Attitudinal Dynamics of Driving Applying the 3 Rs by TPenney

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									Attitudinal Dynamics of Driving
    Recognize the pitfalls of the choices you
      maybe making, and learn to analyze
       choices and develop responsible
     behavior patterns behind the wheel.


“Every 6 seconds, someone is killed or injured on the world’s roads.”
       Who is in the drivers seat
• “Whether it’s minimizing corporate liability,
  ensuring proper vehicle maintenance, or
  conserving fuel and reducing emissions, the
  vehicle operator is, quite literally, in the driver’s
  seat,”
• An important weapon to help reduce overall
  vehicle operation cost is a well-defined and
  understood driver policy. Clearly articulated rules
  and guidelines can minimize or eliminate
  instances of a grey judgment area.
  Are you the risk manager or the risk
                problem
“Every time an employee gets behind the wheel
of a company vehicle, he or she becomes an
individual risk manager,”
“You need insight into the actions and
behaviour of your drivers to effectively mitigate
risk.”
   Apply the 3-R’s in Driving
       R R R   eflect,   eframe,   efocus
               Strategies for Employers

Your Company Ensures that Leadership reflects the safety
values & goals of the organization
Your Company Establish Motor Vehicle Policies that set
expectations
Your Company Provide motor vehicle safety Training &
Education that improves skills
Your Company Monitor, evaluate, and counsel employee
Performance to improve behavior
Your Company Provide your employees with the knowledge
and tools to use both ON and OFF the job.
DDC Attitudinal Dynamics of Driving

Your Company Attitudinal Dynamics of
Driving specifically targets problem drivers. This highly effective
program shows drivers the direct connection between their attitude and
their driving behaviors. It helps them recognize that their reckless
driving and its consequences result from their own choices, and guides
them towards accepting responsibility for their actions.
             Defensive Driving Defined
•    Defensive Driving is a form of training that goes beyond mastery of the rules of the
                           road and the basic mechanics of driving.
    • The goal is to reduce the risk of driving by anticipating dangerous situations,
     despite adverse conditions or the mistakes of others. This can be achieved through
       adherence to a variety of general rules, as well as the practice certain driving
                                           techniques.
•   The driver must operate in such a way that he/she:
     – Commits no errors himself
     – Controls his vehicle to make due allowance for the condition(s) of the road, the
       weather or the traffic
     – Controls his vehicle to make due allowance to avoid the mistakes made by others

               If a driver is only paying attention to his/her own skills, he/she is
          Driving offensively, not defensively. Am offensive driver is not a safe driver.




                                                                                            6
       #1 Cure Avoiding Distractions
• A defensive driver will avoid all distractions while operating
  his/her vehicle. Driving should be the ONLY task on the
  drivers mind while operating a vehicle.
• Different Types of Driver Distractions
   –   Texting
   –   Rubbernecking
   –   Driver fatigue
   –   Talking on a cell phone
   –   Talking with passengers
   –   Using the radio
   –   Using a map/GPS
   –   Eating and drinking
   –   Smoking


• It is also important to recognize these distractions in other
  drivers. You must assume that the other drivers are not
  paying attention. Distracted and inattentive drivers are
  your toughest safety challenge. Get in the habit of
  recognizing the actions of inattentive/distracted drivers.
  Think ahead and ask yourself “What if?”

                                                                   7
                      What is Defensive Driving?
    Defensive driving is driving that follows certain rules,
procedures and guidelines in order to save lives, time and money
in spite of the conditions around you and the actions of others. A
defensive driver can drive safely regardless of the conditions in
which he or she is driving and regardless of the behavior of other
road users.

    Developing defensive driving habits means:
    • Making safe and legal driving decisions.
    • Creating a safe, stress-free personal driving space in and around your
      vehicle.
    • Driving to your destination safely—without a ticket or a crash, and without
      affecting other drivers’ safety.
    • Practicing common sense, courtesy, and cooperation.
    • Recognizing the risks of hazardous driving behaviors and conditions
                          What is Defensive Driving?
In other words …..
A defensive driver does everything reasonable to avoid a collision or ticket. If that
means slowing down in bad weather, the defensive driver slows down. The facts show
that the majority of collisions are preventable. What’s even more important is that
violations are the cause of most collisions.

Defensive driving programs focus on getting drivers to think about their attitudes and
behaviors which may lead them to be involved in collisions.

Defensive driving requires drivers to link their actions to the potential consequences
and to think about the consequences to themselves, their family and friends and relating
to their work and finances.
1)                   Ten Habits of Defensive Driving
     Always wear your safety belt in any vehicles.

2)   Evaluate driving conditions —
        •    you (your physical, mental and emotional condition),
        •    your vehicle,
        •    conditions around you.

3)   Avoid impaired driving (e.g., alcohol or drugs)

4)   Recognize hazards using the “What If?” strategy.

         For example, what if the car in front of you, which is moving at a slower speed than you,
         appears to be weaving and you want to get into the next lane; could you likely have a
         collision with that car). The What If strategy anticipates actions of others or road
         conditions or other factors that could result in an accident and makes you think about
         your potential driving actions and whether they could result in an accident.

5)   Avoid distracted driving (texting, cell phone use, eating while driving, putting on
     makeup while driving, etc.)
                      Ten Habits of Defensive Driving

6)    Always maintain emotional control —Reflect, Reframe, Refocus
         •    Reflect: Ask yourself, “Why am I getting angry? Is there really anything I can
              safety do to change the situation?”
         •    Reframe: Think about the situation. “What can I do that will help me maintain
              control?”
         •    Refocus: Think about something else, not the situation(s) causing you stress.

7)    Avoid fatigued driving.

8)    Maintain the proper following distance.

9)    Always have a plan. Use the DDC Collision Prevention Formula: R.U.C.
         •    Recognize the hazard.
         •    Understand the defense or strategy you would take to avoid the hazard
         •    Act correctly, in time to avoid the hazard

10)   Consider other drivers —communicate, be courteous and have patience.
        Think Risks while Driving
• Environment:
  – Sun
  – Shadows
  – Snow/ice
  – Curves
  – Heavy rain
                Think Risks
• Vehicle:
  – Bald tires
  – Dirty windshield
  – Worn wiper blades
                  Think Risks
•   Adjusting radio
•   Texting
•   Cell phone
•   DUI
•   Angry
Zone Control System
      • examples of closed zones-
              •tailgating
              •parked cars
              •traffic light
              •blind spot
              areas
              •construction
              •hazards ahead
Target Area   Field of Vision
Minimize the Hazards

         • If there is only
           ONE HAZARD

         • Put more distance
           between yourself and the
           hazard
Compromise Space

       • When you can not
         minimize or separate
         hazards you should
         “COMPROMISE SPACE”
       • Give as much space as
         possible to the greater
         hazard
Driver Behaviour Controlling Emotions


    Having the physical ability to operate a
    motor vehicle is really only half the picture.

    Being in the right psychological and
    emotional state - that is, having the
    right attitudes, traits, and motivation
    is also essential to driving safely, being
    courteous, and avoiding accidents and
    traffic citations.
  Driver Behaviour Controlling Emotions




ome statistics
    Oilfield drivers’ over-involvement in traffic accidents stems from a lack of:



      Driving experience, exposure to accident risk, alcohol /
      drug consumption, perceptual abilities, inexperience in
      identifying and handling hazardous situations, over-
      confidence in abilities, personality structure, internal and
      external influences, poor judgment, excessive speed, and
      attitudinal factors such as risk-taking propensity.


                         Many of these things
                         are attitude related. . .
Psychological causes of
various driving behaviors
   Can the way your Supervisor drive have
         an effect upon your driving?

        If you have supervisors who tend to
         drive aggressively or are inattentive,
         you should take steps to make sure
         you do not pick up their poor driving
         habits.
Driver Behaviour Controlling Emotions



Potential effects on driver decision

 Control                                Controlling your emotions is critical as you drive.
                                        Over reacting to other drivers selfish actions can
  over                                  be very dangerous. For example, a car pulls out
                                        in front of you causing you to brake hard…you
  your                                  then lay on the horn for several seconds and
                                        tailgate them…this is not controlling your
emotions                                emotions and is asking for trouble…as this driver
                                        may emotionally react to you by slamming on
                                        the brakes, setting up a rear end collision. What
                                        might happen as you both get out of your
                                        vehicles?
                                        On the other hand if you just backed off (no horn
                                        or tailgating) all the negati9ve potential effects
                                        could be avoided
  Driver Behaviour Controlling Emotions




        positive
rsonal Courtesy - Consideration for o
 riving values
         Patience - using good judgm
and attitudes
     Acting responsibly and Managing
       Being ready to drive involves more than just checking your vehicle
       equipment and having a license. You must develop positive personal
       driving valves and attitudes and maintain control over your emotions. You
       must also not allow others in the vehicle encourage you to display
       negative attitudes and actions.
    Driver Behaviour Controlling Emotions




      Identifying poor driving behavio
 Correcting Once youitidentify a poor driving behaviour, youitneed to
              change by substituting the correct one until becomes
poor attitudesautomatic.
  and habits For example, if you notice you are forgettingto catch
              make the blind spot head check…you need
                                                               to
       Let’s now think
     about psychological                    yourself and correct it until it becomes an
      causes of various                     automatic habit every time.
      driving behaviors                         Also remember that good habits can deteriorate
                                                 over time unless you keep checking yourself.
                                                 You must continue to practice the good habits
                                                 you are taught and strive for the best possible
                                                 attitude when driving to maintain these things
                                                 in the future.
  Driver Behaviour Controlling Emotions



     Undesirable traits that can be dan
     Driver
 driver you must
rresponsibility take responsibility fo
    the action of your passengers, and
   safe mechanical condition of your
                Drivers who engage in high risk activities
                                          outside the driving situation tend to have
            Your life and the
                                          higher traffic accident involvement whether
          life of others are in
           your hands. Think
                                          they are driving or as a passenger. This
          and act responsibly!
                                          suggest that risky driving may be a part of a
                                          general risk-taking behavior.
              S.I.P.D.E.
A five step driving process that enables
drivers to process in formation in an
organized way.
•   S – search
•   I – identify
•   P – predict
•   D – decide
•   E - execute
                 SEARCH
As we drive, things are happening all
around us. Many of these potential
situations happen, not in our direct path
of travel, but rather in areas all around our
vehicle.
           continued…   .
It is important to constantly
move our eyes to see the big
picture!
           IDENTIFY
Remember that other highway
users don’t always act the way
we think they will. We must
learn to gather and process the
important clues to others’
driving behavior.
        continued…
Important things to look for:
1) signs, signals, and road
   markings
2) the highway itself
3) motorized vehicles
4) non-motorized highway users
                  PREDICT
Usually highway users act as expected. But at times
they may do unexpected things that could lead to
collisions. We must learn to expect the unusual.
               continued…

When you are in a traffic situation that has
accident potential, adjust your speed and
position in response to……
            continued…
(1) the chances (probability) and
(2) consequences (results) of a
   collision.
                  DECIDE
When you have gathered important
information that is available from the road
around and interpreted it,
         continued…
Your goal is to minimize risks.
You can do this by
controlling your position
and communicating your
intentions to others.
          continued…

Predicting what effect it may
have on your intended path of
travel, quickly consider all the
possible actions and choose
the best one.
                  EXECUTE
You must execute your decision using the steering
wheel, accelerator, and brakes.
             continued…

Be sure to use your turn signals to
communicate your intentions to others on
the road. Most of the maneuvers you have
to make will be routine ones.
         Aim High In Steering
Develop an effective search pattern and then
use it. The pattern should be 20 to 30
seconds ahead of your vehicle.
Eye lead-time


            How far you are looking down the road
  When aiming high in steering, you are keeping track of 12-15
                seconds in front of your vehicle
       most drivers look only 3-5 seconds down the road
   research has shown that 80% of collisions could have been
       avoided had drivers had one more second to react
   Make Sure Others See You

Communicate with drivers
and pedestrians. Drive where
others can see you.
Ways to communicate with others

               Horn
               Lights
           Hand motions
            Turn signal
            Brake lights
           Hazard lights
• Every driver’s actions, when behind the wheel, are
reactions to what they see in the driving environment
that surrounds them.


• The information people use to make those decisions is
drawn from an area of awareness that moves with them
as they travel.


We call this area the driver’s “Reaction Zone               ”
                                                       TM
      •   Reaction Zones change size and shape
                     continuously


      •   A driver’s skill determines the size and
              content of their Reaction Zone


•   The average driver’s Reaction Zone extends 3
         – 6 seconds ahead of their vehicle
•This happens because drivers tend to travel in clusters




           •In these clusters, drivers cannot:

            •SEE what they need to see
   •THINK about all of the traffic dangers - or-
            •DO what needs to be done
                       Space Management
•     Most of us understand that as vehicle speed increases so does the distance
      required to stop the vehicle.
•     Managing the space in front of your vehicle to allow sufficient stopping distance is
      a critical part of defensive driving.
•     Total Stopping Distance Includes:
    Driver Perception Time
    •    The time it takes the driver to see the hazard,
         and the brain to recognize that it is a hazard.
         This perception time can be as long as ¼ to ¾
         of a second.                                             Perception Time
    Driver Reaction Time                                      +
    •    The time it takes the body takes to move the             Reaction Time
         foot from accelerator to brake pedal. The            +
         reaction time can also be as long as ¼ to ¾ of            Braking Time
         a second.                                             Stopping Distance
    Vehicle Braking Time
    •    The time is takes for the vehicle to stop once
         applied



                                                                                             47
              Safe following distance

Following distance should be at least two to three seconds
behind the vehicle in front under ideal conditions.

As the vehicle in front passes a fixed object, your vehicle
should not get to that spot for at lest two to three seconds.

In poor weather or road conditions, increase the time and
distance between you and the other vehicles.
       Emergency Maneuvers & Escape
                  Routes
• Emergency situations happen suddenly and
  unexpectedly. A defensive driver will find and use the
  best escape path possible. Remember to not panic or
  slam on your brakes.
• If an emergency maneuver is required, there are
  typically two possible routes:
   –   Another traffic lane
   –   Road shoulder or ditch

• Three typical emergency situations are:
   –   Oncoming traffic
   –   Stopped or converging traffic
   –   A front tire blowout

• Always have an escape route
   –   Plan ahead and be aware of possible hazards that could cause you to take action.
   –   Identify areas, or actions that could help you avoid hazards and put distance between you and
       dangerous situations.
   –   Always allow yourself enough space to react and adapt to changing traffic situations.




                                                                                                       49
                                                   Quiz
1. True or False? Defensive Driving is a form of training that goes
   beyond mastery of the rules of the road and the basic mechanics of
   driving.
2. True or False? A defensive driver has absolutely no responsibility if
   another driver makes a mistake.
3. What type of driver only pays attention to his/her own skills?
      A.   Defensive Driver
      B.   Offensive Driver
      C.   Good Driver
      D.   None of the above

4. How can a vehicle operator drive defensively?
      A.   Avoiding distractions
      B.   Recognizing hazards
      C.   Managing their speed and space
      D.   Communicating with other drivers on the road
      E.   All of the above

5. True or False? It is important to recognize distractions in other
   drivers.




                                                                           50
                                                 Quiz
6. Your vehicle has _____ sides.
     A.   4
     B.   5
     C.   6
     D.   8

7. True or False? You are breaking the law if you travel 1mph
   over the speed limit
8. What components make up a vehicle stopping distance?
     A.   Driver perception time, driver reaction time, vehicle stopping distance
     B.   Driver perception time, driver mental time, vehicle stopping distance
     C.   Driver perception time, driver reaction time, vehicle braking distance
     D.   None of the above

9. True or False? It is important to communicate your
   intentions clearly and early to allow others the time needed
   to react.
10.True or False? Your job as a professional driver is to drive
   defensively.



                                                                                    51
      Benefits of Managing Work-Related Road Safety
Your Company’s Driver Education KPI program benefits
from you managing your work-related road safety and
reducing crashes include:
       •   Fewer days lost due to injury
       •   Reduced risk of work-related ill health
       •   Reduced stress and improved morale
       •   Less need for investigation and paperwork
       •   Less lost time due to work rescheduling
       •   Fewer vehicles off the road for repair
       •   Reduced costs such as wear and tear and fuel, insurance premiums
           and legal fees and claims from employees and third parties
       •   Fewer missed orders and business opportunities so there is a
           reduced risk of losing the goodwill of customers
       •   Reduced probability of key employees being banned from driving if
           their license is suspended

								
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