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The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome

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					The Legacy of Ancient Greece and
Rome
 
 

Prologue Section 1
Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
• Government- system for controlling the society
• Monarchy- king or monarch; rule is hereditary
• Aristocracy- ruled by a small group of noble, land-
  owning families
• Oligarchy- government ruled by a few people based
  upon wealth or ability
• Democracy- “rule of the people”
  ▫ Adult male citizens participated in governmental
    decisions and three nobles were elected to the
    assembly and later the council of advisors
  ▫ Around 600 BC economic problems eventually forced
    farmers into slavery
Important People in Athens
• Reforms of Solon (594 BC)
 ▫ Outlawed debt slavery and canceled farmers debts
 ▫ Created the Council of 400- prepared business
 ▫ Any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoers
    Citizen= free adult males; 1/10 population
• Cleisthenes Enacts More Reforms
 ▫ Reorganized the assembly for rich and poor
 ▫ Council of 500- proposed laws and counseled the assembly
    Citizens= 1/5 population
• Pericles Strengthens Democracy
  ▫ Increased paid public officials
  ▫ Direct Democracy- citizens rule and make laws
    directly
Greek Philosophers Use Reason
• 1. The universe is put together in an orderly way
  and is subject to absolute and changing laws
• 2. People can understand these laws through
  logic and reason
• SPA
 ▫ Socrates- Socratic Method
 ▫ Plato- The Republic; rule by philosopher-kings
 ▫ Aristotle- Politics; live in a state
Legacy of Greece
• Natural Laws- use of reason and intelligence to
  discover
• Direct Democracy
• Three Branches of Government
Rome Develops a Republic
• Republic- power rests with citizens who have the
  right to elect the leaders who make
  governmental decisions; “indirect democracy”
• Patricians vs. Plebeians
  ▫ Plebeians could vote but not hold government
    positions
Roman Government
• Twelve Tables
 ▫ Written law code to protect plebeians
 ▫ All free citizens had the right to protection under
   law and laws would be fairly administered
• Republican Government
 ▫   Dictator- times of crisis
 ▫   Two Consuls
 ▫   Senate- Patricians
 ▫   Two assembles- Plebeians
Roman Law
• All citizens had the right to equal treatment
  under the law
• Innocent until proven guilty
• Burden of proof rested in the accuser
• Unfair laws could be set aside
• Justinian Law Code- “a government of laws, not
  of men”
Legacy of Rome
• Republic
• Individual is a citizen in a state not a subject
• Written law code
Judeo-Christian Tradition
Prologue Section 2
Judaism
• Hebrews were monotheists who believed in one
  god
• Practiced Judaism
• People had dignity simply by being a child of
  God and each person was responsible for the
  choices they made; emphasis on the worth of the
  individual
Jewish Law Teaches Morality
• Moses forms a covenant with God
  ▫ Ten Commandments- code of morality and
    ethics; rules of social and religious behavior
• Prophets taught that people should oppose
  injustice and oppression and the community
  should assist the unfortunate
Christianity
• The Teachings of Christianity
 ▫ Love for God, their neighbors, their enemies, and
   themselves
 ▫ Jesus was thought as the “king of the Jews” and
   was crucified
    Christianity – Teaching of Jesus Christ
Christianity (cont.)
• The Spread of Christianity
 ▫ Apostle Paul spread Christianity and stressed the
   importance of equality for all human beings
    Religion would welcome any converts

• Rome Spreads Judeo-Christian Ideas
 ▫ Jewish Diaspora- spread their beliefs that all
   people had the right to be treated with justice and
   dignity
 ▫ Christianity became the official religion of the
   Roman Empire
Islam
• Monotheistic religion based of the teachings of
  Muhammad
  ▫ Qur’an was a collection of teaching from god
    delivered to Muhammad
  ▫ Emphasized dignity of all human beings and
    he brotherhood of all people
• Muslims were required to offer charity to those
  in need
Legacy of Monotheistic Religions
• the duty of the individual and the community to
  combat oppression
• worth of the individual
• equality of people before God
Renaissance
• Roman Catholic Church- During the middle ages
  it controlled all political, social, and religious
  aspects of life
• Renaissance- renewed interest in classical
  Greek culture; fueled by the invention of the
  printing press
  ▫ Prepared men for public service instead of
     service for the church
  ▫ Encouraged human potential and achievement
  ▫ Individualism
Reformation
• Reformation- religious reform movement in
  the 19th century led by the Protestants
  ▫ Martin Luther- criticized the Church of selling
    pardons
    Salvation came through faith in God not good works
    Protestantism
      Interpret the bible by themselves
      People could find individual paths to God; didn’t
       need church
      Questioned political authority
Legacy of the Renaissance and
Reformation
• By challenging authority the Reformation
  indirectly contributed to the growth of
  democracy
  ▫ Introduced individuals to reading
• Emphasis on the Individual
Democracy Develops in England
 
Prologue Section 3
Reforms in Medieval England
• William, duke of Normandy in France, invades
  England and defeats the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle
  of Hastings (1066)
  ▫ Ended Feudalism
  ▫ Began Centralized Government
  ▫ Development of Democracy
• Henry II
  ▫ Created a Jury Trial instead of feudal courts
     Royal judge would visit each country
  ▫ Common Law- reflected customs and principles
    established over time
Reforms in Medieval England
• King John
  ▫ Fought an unsuccessful and costly war against
    the France; he tried to raise taxes to pay for the
    war
  ▫ In 1215 angry nobles forced him to sign the
    Magna Carta (Great Chapter)
     Limited the power of the king by having them govern
      according to law and guaranteed individual rights
      and liberties
     Due Process of Law- “judgment by his peers;”
      king could not punish subjects
Model Parliament
• Model Parliament (Edward I needed taxes)
  ▫ Parliament- England’s national legislature
     House of Lords- nobles and bishops
     House of Commons- knights and burgesses
     Limited power of monarch and established representation
• Parliament Grows Stronger
  ▫ Eventually The House of Commons grew equal to the
    House of Lords and Parliament could vote on taxes,
    pass laws, and advise royal policies
  ▫ Divine Right of Kings- king’s power came from God
     Stuart Family and James I
       Conflict with Puritans
       Star Chamber- royal court
       Money
Parliament Overthrows the King
• Charles I asks for money and signs the Petition of Right
       No taxing without Parliament’s consent
       Couldn’t imprison citizens illegally
       Couldn’t house troops
       Couldn’t maintain military government in peacetime
     In 1642 English civil war broke out; royalists vs. antiroyalists
• Oliver Cromwell won control; antiroyalists
• Establishment of Constitutional Monarchy
  ▫ Cromwell established the Commonwealth of England but
    eventually turned it into a Protectorate “military
    dictatorship”
  ▫ Restoration- parliament restored the monarchy under
    Charles Stuart II
     Habeas Corpus- prevents police from detaining a person
      wrongfully
Glorious Revolution (1689)
• William and Mary invade England and start the
  Glorious Revolution
 ▫ Parliament limited the power of the king and could
   control the succession to the throne
 ▫ Established a Constitutional Monarchy-powers of
   the ruler are restricted by the constitution
 ▫ Bill of Rights- formal summary of rights and
   liberties believed to be essential to people
      Protected free speech
      Could not tax or raise an army during peace time
• Excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment
  were forbidden
The Enlightenment and
Democratic Revolution
Prologue Section 4
Enlightenment Thinkers
• Enlightenment- intellectual movement that tried to use the
  principles of reason and the methods of science to all aspects of
  society
  ▫ Influenced by the Scientific Revolution
• Thomas Hobbes
  ▫ Leviation; people were by nature selfish and ambitious and
     needed an absolute monarchy
  ▫ Social Contract-people submitted to the authoritarian ruler to
     prevent disorder
• John Locke
  ▫ Problem was that the king failed to protect the rights of the
     people
  ▫ Natural Rights- right to life, liberty, and property
      People had an absolute right to rebel if the government did not protect
       these rights; self-government
Enlightenment Thinkers
• Voltaire
  ▫ Favor of tolerance, freedom of religion, and free
    speech’
• Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  ▫ The Social Contract- an agreement among free
    individuals to create a government that would respond
    to the people will
  ▫ Government from the consent of the governed
• Baron de Montesquieu
  ▫ Separation of Powers- divided into three branches
     Legislature- make laws
     Executive- enforce laws
     Courts (Judicial)- interpret laws
The Beginnings of Democracy in
America
• French and Indian War- battle b/w France and
  Britain for North America
     Seven Years War in Europe
  ▫ After the victory Britain felt the colonies should help
    pay the cost of the war; tax them
  ▫ Stamp Act of 1765- no taxation without representation
  ▫ No western movement for colonists
• American Revolution
  ▫ Battle of Lexington and Concord- April 17th, 1775
  ▫ Declaration of Independence- July 4th, 1776
  ▫ End of Revolution- 1781
  ▫ Articles of Confederation- weak central government
Enlightenment shapes the Constitution
• Representative Government- citizens
  elect representatives to make laws and
  policies for them (Rousseau)
• Federal System- powers of government
  were divided among federal, or central,
  government and the states, or local,
  governments
• Separation of Powers- executive,
  legislative, and judicial (Montesquieu) and
  checks and balances
The French Revolution
• Causes:
  ▫ Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette took the throne with
    debts building up in 1774
  ▫ Inequality among clergy and nobility vs. commoners; only the
    poor paid taxes
  ▫ Enlightenment Ideas and the American Revolution
• Early Reforms of the Revolution
  ▫ Estates-General was broken up and commoners formed the
    National Assembly
  ▫ Storming of Bastille- prison
  ▫ Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Dec. of Ind.)
      Rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression
• Reign of Terror
  ▫ Radicals that killed or imprisoned opponents

				
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