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The Legacy of Ancient Rome and Greece Main Idea: Power and Authority – The Greeks developed democracy and the Romans developed representative government. Representation and citizen participation are important parts of democratic governments around the world. CA Standards 10.1.2 – Trace the development of Western Political ideas. Rule of law, tyranny, Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Politics Various Forms of Government Monarchy – A king or Queen rules as a single person who has absolute power. Aristocracy- A government ruled by a small group of noble, land-owning families. Oligarchy - A government ruled by a few (3,5,7)very powerful people Democracy – “Rule of the people” demos = people, kratos=power Athens Builds Democracy Largest city-state in Greece allowed citizens (adult, males, free) to participate in government decisions. Solon, Cleisthenes and Pericles all worked to reform and strengthen Greek democracy at different times to help balance the power between rich and poor citizens. Creation of juries, legislative debates, legislative councilors were all created by the Greeks. Direct Democracy – Citizens rule directly and make their own laws rather than through representatives. Greeks Use Logic and Reason To investigate human society, morality and the universe, Greek philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle and Plato used logic. Determined that the best rulers were not always the most rich and powerful but rather the wisest whom were referred to as philosopher-kings. Discovery of natural laws through patterns and used logic to define them. Developed the 3 branches of government that we use today. Executive, Legislative, Judicial Rome Builds a Republic Republic - A form of government in which power rests with citizens who have a right to elect leaders who make governmental decisions. Patricians v. Plebeians – Rich v. poor. Patricians were wealthy landowners, plebeians were farmers and merchants. Patricians inherited wealth and status. Plebs had to earn wealth and status. 12 Tables – First written code of laws that were written on 12 tablets. All citizens were protected by the laws Growth of Roman Empire and Laws As empire expanded by conquest and trade, Rome had to bring new people and territories under their laws. Territory and Laws were both expanded but principals remained the same. See pg. 11 and write down the principles of Roman Laws. Also Write down Main Idea Question D on pg. 11 and answer the question.
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