The Legacy of Ancient Rome and
Main Idea: Power and Authority
– The Greeks developed
democracy and the Romans
and citizen participation are
important parts of democratic
governments around the world.
CA Standards 10.1.2 – Trace the
development of Western
Political ideas. Rule of law,
tyranny, Plato’s Republic and
Various Forms of Government
Monarchy – A king or Queen rules as a single person
who has absolute power.
Aristocracy- A government ruled by a small group of
noble, land-owning families.
Oligarchy - A government ruled by a few (3,5,7)very
Democracy – “Rule of the people” demos = people,
Athens Builds Democracy
Largest city-state in Greece allowed citizens (adult,
males, free) to participate in government decisions.
Solon, Cleisthenes and Pericles all worked to reform
and strengthen Greek democracy at different times to
help balance the power between rich and poor
Creation of juries, legislative debates, legislative
councilors were all created by the Greeks.
Direct Democracy – Citizens rule directly and make
their own laws rather than through representatives.
Greeks Use Logic and Reason
To investigate human society, morality and the
universe, Greek philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle
and Plato used logic.
Determined that the best rulers were not always the
most rich and powerful but rather the wisest whom
were referred to as philosopher-kings.
Discovery of natural laws through patterns and used
logic to define them.
Developed the 3 branches of government that we use
today. Executive, Legislative, Judicial
Rome Builds a Republic
Republic - A form of government in which power
rests with citizens who have a right to elect leaders
who make governmental decisions.
Patricians v. Plebeians – Rich v. poor. Patricians were
wealthy landowners, plebeians were farmers and
merchants. Patricians inherited wealth and status.
Plebs had to earn wealth and status.
12 Tables – First written code of laws that were written
on 12 tablets. All citizens were protected by the laws
Growth of Roman Empire and Laws
As empire expanded by
conquest and trade, Rome
had to bring new people
and territories under their
laws. Territory and Laws
were both expanded but
principals remained the
same. See pg. 11 and write
down the principles of
Also Write down Main
Idea Question D on pg. 11
and answer the question.