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The Legacy of Ancient Greece

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					    The Legacy of Ancient Greece



Chapter 31
• Archimedes using curiosity
  and careful observation
  discovered several ideas
• Alpha beta = first two
  letters of Greek alphabet
• Many English words have
  Greek roots
  – Tel = far off phone = voice
  – English grammar,
    punctuation and
    paragraphing from the
    Greek
  – Greeks invented drama –
    tragedy and comedy
     • Herodotus is the father of
       history
• Democracy began in
  Athens – rule by the
  people
  – Greeks debated and
    voted on every issue
     • Today we elect
       representatives to do
       that
  – Only native-born men
    could be citizens
     • We expanded on idea
• People sitting on
  juries began in Greece
• Medicine
• Believed gods/goddesses
  controlled natural events
  including health and
  sickness
• Hippocrates brought
  scientific thinking into
  diseases and that they had
  natural causes
  – Told students to carefully
    watch and write down what
    saw
  – Father of modern medicine
  – When become a doctor
    have to take the Hippocratic
    oath (to be honest, to
    preserve life, and to keep
    information private
• Understanding the human body
  – Interest in athletics gave them some knowledge about
    the way peoples bodies move
  – They believed cutting people open would offend the
    gods
  – They discovered that the heart was a pump that sent
    blood flowing throughout the body
  – They learned the brain was the center of the nervous
    system
• Greeks loved reasoning and looked for logical
  answers
  – Pythagoras – used numbers to understand nature
     • Geometry – to measure land (a2 +b2 = c2)
  – Euclid – book basis for teaching geometry
  – Hypatia – taught Greek philosophy and math in
    Alexandra
• Astronomy – Greek word means “star”
  – Aristarchus – first person to suggest the Earth moves
    around the sun
  – Hipparchus – was greatest astronomer in ancient
    world – named over 850 stars
     • Figured how to estimate the distance from Earth to sun and
       moon
     • His theories allowed others to predict eclipses of the moon
• Geography – Greek word means ‘writing about
  the Earth’
  – Recorded positions of stars
  – Developed longitude and latitude
  – Ptolemy – wrote book listing over 8,000 places with
    maps and a curved Earth
Understanding plants and animals
• Studying anatomy of animals helped with the
  human body
• Identified plants and named parts
  – Learned how plants reproduce (seeds)
  – Found some useful as medicine – to reduce pain
    and help heal
  – Aristotle – collected information about plants
    (herbs, shrubs, and trees) and animals ( those
    with backbone and those without) and classified
    them
   Modern architecture and theater
• Architecture – Greek word means “master
  builder”
  –   Columns
  –   Pediments
  –   Friezes and stoa
  –   Found in many buildings today (porches)
• Theatre – Greek word means “a viewing place”
  – Built in semicircle
  – Seats rose steeply from stage so all could see and
    hear
  – Invented special effects – hoists to lift actors and
    scenery that could revolve or turn
• Contributions to modern sports
  – Olympic games – first in 776 B.C.E. to honor Zeus
     • Today during opening ceremonies light Olympic flame
     • Pentathlon – Greek word means “five contests”
        – Greece – footrace, discus throw, long jump, javelin throw, and
          wrestling

• We still use many Greek words and ideas.
• Our form of government
• Trace Greek culture in our buildings, theaters,
  and sporting events
• Modern medicine, mathematics, and science
• Greeks were proud of independence as a people.

				
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