country began adopting the classical style for their public buildings. The movement was a big topic in the Middlebury Register in 1910. Thus, when the bank determined to build a new home on a prominent site across from the Green, both associations and current fashion suggested a temple. About as monumental as a small one-story structure could be, the bank was set back from the sidewalk to create a landscaped space before it, leading to its column-supported pedimental entrance. It combines stone details with the then very current buff Roman brick (a particular favorite of the Midwestern Prairie School of architecture at that time). In recent years the lateral wings have been added and the original oak and muralled interior somewhat altered. Walking along the west side of Main Street, one passes a number of significant sites from Middlebury's past. 34 — 42 Main Street The site of David Page's cotton mill, built in 1811. Of limestone and marble, this building was three stories high on Main Street and six toward the creek. Here in 1817 Joseph Gordon assembled twenty power looms from plans he had brought with him from Scotland and which he claimed to be the second set of power looms ever built in the country (after six built the previous year in Rhode Island). In 1850 there were one hundred looms in the mill, with a daily capacity to produce 1600 yards of heavy sheeting and up to 800 pounds of yarn. In 1854 the mill burned and was refurbished as a flour mill. After the fire of 1891, Joseph Battell, who built the present structure on the site, bought the mill ruins and used the stone for the foundations of the Battell Block. The lowest level of the old cotton mill was renovated in 1898 as the power house for the Brandon Italian Marble Company's new mills. 44 Main Street Site of Gamaliel Painter's grist mill, sold in 1807 to Lavius Fillmore and David Page, who replaced it with a stone structure in 1808. Here Fillmore designed an ingenious, rock-cut inlet, outlet, and flume system below water level and free from the worries of ice or flood. Portions of the system undoubtedly remain in the ruins on the creek bank behind the present building. The mill, which had five sets of grindstones and a capacity to process 80,000 bushels of grain a year, burned in 1854. 48 – 50 Main Street Site of Jabez Rogers' store, built in 1790. The first store in Addison County. Middlebury Falls From the west side of the Main Street Bridge one can get an impressive view of Middlebury Falls and the eddy down below (across from what is known as Frog Hollow). An even better view of the falls and remnants of the many penstocks which carried water to the mills can be gained by turning down Mill Street (or Frog Hollow Road) and looking out from the lane between the back of the Main Street stores and the Craft Center or by proceeding further downstream to the new Marble Works footbridge. Mill Street (Frog Hollow Road) Turning down Mill Street, one enters the once vital world of Middlebury manufacturing. The area at one time was crowded with industrial buildings of all sorts and range of permanence, from workers' tenements and flimsy drying sheds to solid stone structures; however, it experienced almost as many fires, rebuildings, and remodelings as did Main Street. The few structures that still remain invoke the town's industrial past. This is the area claimed by Daniel Foot in competition with Gamaliel Painter and the site of Foot's saw and grist mills of 1784 (located approximately where the stone mill building now stands). Foot eventually divided his property between his sons Appleton and Stillman. Both brothers operated saw and grist mills, in time selling them and their land to the men who really developed this side of Middlebury Village. Craft Center On the site of Stillman Foot's sawmill, which burned in 1831, this frame building was constructed in 1870 as paper mill. Since then it has burned and been rebuilt six times. In the 1880s and 90s it housed Smith and Allen's woodworking shop, where were produced many of the Victorian architectural details to be found in this region. Subsequently, from about 1900 it was the woodworking mill of Rogers and Wells until its renovation in 1971 as the Frog Hollow Craft Center, a privately sponsored educational and marketing center for a wide range of arts and crafts. In 1975, it was named Vermont State Center for the Crafts, the first state craft center in the country. Old Stone Mill On the approximate site of Daniel Foot's first mill. Here Stillman Foot built a grist mill, which was purchased in 1801 by John Warren and converted about 1813 into a cotton factory with the addition of a large stone structure. A description of 1821 proves the latter to have been virtually identical to the present building. Under Warren it housed 600 spindles and eight looms. Adjacent to the mill on the south was a frame tenement for the workers. Damaged by fire and weak foundations in 1825 and 1836, the stone building was reconstructed about 1840 in its present form by the Middlebury Manufacturing Company for the production of woolens. The conversion from cotton to wool was in reaction to local circumstances. Merino sheep had been imported into Addison County from Spain early in the century and proved to do very well in Vermont's rocky pastures. By 1840 the County had more sheep per acre and was producing more wool than any other in the country. It followed quite logically, then, that this wool should be turned into finished goods in Middlebury. Unfortunately the farmers of Addison County began to concentrate on raising and selling breeding stock, helping to develop the great western herds that eventually put them out of business. By 1890 wool had been displaced as an industry by electricity in the old mill, as the Middlebury Electric Company used the power of the falls to generate the current that enabled converting the village from kerosene to electric street lights. Along with its multiple uses, the mill has suffered from a number of fires since its 1840 rebuilding, but it is still essentially intact. At the time of the national bientennial, it was restored and adapted for commercial use. Star Grist Mill Another adaptive reuse of a building from Middlebury's industrial past can be found across the street from the Old Stone Mill. It was built in 1837 as a woolen mill for Moses Leonard, with great stone foundations set against the steep side of the Hollow and a two-story frame structure above. It was damaged by fire in 1875 and rebuilt as the Star Grist Mill using the original timbers. Water from a branch of the huge penstock serving the Old Stone Mill turned turbines in the basement (still operative in the 1930s) and then was discharged into the Hollow. Frog Hollow Farther into the Hollow were to be found other industries significant to Middlebury's livelihood. Here, beginning in 1794, could be found forges and gun smithies. In 1796 Ebenezer Markham opened the first nail factory in Vermont. In Jonathan Nichols' shop in 1799 – 1800 was discovered a subsequently patented (1802) and widely-used process for welding cast steel. In Benjamin Lawrence's shop between 1821 – 1825, John Deere served his apprenticeship before moving westward to Illinois. An archaeological dig in the spring and summer of 1975 located the foundations of Lawrence's shop and turned up many interesting tools and artifacts from the site (now in the Sheldon Museum). It was in the Hollow, too, that Vermont's marble industry was born. In 1802 Eben Judd (with the apparent collaboration of the then ten-year-old Isaac Markham) developed a machine for the sawing of marble. Judd built a small test operation that year in the Hollow adjacent to a ready supply of marble. In 1806 the mill was expanded to hold sixty of the soft iron saws, and in 1808 it was made still larger. Much of the marble used was quarried in the Hollow and from the bed of the creek above the falls, though other varieties were brought from neighboring towns (especially Shoreham). Between 1808 and 1837, Judd's mill sawed between five and ten thousand feet of marble slab a year, which was then turned into tombstones, carrier's tables, jambs, mantlepieces, hearths, window and door caps and sills, sideboards, tables, sinks, etc. and shipped to markets from Quebec to Georgia. In 1810 Dr. Timothy Dwight of Yale wrote of the marble works: "A quarry of marble has been discovered in the bank of the river just below the bridge, a continuation of the ledge which forms the falls. It is both white and dove-colored, elegantly variegated, and of finer texture than any other, which has been wrought hitherto in the United States. It is sawn, ground and polished by water machinery, and is cut and curved with an elegance not surpassed on this side of the Atlantic." The operation essentially halted in 1837 with the deaths of both Judd and his son-in-law and partner Lebbeus Harris. The marble deposit at the falls, riddled with fractures and weak layers, was originally considered economically attractive because it could be easiliiy quarried by primitive hand tools. With the later development of steam-powered quarrying machinery, other sides with sounder deposits became popular and quarrying at the falls was never resumed. In 1851 N.H. Hand opened a wooden pail factory in the Judd building, turning out up to 600 pails, butter tubs, and the like a day. As it rises on the far side of the Hollow, Mill Street passes the Sheldon Tenement House (1868), the last extant example of housing built in the Hollow for the workers in the local mills. Park Street Beginning in front of the Star Mill and running southward to Main Street is Park Street. Here at number 3 is the house that Stillman Foot built for the superintendent of his grist mill in 1799. Originally a story-and-a-half, it was remodeled and enlarged in 1923. It retains its fine old sidelighted doorway, simple but with pretensions to being more than just a door. The small building across the street housed the woolen mill offices. It burned and was rebuilt in 1875 and probably again in 1903. Number 2 was built as a two-story house in 1801 and expanded and remodeled as the Logan House Hotel in 1891. Henry Sheldon Museum of Vermont History This grand house was built in 1829 by Eben Judd and his son-in-law Lebbeus Harris with the profits and some of the products from their marble works in Frog Hollow (including a porch carried on marble ionic columns and a series of showy black Shoreham marble fireplaces, and the first rectangular, as opposed to trapezoidal, marble lintels in town—indicative of a changing taste for Greek Revival rather than Federal forms). It was purchased in 1875 by Henry Sheldon, who had a penchant for local history and for collecting things. His house became something of a repository for objects of local significance, and in 1882 it was opened to the public as the Sheldon Art Museum, Archaeological and Historical Society, the first incorporated village museum in the United States. By the time of Sheldon's death in 1907 all but two rooms (in which he lived) had been turned over to the museum's collections. In recent decades the house has been organized to present a glimpse of 19th-century life—from formal front parlor and dining room to bedrooms and a spacious kitchen (with its large, utensil-hung hearth and bake oven). Most of the items on display also have connections with the history of the town and community: furniture by local cabinet-makers, Dyar clocks and silver, Lake Dunmore Glass, Wainwright stoves, tools brought from Connecticut to build the first buildings in town, student chairs from the College, portraits of prominent early citizens (including numerous works of Benjamin Franklin Mason). In the research wing are housed the documents of Middlebury's local history: maps, notebooks, letters, newspapers, photographs. The Fletcher Community History Center, housing changing art and local history exhibits, was built in 1990. Scholars and more casual visitors alike can find much of fascination in Henry Sheldon's house. Just south of the museum was a reservoir (a forty-gallon barrel under a canopy) fed with spring water brought through log pipes. It was placed there by the Middlebury Aqueduct Company (chartered 1804) as a public water source for the west side of the village and continued to serve in that capacity until 1893 – 94. Today the site is occupied by the bell from the old Town Hall. An 1888 barn, reputedly built for Henry Sheldon to house his collection overflow, stands near the rear of the property. This carriage-barn-style structure, painted in its original colors of yellow ochre and red oxide (both produced locally from regional iron ore deposits), sporting a stylish gothic window in its gable end, is part of the museum. Cannon Green Between Park and Main Streets is the small triangle known as Cannon Green, a bit of Foot land that in time became public property. In it is set a Civil War cannon with a Vermont marble base, presented to the town in 1910. The cannon, a 10-inch "Rodman," (named after Thomas J. Rodman, U. S. Army Chief of Ordnance), weighs 15,140 pounds, and was manufactured by Cyrus Alger & Co. of Boston in 1866. Cyrus Alger was a long-time gun founder from as early as the 1830s. These big guns, that ranged in size from 10 to 20 inches, were sometimes referred to as "Columbiads," and intended for seacoast fortifications. The one came to Middlebury from Bucksport, Maine. The intials "JGB" that appear on the muzzle refer to James Gilchrist Benton, an inspector between 1842 and 1881. The monument was completely disassembled, cleaned, repaired and reassembled in 1996. Ilsley Library Across the Green and Main Street from the museum is the Ilsley Library, a gift to the town by Col. Silas A. Ilsley in 1923. Here is another and later example of the City Beautiful urge to construct public buildings in the classical style, though as with banks the traditional association of libraries with temples in this country dates back to our early days (e.g. the 18th-century Redwood Library, Newport, R.I., or Jefferson's early 19th-century library at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville). Here the tradition continues with a marble temple set apart, its fine oak interior housing a heavily-used and continuously updated collection. Previous to the 1920s the community had been served since the 1860s by the Ladies' Library Association on the second floor of the old bank building north of the inn and then (from 1912) by the Middlebury Free Library. The library has undergone two expansions since 1923. In 1978 a marble-faced two-story addition was made to the southern side that provided additional access to the building, an elevator equipped to serve the handicapped, a meeting room on the second floor and additional office space and rest rooms. In 1989 a major renovation added about 8,000 square feet on the north side as well. Osborne House (77 Main Street) The frame house south of the library is known as Osborne House. It was built in 1816 by Daniel Henshaw, partner and then successor in Stillman Foot's milling business. From 1820 to 1827 this was the meeting place of the Episcopal Society. It is now the property of Middlebury College. Roads West of the Bridge The complex intersection of Main St., Park St., College St., and South St. was the important hub of the western side of Middlebury. Main Street led to the bridge; Park Street to the mills; College Street (formerly Academy Street) was the original main road to Cornwall; South Street connected the village to farms along the creek and ran to what was known as Three Mile Bridge (burned in 1952) near the junction of the Middlebury River and the creek; and South Main Street was laid out as the new Cornwall Road in 1803, though it was not completed until 1811. Spared the fires that raged up and down most of commercial Main Street, this area presents (if one can think away later intrusions) something of the residential-commercial mix that must have typified the northern end of Main Street as well. 86 Main Street Built as a store for Edwin Vallette in 1863, this mercantile structure drew heavily on the Italian Renaissance for inspiration. The cubic mass, heavy cornice, quoins, and regular window rhythm all invoke the palace tradition that was so popular in the 1850s and 1860s for stores in such centers as New York. The ground floor was equally up-to-date, for it originally had large windows framed by fine cast-iron Corinthian columns. Beginning in 1901 this building housed Joseph Battell's Middlebury Register. 88 Main Street Built by John Warren, clothier and developer of the cotton mill in the Hollow, in about 1804 – 05. This was one of the most pretentious and urbane early houses in Middlebury. It was of brick (its end walls of a particularly elaborate Flemish bond) atop a dressed stone basement and detailed with marble from Eben Judd's mill and fine woodwork (note the brackets supporting the entry hood and the modillions of the cornice). The elegant Palladian window has the star-shaped center which was typical of a number of the finer early 19th-century buildings in town. The detailing seems to suggest that the builder was looking to carpenters' handbooks (and particularly to Asher Benjamin) and playing with motifs of the then-popular Federal Style. The handsome interior is arranged symmetrically about a stairhall with curving staircase and moulded plaster ceilings. Each major room has a different fireplace design. The basement, above grade to the rear, housed the kitchen; and a sub-cellar, constructed below frost level for vegetable storage, is reputed by a tenacious local tradition to have served as a stop on the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. The house's restoration by Townsend Anderson in the early 1980s won a national award from the Naitonal Trust for Historic Preservation. 14 College Street One of Middlebury's earliest gasoline filling stations, built around 1920 in Colonial Revival style of brick with a gable roof. It has been altered for retail use by a number of renovations and additons. 0 College Street Two doors away from the Warren house is another notable early brick structure. It was built in 1815 by Jonathan Hagar for stores and a warehouse. Hagar began as a cobbler, specializing in the manufacture of dyed "Morocco" leather and selling his shoes in New York City, Troy, Boston and Montreal. He expanded into an export- import business with London at one point, building and running the ship "Mentor" in 1806 – 07. The War of 1812 found him becoming more local in his interests, pursuing among other roles those of bookseller, selectman, and Vermont assemblyman. His building presents an excellent example of early 19th-century commercial architecture. Except for its size, it is essentially domestic in scale and character, with plain walls and simple, regularly-spaced windows. It harks back to the Georgian buildings of Boston and Philadelphia, to a style of simplicity and dignity. Old photos show the building with a cupola on top. In the 1960s the structure was renovated for use as apartments by Middlebury College. 40 College Street This house was built by William Goodrich on the site of a store opened in 1798 by Anthony Rhodes. Goodrich arrived in Middlebury in 1787 and for a while tended Painter's sawmill and lived in the mill house. He served as town clerk from 1797 to his death in 1812. In the early years of the century and before 1812, he built this brick house in which his wife taught one of the early elementary schools in town. With its fine basement, Flemish bond brickwork, and marble string course, it is akin to (if also simpler than) the contemporary Warren House. It was renovated and remodeled by Middlebury College in 1965, at which time the doorway was considerably altered. 54 College Street This may well be the oldest store still standing in Middlebury. Originally at 86 Main Street, it served as Jonathan Hagar's place of business from 1812 – 1815. In 1863 it was moved to make way for the grander Vallette Block. Aspects of the building have obviously been changed, but the basic structure remains evident. Here again can be seen the domestic character of Middlebury's early commercial buildings. There was no radical contrast in building types, and thus the shops could mix easily and naturally with homes such as those to be found on the easterly side of the Main Street hub, a series of particularly fine residences. 89 Main Street This is one of the most noteworthy houses in Middlebury. It was begun in 1813 for Thomas Hagar and subsequently owned by judge Samuel S. Phelps and his family. Born in Litchfield, Connecticut in 1793 and graduating from Yale in 1811, Phelps came to Middlebury and entered the Seymour law office in 1814. He served with the state legislature, as a justice in the Vermont Supreme Court (1831 – 38), and as U.S. Senator (1838 – 51). His son and for a time his law partner, Edward J. Phelps, was to serve as U.S. Minister to the Court of St. James in 1885. The house was as distinguished as its tenants. A document of 1814 – 15 permits its attribution to Lavius Fillmore (architect of the Congregational Church) and serves as a key for associating Fillmore with many of the finer early homes in town. The great frame block is enlivened by the arched doorway, the Palladian window, and the fine frieze which runs all the way around the building. Later owners have replaced the small panes of glass in the windows (and much altered the character of the doorway), and vinyl siding over the original clapboards has diminished the relief of the detailing, but the remaining woodwork details (rope mouldings, dentils, elliptical sunbursts, etc.) bespeak the original quality of this home. Within the front door a great pilastered arch with sunbursts opened onto a graceful curved staircase (removed in the 1880). The kitchen was in the basement, and the symmetrically arranged upper floors given over to a series of large parlors and chambers, each with its own elaborate (and very inventive) carved fireplace. Paneled window embrasures with rope mouldings, carved chair rails, and fine keystone arches between rooms mark this as one of the town's most lavishly and lovingly detailed buildings. 93 Main Street (Storrs-Turner House) Here is a worthy neighbor for the Phelps House. This fine brick structure was built in 1832 by Seth Storrs and his son-in-law, Prof. Edward Turner. From Mansfield, Connecticut, Storrs was a Yale graduate, had been associated for a while with Timothy Dwight at the public seminary in Northampton, Mass., and then had begun a law practice in Vermont, moving to Addison in 1787, where he was appointed first State's Attorney in Addison County. With the establishment of the county seat in Middlebury, Storrs moved to town, buying a large farm adjacent to the Foot land on the west side of Otter Creek in 1794. He lived there in a gambrel-roofed house built by John Foot until 1801 – 02, when he erected a large frame house on the site. Here he led the life of a leading citizen and philanthropist, selling houselots for what is now much of the western part of the village, participating in the founding of both the grammar school and the college, and donating large tracts of land to both these and the town. In 1831 Storrs' frame house burned, and the next year he and his son-in-law replaced it with the present brick structure. The plan follows that of previous grand Federal Style houses in Middlebury (basement kitchen, symmetrical parlors, apsidal stairhall) and so do some of the details (delicate, curving staircase, eave balustrade). In little more than a decade, however, master builder James Lam was documented to be at work remodeling the house in a more Greek Revival style. He lengthened the first floor windows, framing them inside with Greek woodwork. He also may have provided the handsome detailing for the front door. This last has subsequently been twice remodeled, but it retains its original Ionic columns, palmette pilasters, meander-decorated encasement, and leaded sidelights. Its use of Greek details associated the house with the trend then sweeping the country for an architecture with connotations of democracy and culture, and association carried even to the elegant cast iron and wooden fence around the front yard (now removed). 1 South Street The classicism is more pervasive next door to Storrs' house in that built for George W. Cutter about 1837. Here the broadside plan has been avoided in favor of the Federal townhouse type (e.g., Simmons House, 31 North Pleasant Street). In the latter the gable oriented toward the street permits something more akin to a temple -like mass for the house. Middlebury's Greek Revival never went all the way with columnar temple porticoes but it can be seen embodied here in the elaborately designed doorway with its wooden pilasters and palmettes and its cast iron tracery. Later in the 19th century a large porch extended across the entire front of the house and around the south side as far as the bay windows. It was removed in the 1950s. 3 South Street ("The President's House") This house was built in 1854 by Jason Davenport, successor to the Wainwright foundry business. In order to locate his home as closely to the center of things as possible, Davenport moved the previous house on the site (that built in 1797 by Dr. Darius Matthews) to its present location at 13 South Street. The 1854 house is one of Middlebury's few examples of Carpenter's Gothic, a popularization of the Gothic Revival stressing pointed gables and inventively intricate wooden cut-out decoration for eaves and (as on the Davenport house) porches. Here the bargeboards under the eaves have disappeared over time, but there are still the drip mouldings on the windows, and the porch is treated as a series of flattened pointed arches, reminiscent of Gothic arcades. Since 1918 this house has served as the home of the Middlebury College Presidents. 5 South Street The parade of 19th-century styles continues down South Street with number 5, built in 1870 and for a long time the Episcopal parsonage. Here one finds a classically-derived doorway, Gothic-derived sharply pitched roof and asymmetrical massing, Italianate eave brackets and a large Victorian piazza and bay window. 7 South Street Similarly eclectic, if also perhaps more high fashion, were the house and barn built just to the south by Governor Fairbanks, originally of St. Johnsbury, in 1867. A mix of French concave mansard roof and quoins with Italianate brackets and arcaded porch, its was one of the most elegant and dignified Victorian homes in Middlebury. It is now owned by Middlebury College. 95 South Main Street A few steps back to the intersection of South and South Main Street brings one back to the early 19th century, with the Blinn House. A small house built around 1800 existed on the site when Blinn moved here in 1810. The new owner shifted the original house back to the southwest corner of the lot, where it is now 97 South Main Street. He then built a far grander two-story house to replace the original. The rear ell was probably added by a later owner. The Blinn House is now owned by Middlebury College. Municipal Building (Town Hall) Across South Main Street from the Blinn House on a site referred to in earlier times as Storrs Park is the Municipal Building (formerly High School). The Municpal Building is located the site of an old brick school house. The earlier building was sold in 1869 to Eli B. Parker for $335, and Parker took it down, reserving the brick, stones, and bell for the School District, and probably using some of the timbers in the construction of his own house at 57 Seymour Street. In 1911 the site was filled with Middlebury's new high school (the gymnasium and auditorium behind being added with Federal funds in 1938 – 39). Constructed somewhat in the style of the great 19th-century architect H.H. Richardson, the brick building originally had two floors with great brick arches over the entrance and the second floor windows and a powerful dormered roof pinned down by four massive chimneys. For forty-three years it served as a counterpart to the church at the other end of Main Street. The upper portions of the structure were destroyed by fire in 1954; and after the construction of a new union high school off Court Street, the refurbished basement and first floor of the old school became home for Middlebury's municipal offices. Academy To the west of the present day Municipal Building was a structure as important to the life of Middlebury as was the church at the other end of the street—the Academy. Middlebury's children were given a rough and rudimentary education in "common schools" meeting around town, usually in people's homes; but Painter and others wanted more, a school that would carry on beyond the fundamentals. With Storrs, who had experience in secondary education, Dr. Matthews, and lawyers Daniel Chipman (founder of the first law school in Vermont) and Samuel Miller, Painter formed the Addison County Grammar School Corporation, chartered by the legislature in November of 1797. Storrs and his neighbors assembled and donated a sizeable school lot and common (the west side counterpart to Painter's Green) and $4000 were raised by public subscription for the 1798 construction of the Academy building. The wooden building was forty by eighty feet and three stories high, the largest structure yet built in town. Similar to (if simpler than) Dartmouth Hall in Hanover, N.H., in character, it had an impressive number of windows (glass was very expensive), equally important front and rear entrances, and a crowning cupola. The first floor held classrooms, library, and laboratory; the second, dormitories (accommodating two to three students per room); and the third dormitories about a central chapel. Upon the founding of the College in 1800 the building housed both College and Grammar School until 1805, when the latter was moved into the then vacant building of the Female Seminary on Seymour Street. The Grammar School moved back in 1844 and in the 1850s merged with Middlebury School District no. 4. In 1867 the Academy Building was superseded by a new building located just slightly to the west, a fashionable Italianate structure designed by J.J.R. Randall of Rutland. Of brick with brownstone details, the building had heavy, bracket-supported cornices, a gable centered on each facade, and an elaborate mansarded cupola. A fire on Easter in 1904 gutted the school, but it was rebuilt with only slight changes to the roofline (and the elimination of the cupola), and it long served the town as the College Street Graded School. In 1984 it was acquired and renovated by Middlebury College, at which time it was renamed Twilight Hall in honor of Alexander Lucius Twilight of the Middlebury Class of 1823, the first African-American citizen to graduate from an American college, who went on to become a distinguished clergyman, educator and legislator in Brownington, Vt. In a way, the location of Twilight Hall adjacent to the Municipal Building is quite suitable, for it was here traditionally that the two faces of Middlebury, town and gown, met. Here the bustle of commercial Middlebury leaves off and the academic world that for so long as been Middlebury's other half takes up. The College The separation of this tour into sections on town and gown, which seems advisable on the basis of shoeleather, is really a rather artificial one. Since 1800 Middlebury and its college have led closely intermeshed lives. One has only to skim back over the descriptions of the buildings in the core of the village for confirmation of this fact. There is Sam Miller's (Charter) House, where on September 30, 1798, Timothy Dwight of Yale and the trustees of the Addison County Grammar School discussed the founding of a college. There is Court Square, where stood the 1796 courthouse. When petitions to the legislatures of 1798 (Vergennes) and 1799 (Windsor) for a charter were tabled because of the opposition of the supporters of the chartered but still inoperative University of Vermont in Burlington, the legislature was invited to meet in Middlebury's courthouse in 1800 and, once there, soon bowed to the town's will. A charter was granted November first, and on the fifth the first class was admitted and the College was under way. For a president the new institution took the master of the grammar school, twenty-seven-year-old Jeremiah Atwater, a protégé of Timothy Dwight. For a home it shared with the Grammar School the Academy Building at the southwest end of Main Street. Other buildings about town as well were tied to the early years of the college: the church and the courthouse, as locations for orations and ceremonies; the homes of presidents, corporation officers, and professors; and the homes of numerous citizens where the students of the growing institution boarded. Beginning with seven students (and a first graduating class of one—Aaron Petty, 1802), by 1811 the College had 110 students, a president, three professors, a tutor, a library approaching one thousand volumes, and scientific equipment including an air pump, an electric machine, two artificial globes, large and small telescopes, a quadrant, a theodolite, a camera lucides, two thermometers, a galvanic pile, a hydrostatic apparatus, a prism, mirrors, etc. It needed more space. It needed buildings of its own in addition to the Academy. The trustees turned to the State for assistance and, receiving none, turned back to the town that had given the college birth. The town came through. Thus at the westerly edge of the village one enters a world that was begun by the town specifically for the college. Although the college was already housed in the Academy Building, it did not follow that the town would agree to an expanded campus built on the west side of the creek. When the corporation of the college decided in 1810 to build an additional structure, they found themselves replaying an old Middlebury story—the site tug-of-war. Seth Storrs had deeded additional land, but some in town preferred to see the new campus placed on Chipman Hill east of the creek. The canny Gamaliel Painter not only solved but played upon the problem to the college's advantage. He pitted one side of the town against the other in fund raising, declaring that the group who raised the most in lumber, nails, labor, glass, stone, etc. should have the college. The drive ran for four years. In the end the west side won, and Painter the diplomat then convinced most of the east side benefactors to be good sports and maintain their pledges anyhow. As a result the college campus was built on the Storrs donated hill west of Academy Park. Academy Park This land was donated by Seth Storrs and his neighbors as a site for the Academy and a west-side counterpart to Painter's village green. This is the gateway from town to campus. It was not at first a focus for elegant building as was the village green. Rather, with a few notable exceptions, it was surrounded by the more modest homes of tradesmen and workers in the mills. Many of these, especially along College Street, were built by John Atwater and still exist—here with added Greek Revival details, there with a Victorian bay window. An early exception to the scale of the area is 2 Franklin Street, built as a tavern in 1800 by Amasa Stowell and boasting a full two stories, end chimneys, a square-headed Palladian window like that originally used on the Painter House, and the same hipped roof and Doric frieze that can be found on its elegant contemporary at 15 South Pleasant Street. Other exceptions to the rule, though from later in the century, can be found on the north side of the park at the foot of the residentially prominent Weybridge Street. Here in 1867 College President Kitchel built a grand house (15 College Street) in the Italianate style of the graded school rising across the street. It is a great frame block enlivened by a pedimented entry pavilion, bracket-borne eyebrows and cornice, and a capping belvedere with round-arched windows. In 1891 the college utilized the house as Battell Hall, its first women's dormitory. Across from the Kitchel House, Weybridge House is French rather than Italian in taste. It was built in 1873 for A.P. Tupper in the then-fashionable Second Empire style with bay windows and brackets carrying a dormered mansard roof. It is presently a college living unit. St. Mary's Church (Roman Catholic) The marble edifice at College and Shannon Streets was begun in 1895 according to the 1892 designs of George Gurnsey, when a handsome blue marble cornerstone, donated by Smith & Brainard Marble Company of nearby Beldens Falls, was laid. But work on the project soon ceased for lack of funds. In 1902, due to the active fund-raising efforts of a popular new priest, J. D. Shannon, construction resumed, with new plans drawn by Hopkins and Casey of Troy, New York, and was completed by 1907. It is a handsome structure of rusticated Brandon marble with round-arched windows, beautifully patterned masonry, and, within, a sanctuary for 700 roofed by a grand suspended barrel vault. Its design is rather Italian in flavor, mixing motifs from the Gothic and Early Renaissance periods. Much of the work on the finely detailed building, and particularly the carving of the altar rail and the original multi-stage altar of Rutland white statuary marble, was reputedly by local marble masons and largely donated. In 1972 the sanctuary was redecorated and, in keeping with new interpretations of the liturgy, the high altar dismantled and remodeled. The elements of that rather remarkable creation can be seen reused in the baptistery and in the base of the present altar table. The College Campus Library At the west end of Franklin Street and the park begins Middlebury's campus proper, marked by the impressive mass of the college's new main library (Gwathmey Siegel Associates, 2000 – 04). Prior to 1968 Storrs Avenue cut straight across to Main Street, with faculty housing to the village side and a green grove leading up to Old Stone Row on the other. However, in that year the College decided to place the sciences at its front door. The construction of the Science Center to the designs of The Architects Collaborative (Cambridge, Massachusetts) closed Storrs Avenue with what was programmed to be the first of a line of three interconnected, five-plus-story buildings of Brutalist concrete and limestone construction, cutting off the front campus from the village. A brilliant success at encouraging and invigorating the sciences at Middlebury, the building was also an urbanistic disaster. When, in the 1990s, the time came for its enlargement, the college determined to correct rather than compound its earlier mistake, move the sciences to the northwest corner of the campus (McCardell Bicentennial Hall), deconstruct and recycle the Science Center, and build a new library in its place. The architects of the new library faced a difficult set of challenges—providing an interior that could accommodate the rapidly changing needs of library and information technology services, inserting a large building into a delicate historical front-campus location, and creating an exterior that is of its times and yet of its place. They addressed the first with a great hall that gives onto three floors of loft-like stack and technology space wrapped by a mezzanined perimeter of offices and study carrels, the contemporary interiors warmed by the use of certified woods harvested from local forests as part of the College's program of environmentally conscious building. They addressed the second by setting the building into the hillside and making it a compact object floating below Old Stone Row rather than a fourth side to a quadrangle. The semi-circular form of the uphill side reinforces the arc-like flow of space between the Row and the village while it also invokes the imagery of rotunda-libraries initiated by Thomas Jefferson at the University of Virginia. It is tied to the structure of the campus above by placement as the anchoring terminus of the important Storrs (Chapel) Walk. To adjust the facades to the scale and materials of the historic campus, the architects have manipulated their characteristic modernist geometries to create individually readable units (picked out in marble against a more textured stone body) that repeat the colors and proportions of the nearby Painter and Warner Halls. The library is not only home to a collection of approximately one million items, but also to high-tech classrooms, multi-media facilities, group studies and viewing rooms, a resource and writing center, a café, the college archives, and a full range of information services. Its reading rooms celebrate vistas to the Green Mountains on the east and the historic campus core to the west. Its Abernethy collection of American literature contains over 19,000 volumes (mostly first editions) and manuscripts of some 1000 authors, including Thoreau, Emerson, Henry Adams, and Robert Frost. Middlebury's collection of "Frostiana" ranges from books and manuscripts to photos, documents, and realia—including the poet's armchair. Other special collections comprise materials on Vermont and local history, rare books and manuscripts, and the Helen Hartness Flanders Ballad Collection and Vermont Traditional Music Archives with their extensive holdings relating particularly to the musical heritage of New England. In the new building's vestibule a history wall traces the evolution of the college's libraries. Its atrium is dominated by a huge mural commissioned and funded in 2004 – 5 from Matt Mullican with the assistance of the Edwin Austin Abbey Fund Committee of the American Academy of Design. On the south flank of the building can be found "The Garden of the Seasons" by Vermont-based environmental artist Michael Singer, commissioned as part of the college's initiative for Art in Public Places. This reading garden incorporates sculptural elements in granite and concrete, indigenous plantings of all seasons, and a water/ice wall to create a changing year-round celebration of the natural world. Front Campus Walking past the Library, one follows an ascending path across the front campus toward the College's oldest buildings. At one time this portion of campus was given a more formal aspect by a fine fence and gates along Storrs Avenue and tree-lined lanes leading to the Old Stone Row at the top of the hill. Today it is an area of more picturesque informality, with groves of fine old trees and glimpses of limestone and marble buildings. Warner Hall Begun at the time of the College Centennial and completed in 1901 according to the designs of York and Sawyer of New York City, this predecessor to the Science Center was the gift of alumnus Ezra J. Warner '61 of Chicago. It now houses the department of Mathematics. Faced with blue and white marble from the Columbian Marble Company of Rutland, it was an up-to-date structure—up-to-date for its high ceilings, large windows, and lecture hemicycle, and for its use of classical architectural details on an educational building (under the inspiration of the Beaux-Arts and City Beautiful movements at the turn of the century. Painter Hall This, the oldest extant college building in Vermont, was the result of the "contest" of 1810, its actual construction dating from 1814 – 16. Originally called "West College" (as opposed to the Academy Building, or "East College"), this building is as practical and straightforward as the town and the men who furnished the $8000 for its construction. The college needed space, space for any of a variety of purposes; and since the largest, most multi-purpose structures with which the townspeople had experience were mill buildings, it is essentially a mill building that they constructed for the college. Not that this was felt to be a shortcoming in any way. The new hall was a focus for local pride. Under the supervision of trustee Rufus Wainwright, the structure was built with local (Weybridge) stone by local masons. It had multiple entries (originally without porches) and staircases giving access to thirty-six rooms with fireplaces. The regular rows of windows and multiple great chimneys give it much the appearance of structures built to house mill-workers in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. The flexibility of the building has paid off over the years. In time a library with reading room and multi-level stacks occupied part of the north end, a two-story gymnasium filled the upper floors of the south end. In 1898 Painter contained a reading room, the only lavatories on campus, a classroom, a library, and six student rooms. Today it is wholly a dormitory. Shortly after its completion, the new building was responsible for the loss of a popular faculty member. In the fall of 1817 twenty-eight-year-old professor of Greek and Latin, Solomon M. Allen, climbed up on the roof to fix a defective chimney. Before the eyes of horrified onlookers, the scaffolding gave way. Allen slid down the roof and died when he fell to the ground. In 1905 Kappa Delta Rho, national social fraternity, was founded in Painter Hall, a fact that is commemorated by the plaque at the south end of the building. Old Chapel The second structure built in Old Stone Row was Old Chapel. By the 1830s the student body had grown to 160, and classroom space demands were that most of the students had to find rooms in town. Accordingly, President Bates proposed constructing a chapel and classroom building to permit the return of space in Painter Hall to dormitory use. Funds were solicited between 1832 and 1835, and President Bates sent his own ideas to Cambridge architect Laomi Baldwin, a Harvard classmate of his, for suggestions. In 1835 – 36 the structure was built at a cost of $15,000, aligned with Painter as the central unit of an envisioned threebuilding row. It was still in the mill tradition, but the mill (much like that in Frog Hollow) was turned endwise with a tower and cupola adorning its principal facade. The ground floor housed the library and mineralogy museum; the second floor, class and lecture rooms; and the third floor, a two-story-high chapel, surrounded on the fourth by faculty offices. Not an inch of space was wasted. Yet it is obvious that a refined image was also desired fox this principal structure of the institution. Greek Revival details, so suited to the nature of the college, are to be seen in the fine cast-iron railing of the outside stairs, the Doric pilasters of the tower and octagonal cupola, and the palmette of the weather vane. Besides its more general invocations of culture, Old Chapel, by virtue of its placement with relation to Painter Hall, seems an allusion to the similarly composed Connecticut Hall and Old Chapel at Middlebury's mother institution, Yale University. As with Painter, so here, too, is a structure much altered in the course of time In 1869 the library took over the second floor, the chapel was diminished in favor of the physics department and remodelled in the Gothic Revival style. Its gallery became a reading room, assigned in 1883 to Middleburv's first coeds as the one place on campus where they could study and gather. In 1940 the entire interior was adapted for use as an administration building, and in 1996 it was totally renovated for this purpose according to designs by Moser Pilon Nelson Architects. Starr Hall This third element of the Old Stone Row had been conceived of as early as the design and construction of Painter Hail; and in the late 1830s surplus funds from the Old Chapel project gave serious impetus to planning for yet another structure to the south. However, as a joint result of harsh disciplinary action, student revolt, and a Hell-fire-and-brimstone religious revival, the college temporarily lost students and popularity. Only by 1860 had the enrollment regained sufficient size to encourage constructing further facilities. The Old Chapel surplus was substantially supplemented by Charles and Egbert Starr, and the cornerstone laid for the new dormitory, a building very similar to Painter Hall but lent a slightly Victorian flavor by the sharply-pitched gables over the entries. In 1864 Starr Hall burned on Christmas night and was rebuilt within the old shell with further donations by the Starr brothers. However, it was to be a long time before the new structure would be utilized to its fullest. First the Civil War and then disciplinary problems reduced the student body to a low of thirty-eight by 1880. Such were the circumstances of the college when in 1885 Prof. Ezra Brainerd '64 accepted the challenge of the presidency and began to build for the institution new popularity, a liberalized curriculum, an expanded endowment, and new facilities.Starr Library Extended three times (by York and Sawyer, 1927; Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson and Abbott, 1959 – 62; and Tully Associates, 1978 – 79), by the 1990s the library was in need of major reworking and expansion yet again. From many viewpoints—coherence of organization, accessibility, technological adaptability—the building did not lend itself to the needs of a contemporary multi-media library facility. It was determined to replace Starr as the college's library and to adapt the historic building for other academic uses. The Boston architectural firm of Childs Bertman Tseckares was commissioned in 2004 to remove the 1970s stack addition (Meredith Wing), restore the historic shell and original reading and Abernethy rooms, and expand the building with a south-facing winter garden, office wings, classroom, screening, and video production facilities to accommodate the Axinn Center for Literary and Cultural Studies, named for donor Donald Everett Axinn '51. Emma Willard House The house across South Main Street at the end of the library walk was built for Dr. John and Emma (Hart) Willard in 1811 and was the site of her female seminary from 1814 – 1819. Of brick with marble lintels over doors and windows, it originally had nine rooms. The wing to the southwest and the Greek Revival details of the interior are the additions by later private owners. In 1959 the College acquired the house and adapted it for use as an admissions office, ultimately adding the single-story wing to the north. In 1966 it was declared a national historic site. The Central Quadrangle With the construction of Starr Library and Warner Hall the composition of the front campus was essentially complete, the College kept growing in endowment and in students. Under Ezra Brainerd's successor, President Thomas, new directions were charted for campus growth to the west and to the north. Thus between 1912 and 1916 work went forward on a new quadrangle behind Old Stone Row. McCullough Student Center Built in 1912 with funds largely provided by ex-governor John G. McCullough, this building by W. Nicholas Albertson of New York City marks another change in style for the campus. Not Vermont mill building or classical Beaux-Arts, this is vaguely colonial. Its symmetrical massing, round-arched windows, entry pavilion, hipped roof, and cupola evoke the Georgian style of our eighteenth century. However, the execution is not in Georgian wood and brick, but rather in Vermont marble. The allusion, too, to a colonial past (which might seem particularly suitable for a New England college) ironically enough, has little to do with Middlebury's origins. The town was barely chartered—let alone the college under way—when such construction was in vogue in Boston and the Middle Atlantic colonies. The gymnasium served first men, then (after 1949) women. In 1963 the competition-sized Arthur M. Brown Swimming Pool was appended to the rear of the structure (the pool has since been replaced with a larger one behind the field house complex in 1996). With the consolidation of the College athletic facilities in the fieldhouse complex, McCullough was converted first for use by the College's dance program and then (1988 – 1990) totally remodeled and expanded by the architectural firm of Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer for use as a student center with the addition of twin polygonal pavilions to the east and west. In 2000 the transformation was completed with the conversion of the old swimming pool space into the Grille (by Freeman, French, and Freeman of Burlington). This colorful multi-level, multi-function space incorporates a juice bar, a short order counter, game and TV rooms, and galleries of tables and booths focusing on a stage and dance floor on the lower level and a free-standing timber-framed billiards pavilion reached by bridges on the upper level. Voter Hall Built in 1912 – 13 as a chemistry building, Voter Hall (also designed by Albertson) matches Warner Hall in massing and McCullough Student Center in placement and character. It was completely renovated in 1970 to accommodate administrative offices on the ground floor and residential suites above. In 1988 the lower floors were renovated yet again to house the College's computer center. At the top of the hill overlooking the "quadrangle" and balancing out Old Stone Row are Middlebury's strongest statements in the Colonial Revival style. Hepburn Hall The earliest of this group to be constructed was Middlebury's first fireproof dormitory, Hepburn Hall (1914 – 16), the gift of A. Barton Hepburn '71. The design of Rossiter and Muller of New York City, this dominating structure is finely proportioned and academically more correct than the more vigorous McCullough and Voter below. True to its times, it is much larger in scale than such Georgian prototypes as those at William and Mary and Harvard Yard. The flavor is much more that of the Harvard houses of the 1920s. In material, however, Hepburn departed from the style. The donor had specified his favorite yellow brick! After his death the building was painted gray in an attempt to relate it more closely with the general vocabulary of the campus. The former dining room of the hall has come to be known popularly as the "Hepburn Zoo"—not because of the eating habits of the students, but because it was adorned with Hepburn's collection of hunting trophies. The "Zoo" is often used as a workshop theatre for student productions. To the south of Hepburn Hall is Stewart Hall, a residential unit built in 1956. Mead Chapel The new chapel (1916) was the gift of ex-governor John A. Mead. The work of Allen and Collens of Boston, it draws freely upon the vocabularies of the American classical styles of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in its translation of the traditional New England meeting house into marble. Thus one finds a Greek Revival temple front, Georgian doors and windows and Federal tower. Above the colonnade is inscribed a quotation from Psalm XCV: "The strength of the hills is His also." The tower houses a carillon of eleven bells. Within the building is a beautiful, Georgian-inspired panelled sanctuary with galleries on three sides and in the chancel the college's magnificent Gress-Miles organ, installed in 1971. Here on Sundays throughout the school year one can hear the outstanding college choir. Here, too, are given recitals and certain events from the college concert series. Gifford Hall The final building in the group was not built until 1940. The gift of Mrs. James M. Gifford, it was designed by John Muller of New York City and matches the general design of the Rossiter-Muller Hepburn Hall to the south. However, it is executed in the more usual campus limestone, with very fine NeoGeorgian woodwork detailing inside and out. Proctor Hall This building behind the crest of the hill, named in honor of the late governor Redfield Proctor, was built in 1960 as a student center. It still houses dining facilities, College store, lounges, and the College radio station WRMC-FM. Munroe Hall The gift of Charles Munroe '96 of New York City, this classroom and office building was erected in 1941 and serves as the home of many of the departments in the Humanities and the Social Sciences. Another of John Muller's Neo-Georgian designs, it is executed in the same Weybridge limestone used in Old Stone Row. There is a bronze sculpture of a dog catching a Frisbee in front of the building. By Patrick Farrow of Rutland, Vt., it commemorates the tradition that the Frisbee was "invented" by a group of Middlebury students using metal pie plates in the 1950s. The North Campus Crossing College Street one enters the North Campus (originally the women's campus). Middlebury first admitted women in 1883 under President Hamlin. At first the only oncampus provision for the coeds was a reading room on the top floor of Old Chapel. Then, in 1891 the former president's house erected by President Kitchell at College and Weybridge Streets was adapted for use as a women's dormitory and came to be called "Battell Hall." In 1902, a separate women's college was chartered, and soon after taking office in 1907, President Thomas began work on accommodations for this institution. He had solicited a matching grant from D.K. Pearsons of Chicago and begun a fund drive when approached by Joseph Battell with the offer of a twelve-acre site north of College Street. President Thomas walked the site, found it wet and scrubby but with a spectacular view of the village, and then proposed to Battell one even better—the adjoining farm on the ridge to the west with views in both directions. Battell bought and donated the latter site (thirty-six acres) as well. Forest Hall Originally designed by Dwight J. Baum as the corner structure of an unrealized grandiose Neo-Georgian women's quadrangle, Forest Hall was built in 1936. Its name is derived from the fact that it was financed by a sale of a large portion of the mountain acreage left the college in 1915 by Joseph Battell to the Federal Government for the Green Mountain National Forest. Adirondack House West of Forest Hall is the Victorian farmhouse of Merino sheep breeder and wool dealer U.D. Twitchell that went with the farm purchased by Joseph Battell for the women's campus. In 1909 it was remodeled with designs of Frank Lyman Austin of Burlington and extended with a long ell for use as a dormitory and women's dining hall. The hall, which presently known as Coltrane Lounge, boasts a massive Richardsonian fireplace. The building now houses a variety of College offices. Pearsons Hall Behind Adirondack House and beautifully placed on the ridge that Joseph Battell bought for its views, is Pearsons Hall, the first Middlebury structure built for women. It is named for D.K. Pearsons of Chicago, who encouraged and helped fund the project. Built in 1911, it is by the same architect (W. Nicholas Albertson) and in the same marble and the same Georgian-inspired vocabulary as its contemporaries Voter and McCullough. Inside it originally boasted accommodations for sixty-two women, with reception rooms, a suite for the Dean of Women, and basement laundry and gymnasium. The Dean, the laundry, and the gym are gone, but it still serves as a dormitory. Ross Commons Ross Commons, named for Dean of Women, Eleanor Ross '95, is the first to be completed of the College's program to develop residential commons. Modeled on the concept of the Houses at Harvard and the Colleges at Yale, each commons combines a broad range of residential types (from first-year doubles through senior apartments) with dining, social, study, and dean's facilities around an open green. Unlike their historic prototypes, however, these complexes cannot be tightly interconnected and introverted but must be achieved utilizing the more open texture of the campus with its sense of individual building blocks in a landscape. Ross was generated by supplementing what had long been known as the "New Dorms," a series of residence halls built in 1969 – 70 and totally rebuilt as a single connected complex in 1994 – 5—its various wings named for long-time Dean of Women, Elizabeth Baker Kelly, and trustees Egbert Hadley '10 (a descendant of the Starrs), Fred P. Lang '17, and Gertrude Cornish Milliken '01 (Middlebury's first woman trustee). To this nucleus in 2000 – 02 architect Tai Soo Kim added senior housing and dining facilities to play off of the existing buildings to create a commons green that preserves and emphasizes the historic view corridor from Pearsons Hall to the Adirondacks, to define a western edge to campus construction, and to terminate the rhythm of dignified stone masses along College Street. The dormitory (LaForce Hall) utilizes a massing similar to that of Old Chapel but based on a mill-with-monitor type that is even closer to Middlebury alumnus Alexander Twilight's Old Stone House in Brownington, Vt. It is softened, though, with a curving rather than angular roof profile, echoed in the descending curved roofs of the lower dining hall that mimic the falling contours of the hillside as it falls to the rural valley below. The dining hall and paneled lounge are dominated by the warmth of certified local woods and by stunning westward views. McCardell Bicentennial Hall Janus-like, Middlebury's new home for the sciences appropriately addressed the old Middlebury and the new at the time of the College's Bicentennial. Looking ahead, it was located at the northwest corner of the campus in order to find space adequate for combining all of the sciences in a single structure, to serve as the northern anchor of what master planning activities had proposed as an "Academic Arc" (the clustering of major academic activities along a pedestrian corridor extending the length of the campus), and to utilize topography to minimize the evident scale of the necessarily large structure from the its campus approach. Built to the designs of Payette Associates of Boston (1996 – 9), it was conceived to bring together state-of-the-art quarters for the departments of Biology, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Computer Science, Geography, Geology, Physics, and Psychology and for programs in Environmental Studies, Neuroscience, and molecular Biology and Biochemistry in a fashion that would foster maximized interaction and sharing of facilities. Thus its wings of offices and laboratories meet around a vast great hall surrounded by informal interactive study areas and giving onto major lecture rooms, the science library, and a pioneering wing of generic laboratories that can be converted to serve a variety of disciplines, including summer language study. Its systems (e.g. room occupancy sensors that control lights and a heat-recovery system for discharged air) and finishes (local, natural and recycled materials including 125,000 board feet of certified, sustainably-harvested wood from local forests, varied by species from floor to floor and corridor to corridor) were determined to serve a major college initiative for environmental responsibility. At the same time, the building has not lost touch with the venerable traditions of the campus and of the sciences at Middlebury. Its display cases are filled with pieces from a noteworthy collection of historic scientific apparatus, dating back to the early days of the institution and still in the college's possession (though several pieces, on extended loan to the Smithsonian Institution, can only be seen by a visit to Washington, D.C.). Among the apparatus in situ are telescopes dating back to the late 19th century, including that from the "America," the yacht for which the America's Cup Race is named. Its descendants can be found in the rooftop observatory, a regular venue for public star-gazing and itself part of a lineage dating back to the college's first observatory in the cupola of Old Chapel. Analogous to the latter, the new observatory caps the roof of its building with a formal cupola-like presence. Other references to the campus are the stone sheathing, the rhythm of individual windows, the wings proportioned and parapeted in the manner of Painter Hall, and the ventilation stacks treated to recall the chimney-studded silhouette of that oldest college building. To the southeast of the massive structure is an appropriately monumental work of sculpture, acquired as part of the college's program of Art in Public Places. This is "Smog," conceived by Tony Smith in 1969 and fabricated for the college in painted aluminum in 1999 – 2000. Its repetitious crystalline expansion of angular forms, fascinatingly mobile when viewed from changing angles and in changing light, seems particularly suitable to a place given to the study of things like molecular and cellular structure. Freeman International Center At the extreme northwest of campus is a complex built in 1970 as "Social Dining Units." Intended to provide more intimate alternatives to the larger campus dining halls, it combined faculty offices, seminar rooms, lounges and dining rooms in three units clustered around a central kitchen. This award-winning design by Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson and Abbott of Boston, combined contemporary forms and materials (such as the brutal, exposed concrete of the terrace) with a vocabulary that is at home in Middlebury and rural Vermont—limestone, wood, pitched slate roofs, silos and small-scale, picturesque massing. The individual sections are named for President Cyrus Hamlin (1880 – 85) during whose presidency women were admitted to Middlebury; Professor-Emeritus Reginald C. ("Doc") Cook '24, forty years a faculty member, long-time director of the Bread Loaf School of English, and biographer of Robert Frost; and Professor-Emeritus Stephen A. Freeman, forty-five-year faculty member and long-time director of the Summer Language Schools. In 1993 Dr. Freeman became the namesake for the entire complex as reworked, with an additional floor designed by Moser Pilon Nelson Architects, for use as Middlebury's center for international studies. Freeman International Center At the extreme northwest of campus is a complex built in 1970 as "Social Dining Units." Intended to provide more intimate alternatives to the larger campus dining halls, it combined faculty offices, seminar rooms, lounges and dining rooms in three units clustered around a central kitchen. This award-winning design by Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson and Abbott of Boston, combined contemporary forms and materials (such as the brutal, exposed concrete of the terrace) with a vocabulary that is at home in Middlebury and rural Vermont—limestone, wood, pitched slate roofs, silos and small-scale, picturesque massing. The individual sections are named for President Cyrus Hamlin (1880 – 85) during whose presidency women were admitted to Middlebury; Professor-Emeritus Reginald C. ("Doc") Cook '24, forty years a faculty member, long-time director of the Bread Loaf School of English, and biographer of Robert Frost; and Professor-Emeritus Stephen A. Freeman, forty-five-year faculty member and long-time director of the Summer Language Schools. In 1993 Dr. Freeman became the namesake for the entire complex as reworked, with an additional floor designed by Moser Pilon Nelson Architects, for use as Middlebury's center for international studies. Atwater Commons The second of the residential commons to be completed, Atwater (named for first college president Jeremiah Atwater) is notable for its inclusion of significant existing buildings, a complex topographical site, and environmental design into an interactive commons community. Coffrin Hall This dormitory, constructed in 1986 according to the designs of Edward Larrabee Barnes, is a good example of the attitudes of the post modern era, adapting and updating motifs derived from other campus buildings (e.g. Forest Hall and Le Chateau). It was built as a series of interconnected segments that can operate as autonomous units for different languages during the Middlebury Summer Language Schools. Its staggered massing let it appear smaller than its actual size, but also permitted it to follow the forms of a ledge against which it was built. Concepts present in Coffrin Hall were important to the three new buildings constructed by Kieran Timberlake Associates of Philadelphia in 2002 – 4 to as upperclass housing and dining facilities for Atwater Commons. The dormitories were set to follow the lines of north-south ridges, framing a green that preserves the outward vista from the Château. Their massing and rooflines take cues from Painter Hall, as does their organization into a sequence of entries. This configuration permits the creation of apartment-like suites that extend through the depth of the building to assure natural cross ventilation, assisted by ceiling fans and by ventilation shafts in the form of rooftop chimneys. The oval dining pavilion also responds to its landscape and its views. Terminating a diagonal vista into and through the commons from the direction of Pearsons Hall and straddling the walk linking the commons with the residence of its faculty heads (Nichols House on Weybridge Street), the dining hall settles into a wooded landscape and emphasizes views outward to the Green Mountains. Its green roof is planted to help it to merge into the landscape, but also for its abilities as an insulator and a controller of run-off. Such innovations are representative of the college’s ongoing initiatives in environmentally responsible design. Le Château The landmark building for Atwater, establishing its ―address‖ on the main campus, is Le Château. For long this reigned as the oldest and one of the largest "maisons françaises" (French language residence halls) in the country. Built in 1925 as a gift of Frederica Holden Proctor and according to the designs of James Lange Mills of New York, it was inspired by the 17th century Pavilion Henri IV at the Palace of Fontainebleau in France. It was the first of Middlebury’s language dormitories, containing a library, a resident’s suite, classrooms, offices, salon, and dining room as well as student residences. In its self-containment its program suggested the mix that would ultimately be created on a larger and non-Francophone scale by the commons of which it has become a component. Recast for its new role in 2004, Le Chateau still houses the Department of French, while its classrooms, salon, and residential floors serve a broader constituency as well, and its dining hall has been converted into a performance space. Allen Hall Completed in 1963, Allen Hall was an extension of the Château idea—divisible into four sections, each with its own study lounge and resident’s suite, with the ability to serve groups of students wishing to speak a particular language. It is named for Cecil Child Allen '01 and constructed of slate from her home town of Fair Haven, Vt. In 2004 it was adapted for use as a first year residence hall and commons offices for Atwater Commons. Wright Memorial Theatre (1958) This 400-seat theatre is named for Charles Baker Wright. Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature from 1885 to 1920. Designed by the firm of McKim, Mead and White, it serves as the College's proscenium stage for a broad range of undergraduate, summer school, and visiting professional productions. Johnson Building Designed by the firm of Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson and Abbott and built in 1968, this handsome structure was the gift of the Christian A. Johnson Endeavor Foundation. It demonstrated that a building need not have a cupola to fit in with the Middlebury campus. The architecture is brutalist in style, with raw concrete, cement block walls, and natural wood throughout, but the scale and the limestone exterior permit it to co-exist quietly and naturally with other campus structures. Originally built to house the programs in art and music, it is now home to departments of Studio Art and History of Art and Architecture. The studios, extending across the east side of the building on two levels, afford their occupants the striking vista of Middlebury and the surrounding mountains that first led Joseph Battell to purchase the North Campus for the College. The skylit central court and adjacent gallery are filled during the academic year with changing exhibitions of student work. Out front is a mobile ("Eccentric Variation VI") commissioned from sculptor George Rickey in 1975. Battell Halls Across Chateau quadrangle from the Johnson Building and named for the College's great local benefactor, Joseph Battell, are the Battell Halls, dormitories built in 1950 (north and south ends) and 1955 (center). Sunderland Language Center At the corner of College Street and the mall are are the Sunderland Language Center and the adjoining Charles A. Dana Auditorium (1965). The 270-seat auditorium is a favorite location for large lectures (College and public) and the many domestic and foreign films presented during the year. Sunderland's primary role on campus is as the year-round nerve center for the most famous of Middlebury’s educational programs—the study of modern languages. The special association of Middlebury with languages dates back to 1915, when the College instituted an intensive summer program in German, followed by French (1916 ), Spanish (1917), Italian (1932), Russian (1945), Chinese (196), Japanese (1970), Arabic (1982), and Portuguese (2003). The pioneering philosophy of the programs was and remains a total immersion in language, literature, and culture—all communication to be in the language studied and relapses into English forbidden under penalty of expulsion. To this end each language group is assigned its own living and dining facilities, and close out-of-class contact is maintained between students and faculty. Before the completion of the Chateau, the French School held forth for some years at the old Logan House Hotel on Park Street. The Germans were established for a time in the village of Bristol. Today the entire campus in summer is devoted to language study, with as many of more students than during the regular year. For Middlebury juniors and for students in the graduate summer programs, the study of language extends broad, where through C.V. Starr-Middlebury Schools Abroad maintain schools in sixteen cities in France, Germany, Italy, Latin America, Russia, and Spain. Other College facilities of likely interest to the visitor are the Center for the Arts, the athletic complex and the mountain campus, the first two accessible by foot, the latter definitely requiring a car to reach. Center for the Arts This building was constructed in 1988 – 92 to the designs of Hardy, Holzman, Pfeiffer Associates. It is conceived as a collage of materials and forms—a sloping-roofed shed intersected by a great circular courtyard and penetrated by performance and museum halls, each maintaining its own identity of shape and materials within and without. Here, about a complex, multi-level lobby can be found the College's black box theatre, a surround concert hall, a dance performance hall, the College art museum, the box office, and a caf´. The complex also includes classrooms, rehearsal space, and technical support for the programs in theater, dance, and music, along with an extensive library housing some 10,000 volumes, 20,000 recordings, and 15,000 musical scores. Also housed at the Center for the Arts is the Middlebury College Museum of Art. The Museum was inaugurated in the Center for the Arts in 1992. Originally established in the Johnson Building in 1968 as the Christian A. Johnson Memorial Gallery, the museum now houses the permanent art collection of the College as well as the new Christian A. Johnson Memorial Gallery, a space given by the Christian A. Johnson Endeavor Foundation for the accommodation of traveling exhibitions. The collection of several thousand objects ranges from ancient through contemporary art and includes distinguished collections of antique pottery, 19th century European and American sculpture, Asian art, photography, and contemporary prints. Particularly noteworthy are a 5th-century B.C.E. Greek amphora by the Berlin Painter; a wax over plaster sculpture, "Bimbo Malato," by the 19th-century Italian sculptor Medardo Rosso; and "The Moon, August 6, 1851," a daguerreotype by John Adams Whipple. The museum is also home to the earliest work of art acquired by the College: a monumental relief of a winged guardian spirit, or genius, from the 9th-century B.C.E. palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud, now northern Iraq. The museum is open to the public free of charge throughout the year. The Fieldhouses The athletic fields and fieldhouses are on South Main Street (Route 30), southwest of the Center for the Arts. Here in 1949 was built the Memorial Field House with the gifts of 5,000 alumni in memory of classmates lost in the war. Originally an air base in Rome, New York, it was dismantled, moved by truck, and reassembled on the Middlebury site. It houses the Pepin Gymnasium and Nelson Recreation Center (the former Nelson Hockey Arena, refitted with a multi-use activities floor and climbing wall). Adjacent are a Fitness Center (1985) with panoramic windows overlooking the Green Mountains, an Olympic-sized Natatorium (1996), and the Chip Kenyon '85 hockey arena (1999), all by Moser Pilon Nelson of Wethersfield, Conn. Beyond the fieldhouse complex are the Youngman Stadium (Moser Pilon Nelson, 1991), the 18 -hole Ralph Myre Golf Course, and the lighted 3.5 km Kelly cross-country ski and jogging trail (1976). On a knoll south of the stadium entrance a bronze rendition of the Middlebury Panther (Lorenzo Ghiglieri, 1997) crouches atop a great glacial boulder. Transported to the site by the Committee on Art in Public Places to serve as an appropriate base this is purportedly the largest single piece of stone to have been moved in Vermont since the Ice Age. The Mountain Campus Bread Loaf On Route 125 fifteen miles east of the campus, in Ripton, are additional college facilities developed on part of the land left to the institution in 1915 by Joseph Battell. The Bread Loaf campus is set in a beautiful mountain meadow and includes Battell's 1861 Victorian inn and its adjacent barn, "cottages," library, and "Little Theatre." Formerly a summer hotel, since 1920 Bread Loaf has been the home of the summer school of English and, since 1926, of the summer Writers' Conference (first of its kind in the country). Just to the west is the college-owned Homer Noble Farm, former summer home of Robert Frost, who was for years an important participant in the Writers' Conference. Here in the winter can be enjoyed the Rikert Ski Touring Center, with fifty kilometers of groomed trails connecting the Bread Loaf campus to the Snow Bowl. The Snow Bowl Further east on Route 125 (and open only during the skiing season) is the Middlebury College Snow Bowl, with its three chair lists, and fourteen trails and slopes. The area is served by the Neil Starr Shelter, which—with its food services, huge fireplace, glazed balcony, and sunny terrace—is an ideal location from which to observe the Snow Bowl's activities. Middlebury Village Continued Elsewhere in Town Each street in town and virtually every house on it has played a role in the composite history of Middlebury. However, to note every house, date, builder and subsequent owner would be beyond the intended scope of this booklet, though such information can readily be gleaned from the materials in the research wing of the Sheldon Museum. Rather, it is our purpose here to note other buildings and sites of particular interest that would not conveniently fit into the framework of the walking tour. Court Street 9 Court Street A house of 1823 completely transformed by an elaborate Victorian remodeling in the 1880s. The bay windows, porches, brackets, fascias under the eaves, and dormers are quite typical of the woodwork from Smith and Allen's Mill Street shop. The Second Empire mansard roof and tower exhibit particularly fine multi-colored (polychrome) state work, popular in the Middlebury area during the Victorian period. 12 Court Street Built in 1827 by Nahum Parker as a cabinet shop, this is reputedly the shop in which the Brandon-born Stephen A. Douglas learned his trade. 13 Court Street Built in 1796 by Erastus Hawley at the corner of Court and Washington Streets and moved about 1828 by Nahum Parker for his residence. It has been substantially remodeled for retail purposes. 15 Court Street The old Middlebury Hotel, built in 1811 (and much remodeled) adjacent to the old Addison County Fair Grounds (now the Recreation Park). Just to the south of this is the site where the 1796 courthouse stood until 1939 as an exhibition building for the fair. 31 Court Street The delightfully elaborate Victorian remodeling (1881) of an 1810 Cape Cod house. 35 Court Street The 1846 Addison County jail, third jail to be built in Middlebury. It is a fine brick structure in a simple Greek Revival taste. Until the 1960s the cells were completely lined with slabs of Brandon marble. Changing penal patterns in the state led to the closure of the county jail in 1971 and then to its reopening with some renovations in 1984. In 1996 an expansion was designed and built by Breadloaf Construction Company, with a renovation of the cell block to increase the number of cells from 12 to 21 and the addition of a sally port, day room, and an exercise court. Washington Street 7 Washington Street Middlebury's first jail (1794), moved to this site from Court Square in 1812 and remodeled first for use as a dwelling and later as offices. The cells originally had walls of stout planks ribbed with wrought iron rods stapled to the planking. 15 Washington Street Early 19th-century blacksmith shop, repaired in 1815 by John Houghton, now a residence. 17 Washington Street Middlebury's second jail, built by Jabez Rogers in 1811. This handsome stone building was converted into a residence in the 1840s by Oliver Wellington with the addition of the back ell and some fine Greek Revival details. The lights around the front door are set with an uncolored variant of the etched glass that was popular in Victorian Middlebury. 27 Washington Street Site of the small 1801 house of Samuel Coe, one of Middlebury's first and reputedly finest house joiners. Coe was murdered here, and his heirs sold the property to Elisha Brewster, who had the front two-story structure built in 1815. The old back wing, thought to be haunted, was supposedly removed and replaced. Brewster's was a Federal Style townhouse, oriented end-on to the street and detailed with an elliptical attic light and some of the finest cave mouldings in Middlebury. The Greek Revival porch, doorway, and tall first floor windows are the results of a remodeling of the 1840s. In the side yard was located one of Middlebury's old fire protection cisterns. 30 Washington Street Nathaniel Ripley House, about 1815. 36 – 38 Washington Street Leonard Deming House, 1810. 51 Washington Street The Deacon J. Erwin Crane residence. This structure was built by Clinton Smith in 1881 with a wildly eclectic use of the popular styles of the day. Here elements of French, Italian, and Gothic Revival mix and blend to make one of Middlebury's most remarkable Victorian houses. 53 Washington Street This cottage, built in 1871 for Sylvester B. Rockwell, a wealthy sheep merchant, who owned nearby "Springside" at 39 Seminary Street, is a charming example of Carpenter's Gothic, which was popular in Vermont through the middle decades of the century. 68 Washington Street Extension Built by Clinton Smith for Luther Farnsworth in 1882, this is one of Smith's most delightful and elaborately detailed creations in wood. Particularly noteworthy are such Stick Style elements as the pseudo structure of the tower and dormer and the elaborate brackets of the porches. Washington Street Extension Burial ground used in the last years of the eighteenth and early years of the 19th century by village families. Here can be found members of the Painter, Simmons, and Miller families. Seminary Street 11 Seminary Street Built by Ruluff Lawrence in 1810, this house boasts a center hall with a curving staircase and twin chimney masses that merge in the attic. Its front door was later remodeled in the Greek Revival Style. 12 Seminary Street Built on the site of 39 North Pleasant Street by Dr. Joseph Clark in 1793 and moved by Ruluff Lawrence in 1804. 15 Seminary Street Built by Ruluff Lawrence in 1808 on land purchased from Daniel Chipman. This house has the unusual feature also seen in 11 Seminary St. of twin chimney stacks merging in the attic into the single mass that penetrates the roof. The house has been divided down the center and altered accordingly. 21 Seminary Street Built in 1813 by Middlebury printer Timothy C. Strong, publisher of the Vermont Mirror, the Christian Herald, and the Christian Messenger. 23 Seminary Street Built in the first quarter of the nineteenth century for Samuel Bent, manufacturer of candles, starch, and wool cards. 26 Seminary Street Built about 1804 by William Baker for Loudon Case. At mid-century it was the residence of Joseph Dyar, Middlebury silversmith and clockmaker. 33 Seminary Street Former District 6 Schoolhouse, built in 1823 and converted into a residence in 1872. The doorway with its etched red Victorian glass originally came from 11 Washington Street. 39 Seminary Street "Springside." This is the site on which Daniel Chipman, a cousin of John, had his frame residence built in 1802 – 03 according to the designs of Samuel D. Coe. Chipman settled in Middlebury in 1794 to practice law. From 1798 onwards he frequently represented the town in the General Assembly, in 1813 and 1814 served as Speaker of the House, and in 1814 was elected to Congress. Early in the century he founded a law school, for which he built a three-story building across the street from his home in 1816. In 1818 the great house, reputedly the most beautiful in Middlebury, burned, and the Chipmans took up residence in the law school and later moved to another fine house Daniel had built in Ripton. In 1832 Epaphrus Miller bought the Chipman site and in 1836 had the present structure built. Surrounded by broad lawns and a fine wrought iron fence, it sits prominently on the southern slope of the hill, a great brick mass with handsome Greek Revival details and porch. In 1853 the property was purchased by wealthy sheep merchant Sylvester B. Rockwell, who added wide sliding doors between the front and back parlors, red and blue Bohemian pressed glass around the door, and the wooden wing behind the house. Rockwell's granddaughter married Professor (and later President) Ezra Brainerd, and the home became the president's house between 1885 and 1907, with Monday evening faculty meetings held in the front parlor. Besides its site, its grand rooms and fine woodwork, the house boasts a large kitchen fireplace with two ovens and a basement spring which served as a natural refrigerator and from which the property takes its name of "Springside." 42 Seminary Street It was on this site that Daniel Chipman built his three-story law school, to which he moved after the 1818 fire in his home. In 1827 the Female School Association purchased the building and fitted it up for the Female Seminary (from which the street took its name). A two-story wing was added three years later. In 1869 Charles Munroe bought the property and, according to conflicting accounts, variously razed, moved and remodeled portions of the Seminary complex to develop the property for his residence. In 1925 the Munroe house was enlarged and remodeled into the present Colonial Revival structure. The building served as the Congregational parsonage from 1946 to 1975. Stonecrop Ledge (Seminary Street Extension) This lot was settled in 1784 by Stephen Goodrich, who built first a cabin and then (about 1797) a house on the site. In 1800 he deeded his house and fifty acres to Dr. William Bass, a young and soon-to-prosper physician. Here by 1812 Dr. Bass had built one of the most prestigious houses in Middleburv. Its broad western front with its Georgian central pediment, Palladian window, and grand fan-lighted doorway was designed to be seen from Washington Street; but its operative entrance was toward Seminary Street, from which it appeared to be a large version of the Federal Style townhouse. The mass of the house is heightened and rendered even more impressive by the high attic with its series of fine elliptical windows. Within, this house is of the "townhouse" type, with an off-center entry and curving staircase. The walls of the principal rooms have been thickened to permit the paneled window recesses usually possible only with masonry and the fireplaces have mantles of varied and elegant Federal Style designs. Elements of the house relate so closely to the Congregational Church and the S. S. Phelps House on Main Street that it is inconceivable that this could be the work of anyone other than Lavius Fillmore. The house was later acquired by Prof. D. Gregory Means, who added the elaborate porch to the west front and the winterized back apartments. The stuccoed house across the street from Stonecrop Ledge, at 62 Seminary Street Extension, is reputedly a section of the Female Seminary moved from the Munroe House site and converted into a residence. If so, it is the only element of the three buildings in town occupied by the Seminary to be left standing. East of the Seminary building, at 66 Seminary Street Extension, is the Asa Chapman House, built at the corner of Court and Washington Streets in 1800 as Erastus Hawley's harness shop. It was purchased by Chapman for use as a shop and then remodeled as a dwelling in the Greek Revival Style. It was moved to the present site to make way for the building of the Chittenden Bank on Court Square. High Street 4 High Street This much added-to story-and-a-half dwelling was built about 1815 by Martin Wood. 8 High Street Built in 1815 by Rowland Hack, this simple two-story postcolonial house has received a later doorway with etched glass lights. 11 High Street In spite of its added dormer and porch, this house, built about 1810 by Josiah Stowell, is one of the best preserved Cape Cod houses in Middlebury. Behind its large and very complete old kitchen fireplace is a smoke chamber, above which climbs the tiny, steep staircase to the upper floor. 17 High Street Another interesting and well-preserved post-colonial house is this one begun as a one-story, center-chimney dwelling by house joiner Bela Sawyer in 1798. Later owners added a full second story, Greek Revival door surround, and back wing, but the south front of the house (toward Seminary Street) maintains a staunchly late eighteenth century scale and air. 18 High Street The story-and-a-half dwelling built by Nathaniel Ripley, one of Middlebury's early carpenters, about 1800. Stewart Lane The entire north side of this street, carved from Daniel Chipman's estate in 1814, is occupied by the property and home (built 1814 – 15) of Samuel Swift, lawyer, town clerk, state legislator and local historian. Here in 1855 Swift wrote the minutely detailed History of the Town of Middlebury, on which much of the information in this booklet is based. Slightly less grand in scale and detailing, the house is very similar to Stonecrop Ledge of Seminary Street in form, though it was oriented solely toward Stewart Lane. The interior was somewhat altered (with the removal of the curving staircase) and a summer kitchen wing was replaced by a two-story back ell by Governor John W. Stewart. For Stewart as well Clinton Smith designed and built the 1885 horse barn and carriage house at the northeast corner of the property. The house remained the residence of his daughter, Mrs. Charles M. (Jessica Stewart) Swift, in whose person are represented four of Middlebury's most important families—Seymours, Battells, Stewarts, and Swifts—until her death in 1982 at the age of 110. The house and carriage barn have subsequently been converted into the Swift House Inn. North Street 1 North Street A one-and-a-half-story house built in 1810 by Clark Fitz. This simple but attractive post and beam structure has sidelights and a distinctive door. Methodist Lane 3 Methodist Lane Almost certainly the home of William Young, Middlebury's first cabinetmaker. Built about 1796. Weybridge Street 70 Weybridge Street "The Homestead." Built in 1809 far Samuel Sargent, a goldsmith, who may also have added the Greek Revival door and interior woodwork before his death in 1847. The house is now owned by the College. 53 Weybridge Street The 1813 home of Artemas Nixon, one of the succession of operators of the Mattocks Tavern on Court Square. 82 Weybridge Street "The Gables." A residence of the 1880s mixing Gothic Revival and late Victorian tastes. The tower above the door has been truncated. 73 Weybridge Street Built by Benjamin Lawrence in 1810 and Victorianized by Clinton Smith for Dr. Merritt Eddy in 1878. 107 Weybridge Street Site of the 1810 Federal Style house built by Benjamin Lawrence and inhabited by Dr. Z. Bass. The original house was moved back on the site and converted into a carriage house in 1883 to make way for M. L. Severance's Second Empire Home. 202 Weybridge Street Built by Jonathan Hagar in 1818, this Cape Cod house was subsequently remodeled in a Gothic Revival taste. With its gingerbread porch and verge boards, it is one of the most charming examples of Carpenter's Gothic to be found in the Middlebury area. 256 Weybridge Street Also built by Jonathan Hagar in 1818, but unlike its contemporary at number 202, this house has retained its original character to a remarkable degree. With its fine proportions, stocky center chimney, beautiful Georgian style doorway, and kitchen fireplace, it is one of the best preserved of all early Middlebury homes. 275 Weybridge Street The home built for tanner David B. Nichols, probably in the late 1830s, is the most complete example of Greek Revival architecture to be found in Middlebury. Noteworthy are the beautifully detailed front doorway with its delicate colonnettes, the corner pilasters with inset palmettes, and the rectangular attic window with its elaborate frame. Within, the woodwork of each major room has been decorated with a different motif. South Street Porter Medical Center and Helen Porter Nursing Home At the edge of the village is the Porter Medical Center, established by a gift of William H. Porter in 1923 to provide a complete medical facility for the college and the community. This complex of buildings has been expanded and modified many times over the year. South Main Street Main Street Burial Ground To walk this burial ground is to walk Middlebury's past. Here beneath simple slabs, eternal obelisks and pyramids, and a sublimely shattered pillar rest some of the most prominent persons from every era of Middlebury's history: Gamaliel Painter, Seth Stows, Horatio Seymour, Eben Judd, Daniel Chipman, Samuel Swift, Henshaws, Starrs, Battens, Wainwrights. Not far from the grave of Daniel Chipman and just next to that of General Hastings Warren is the monument (on the Mead lot) of Prince Amun-Her-Khepesh-Ef, two-year-old son of King Senwoset III and Queen Hathor-Hotpe [sic], who died in 1883 B.C. In Middlebury? No, but his mummy was on display in the Sheldon Museum until the damp Vermont climate triggered its deterioration and it was decided to give the Prince decent burial once more, trading the Champlain Valley for Egypt's Valley of the Kings. Ethan Andrus House On the west side of South Main Street (Route 30) across from the field house complex. This house, built for Ethan Andrus in 1803, is one of the handful of very early high style houses in Middlebury. The two-story residence is particularly noteworthy for the dentil moulding beneath its eaves and the elegant Georgian detailing of the front door, its pilasters and pediment very similar in conception to those of the main door of the Congregational Church. The house is now owned by the College. In the Town Farmingdale (the Seeley District) The area around the junction of Halladay and Three-Mile-Bridge Roads is important to Middlebury's story. It is here that Col. John Chipman cleared the first land in Middlebury in 1766, that Benjamin Smalley built the first house in 1772 (commemorated by a marker on the south side of Three-Mile-Bridge Road), and that Gamaliel Painter developed his farm (on the continuation of Halladay Road). After his return in 1784 Chipman built a two-story brick house, which was subsequently purchased by William Y. Ripley and burned in 1829. In 1830 — 31 Ripley built the two-story frame house west of the Halladay Road intersection, using the Chipman bricks for his cellar and chimneys. His daughter, Julia Ripley Dorr, made the neighborhood the setting for her novel Farmingdale, and the area received the name as a result. Today it is also known as the Seeley District for the eight generations of Seeleys who have lived in the house and the neighborhood since the mid-19th century. Across Three-Mile-Bridge Road is the one-story house where John Chipman reputedly lived before building his brick home (which would make it one of the oldest, if not the oldest, extant house in town). On the north side of Three-Mile-Bridge Road is the burial ground for this district. Here can be found the graves of John Chipman, Goodriches, Smalleys, Seeleys, and other old families who developed this portion of town. Foote Street (The street name is spelled with the final "e" used by some of the family, though not apparently by old Daniel.) Turn north off Route 7 at the former District 3 Schoolhouse (1835) or south off Quarry Road. This is the area settled by Daniel Foot and his sons, married daughter, grandchildren, and in-laws. The pre-Revolutionary Foot buildings were destroyed, but furnishings buried in the woods survived until the family's return in 1783. At that time Daniel built a small one-story house on the southeast corner of lot no. 6, in which he resided during the years that he developed his farm and his milling interests near the falls. In 1786 the first town meeting was held there. Quite possibly the house still stands (with additions) and can be identified with the southernmost old house on the west side of the road, a modest structure with unevenly spaced windows and set up on a rise. Just to the north of this stands the large house which Daniel built in 1793. It is a two-story structure with unevenly spaced, small paned windows and a central chimney, oriented southward to face the original road which ran from the Foot farm to the falls area. Later Foots added the Greek Revival doorway and attic light. Old foundations behind the house suggest that there was once a further wing to the west. To the southwest of the house was the Foots' barn, where were held the first religious services in town. Many of the older homes along Foote Street, Schoolhouse Road, and the adjacent stretch of Route 7 were built for the Foots in the late 18th and early 19th century (and then altered or added to by later owners.) Just to the north of the Daniel Foot house is the area where Foot hoped to have the church built and the town center developed. Further north is the Foote Street burial ground, where the graves of many of the original families in the area can be found as well as the elaborate later monument of Middlebury architect Clinton Smith, whose birthplace is the southernmost house on the east side of the street. East Middlebury Located along the Middlebury River on the first level land west of Middlebury Gap (the route taken by the Center Turnpike), East Middlebury was a natural location for the development of a sub-center within the town. In 1790 Jonathan Foot built a sawmill here. By 1812 there were also a general store, an inn, and a branch of the Vermont Glass Factory (producers of "Dunmore Glass"). By 1821 there were several more shops and ten dwelling houses; by 1850 there were fifty dwellings in the self-sufficient village. Of particular interest are: St. Stephen's Rectory Perhaps built by Jonathan Foot near his mill and thus the oldest house in the village. The Waybury Inn Built in 1810 by Jonathan Foot as a "place of entertainment." Long known as the "Glen House," it was the first resting place for westbound travelers coming down from the mountains and the last place for those eastbound to fortify themselves before the arduous journey through the gap. Methodist Church Built about 1830. Bibliography The information contained in this booklet has been gleaned from many sources and through the efforts of many people. For the reader interested in pursuing a particular aspect of the history of the town or its buildings, the collections of Special Collections in the Main Library at Middlebury College and the Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum are highly recommended. For a more complete coverage of Middlebury's history in general, the following are recommended: Stephen A. Freeman, The Congregational Church of Middlebury, Vermont, 1790-1990: A Bicentennial History, Middlebury Congregational Church, 1990 (a thorough history of the church through 1990). W. Storrs Lee, Father Went to College, New York, Hastings House, 1936 (a history of Middlebury College from its founding through the Depression). W. Storrs Lee, Father Went to College, New York, Hastings House, 1936 (a history of Middlebury College from its founding through the Depression). W. Storrs Lee, Stagecoach North, New York, Hastings House, 1941 (life in early Middlebury). W. Storrs Lee, Town Father, New York, Hastings House, 1952 (the biography of Gamaliel Painter). David Stameshkin, The Town's College: Middlebury College, 1800 – 1915, Middlebury College Press, 1985 (a detailed history of Middlebury College from its founding to 1915). Samuel Swift, History of the Town of Middlebury, Middlebury, 1859 and Rutland, Tuttle, 1971 (one of the early town fathers drawing upon his personal experience and those of his contemporaries to write a very detailed account of Middlebury's first ninety years). Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, The Historic Architecture of Addison County, Curtis B. Johnson, ed., Montpelier, Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, 1992 (exhaustive listing of virtually every historically significant building in Addison County as well as an historical introduction for the county and each of its towns). Glossary apsidal terminating with a curved (usually semicircular) wall. balustrade a row of balusters topped by a rail. Beaux-Arts a tradition of showy, formal architecture, usually in a classically-inspired vocabulary, fostered by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and popular in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. belvedere a small look-out tower on the roof of a house, inspired by Italian villas. board and batten a wall surface composed of boards set vertically with the cracks between covered by narrow wood strips (or battens). Carpenter's Gothic a form of the Gothic Revival particularly popular in domestic architecture in the mid-19th century. It is characterized by steeply pitched gables and prominent porches decorated by intricate cut-out woodwork. City Beautiful a tradition of classical public architecture and formal landscape in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coming as a response to the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. Corinthian order the most ornate of the major Greek systems of architectural proportioning and decoration, its capitals are characteristically bell-shaped and enveloped in outward curling Acanthus leaves. cornice the horizontal projection (often the edge of a roof and usually faced with mouldings) which caps a wall composition. coved concavely curved. crenellations the battlement-like notches and raised sections of a parapet. dentil a small square block used in evenly-spaced series for Ionic and corinthian cornices. Doric order the simplest of the major Greek systems of architectural proportioning and decoration, characterized by plain, cushion-like capitals and friezes with alternating panels (triglyphs and metopes). eyebrow a projecting roof-like member above a window. fan light an arched window with radiating muntins, often above a door. fascia a flat horizontal facing member, generally beneath eaves or cornices. Federal style a term generally designating the American architecture of the late eighteenth and early 19th centuries and here used with particular reference to the architectural fashion emanating from Boston at this time. It is characterized by planar simplicity and a refined delicacy in proportions and detailing. Decorative details (akin to those of the English Adam style and Wedgewood china) are ancient Roman in their inspiration. Perhaps the most characteristic feature of the style is a doorway composition with a fan light and sidelights. Flemish bond a system of laying bricks which creates diamondlike patterns in the finished wall through the alternation of short (header) and long (stretcher) faces of the bricks. frieze a band, usually decorated, at the top of a wall or below a cornice. gambrel roof a roof with a double pitch, shallow on top and steeper toward the sides (frequently used on barns). Georgian style the high style of eighteenth-century America. It is often characterized by formal symmetry and robust detailing (this latter including doors with transoms but no side lights, quoins, pilasters, and Palladian windows). Gothic Revival a style of architecture inspired by the buildings of the later middle ages, typically characterized by steeply-pitched roofs, pointed arches, asymmetrical massing, towers, and applied tracery-derived decoration. It was particularly popular in the United States from the late 1830s through the Civil War for its picturesque qualities and its moral (ecclesiastical) associations. groined vault an arched ceiling in which various sections intersect to form sharp edges (or groins). hipped roof a roof with sloped rather than vertical ends. house joiner a skilled woodworker who was responsible for the finishing work and details on a building in the eighteenth and early 19th centuries. This position was in contrast to that of a carpenter, who in the same period was responsible for such heavy work on a building as erecting the frame. The joiner often had a designing role as well—architecture only emerging as a recognized profession in this country during the course of the 19th century. Italianate referring to one of the picturesque vocabularies drawn upon by builders in the middle quarters of the 19th century. Inspired particularly by Tuscan villas, "Italian" details included heavy cornices, elaborate brackets, towers or belvederes, round arched windows, and heavily plastic mouldings. Ionic order the most graceful of the Greek orders. It is characterized by deeply fluted columns, capitals with spiralling volutes, and bands of dentils. keystone the central trapezoidal stone of an arch, often emphasized by size ox decoration. lintel a horizontal beam or stone bridging an opening. mansard a double-sloped roof, the lower portion being longer and steeper than the upper. It is named for the French architect Francois Mansart and was a major device of the Second Empire style. meander a Greek-inspired decoration in which a continuous flat moulding winds in on itself and then unwinds once more in the fashion of a squared spiral. modillion a small bracket frequently used in series to support a cornice. muntin a dividing element between the panes of a window. Palladian window a three-part window with a central arch between rectangular side openings. Popular in the sixteenth century in Italy, it was picked up by the English in the eighteenth century. It is also called the Venetian or Serlian window. palmette a Greek-derived, fan-shaped ornament composed of narrow divisions like a palm leaf. pediment a law-pitched gable defined by cornices or mouldings. penstock a conduit for carrying water, as to a water wheel. piazza the name given to the large porches of the later 19th century because of their similarity to the arcades and colonnades which often surround an Italian square (or piazza). Post colonial referring generally to the architecture of the United States following the Revolution, but here used specifically to denote the continuing colonial tradition of building as opposed to such newly introduced styles as the Federal and Greek Revival. quoins the dressed stones at the corners of buildings, usually laid so that their faces are alternately large and small. return an element running back at right angles to the face of a structure. Second Empire a style of architecture inspired by official building in Paris under Napoleon III and typified by mansard roofs and oft-elaborate dormers. It was popular in America in the decades following the Civil War. Shingle style a style of architecture popular (especially for domestic and medium-sized buildings) from the late 1870s through the end of the 19th century. It is characterized by dominant roofs and the pervasive use of shingles or shingle-like textures on vertical as well as inclined surfaces. side lights the narrow vertical windows flanking a door. Stick style a tyle of architecture popular in the 1870s and 1880s. It is characterized by an emphasis on the wooden framing of a building (even to the extent of using decorative pseudo-framing applied to wall surfaces and in gable ends) and on elaborately framed porches appended to buildings of wood or masonry. string course a continuous projecting horizontal band set in the surface of a wall to articulate such features as floor divisions or sill lines. verge boards boards facing the inclined gable of a building, often elaborately decorative. Also called "barge boards," these were particularly popular in Gothic Revival domestic architecture, where they could be fashioned with a cut-out, tracery-like character.
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