Professions on Ancient Near East Writing Systems (S. Kalyanaraman, August 16, 2013)

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					Professions on Ancient Near East writing systems
See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/08/monumental-architecture-as-
hieroglyphs.html Architecture on Ancient Near East writing systems


                                        Cover of ivory box. Ugarit. 14th century BCE with
                                        a characteristic hieroglyph of a woman battling
                                        two jackals. Comparable hieroglyphs get
                                        repeated on Indus writing artefacts.




                                        Akkadian cylinder seal, of Ibni-sharrum, scribe,
                                        23rd century BCE. The hieroglyphs depict
                                        workers in kanḍ, ‘stone’, o      ḍ ‘iron’, kol,
‘meta a oys’ and damgar, ‘merc ants of tin minera ’.

                           Akkadian cylinder seal of scribe, ‘S’u-i is’u, Me u    a
                           interpreter’, i.e., trans ator of t e Me u   an anguage. The
                           person carrying an antelope on his left hand is a Meluhha
                           merchant. Glyph: ṭagara ‘ante ope’;          takar, n. [T. tagaru,
K. tagar.] s eep; ram. Rebus: tagara ‘tin’. damgar, tamkāru ‘merc ant’.

Stone-smithy guild on a Meluhha standard

                                                 m0491 Tablet. Line drawing (right). This
                                                 tablet showing three hieroglyphs may
                                                 be called the Meluhha standard.
Combined reading for the joined or ligatured glyphs is: dhatu õdā sangaḍa ‘mineral,

                                            1
turner, stone-smithy guild’. Dawn of the bronze age is best exemplified by this Mohenjo-
daro tablet which shows a procession of three hieroglyphs carried on the shoulders of
three persons. The hieroglyphs are: 1. Scarf carried on a pole (dhatu Rebus: mineral
ore); 2. A young bull carried on a stand õdā Rebus: turner; 3. Portable standard device
         (Top part: lathe-gimlet; Bottom part: portable furnace s gāḍ Rebus: stone-
         cutter sangatarāśū ). sang āḍo (Gujarati) cutting stone, gilding (Gujarati);
         sangsāru araṇu = to stone (Sindhi) sang āḍiyo, a worker on a lathe
         (Gujarati)


Harappa Tablet. Pict-91 (Mahadevan)                  m0490At

m0490B Mohenjodaro Tablet showing Meluhha combined standard of three standards
carried in a procession, comparable to Tablet m0491.

The procession is a celebration of the graduation of a stone-cutter as a metal-turner in a
smithy/forge. A sangatarāśū ‘stone-cutter’ or apidary of neo it ic/c a o it ic age ad
graduated into a metal turner’s wor s op (koḍ), working with metallic minerals (dhatu)
of the bronze age.

                        Three professions are described by the three hieroglyphs:

                        scarf, young bull, standard device dhatu õdā s gāḍī Rebus

                        words denote: ‘ minera worker; metals turner-joiner (forge);

                        worker on a lathe’ – associates (guild). Elamite statue in gold.
                        Department des Antiquites Orienteles, Musee du Louvre, Paris.

                        J. de Morgan excavations, 1904 Sb 2758 J ca. 1500-1200 BCE

                        Tell of the Acropolis, Susa. (Another statue in silver shows a

                        person carrying a goat). The person is shown carrying a bull on

                        his left hand, comparable to the antelope carried by the

                        Meluhhan merchant on Shu-ilishu cylinder seal. This hieroglyph

is a phonetic determinant. : ḍangar ‘bu ’ (Meluhha) Rebus: ḍhangar ‘b ac smit ’

                                            2
(Meluhha). Another possible rebus reading: damgar ‘merchant’.

http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/statuette-man-carrying-goat

Categories of professions attested in Indus Writing Corpora

The inscriptions are categorized as follows, indicating the diversification of professions

which were necessitated by the revolutionary trade opportunities and interactions

among communities and artisan-trader guilds who created by the Bronze Age, attested

by Meluhha settlements in Elam, the Persian Gulf, Sumer and Mesopotamia of Ancient

Near East:

        Section 1: Stone-work, masonry

        Section 2: Stone-work, masonry and metal-work

        Section 3: Array of instruments: m ḍ; metal tools, ingots:   āṇḍā ḍ āḷako

        Section 4: Engraver, carver

        Section 5: Ivory turner, mason, tempered sharp tools, metalware, blacksmith
        working in alloys, ingots, workshop

        Section 6: Bricklayer, mason, blacksmith, maker of metal tools, pots and pans –

        workshop

        Section 7: Copper, iron merchant, alloy stone ore – eraka ibbo kol

        Section 8: Stone-worker business, bronze-smith, iron-smith, working in minerals

        and alloy metals, metal tools, pots and pans, tin merchant, scribe

        Section 9: Copper-smith, artificer, worker in alloy metals

        Section 10: Scribe of workshop, warehouse, furnace of tin smithy, forge



                                                    3
       Section 11: Shapes of Bronze Age weapons and tools made in Ancient Near

       East as tokens for accounting stoneware, metalware

       Section 12: Artisans’ gui ds pātra, ‘troug ’; pattar, ‘merc ant, gui d’

       Section 13: Tin merchant, blacksmith, lathe-turner

       Section 14: Artificers working with stones, minerals, alloys, metals

       Section 15: Bronze Age Smithy (Shahdad standard)

These sections present some examples of the professions associated with the
Meluhhan trade – culled from the Indus Writing Corpora of nearly 7000 inscriptions
which constitute celebration of the Bronze Age competence of artificers – lapidaries,
masons and smiths.

Meluhha merchant

                              Bronze Age archaeological context: Trade

                              Akkadian cylinder seal of ‘S’u-i is’u, Me u   a interpreter’,

                              i.e., translator of the Meluhhan language. The person

carrying an antelope on his left hand is a Meluhha merchant. Harosheth ha-goy-im, is a

phrase mentioned three times in the Old Testament, Judges. The term is interpreted as

‘smit y of nations’. T is term as a cognate in t e tradition of Indian sprac bund. T e

cognate term is: kharoṣṭī gōya . Indian hieroglyphs (mlecchita vikalpa) discussed in this

monograph related to Indus Writing can be linked with the legacy recorded in kharoṣṭī

writing system. kharoṣṭī gōya : khara + oṣṭ ‘b ac smit + ip’ of got, gōya ‘c an,

community’ (Pra rit). T e artificers w o created t e Indus writing corpora of near y 7000

inscriptions were engaged in the core business of the Bronze Age of working in and

trading in stoneware and metalware in general and the processing of alloy metals with

tin mineral, in particular.

                                              4
The records of inscriptions as stoneware/metalware catalogs and professional calling

cards of artificers (stone- and metal-workers) in Indus Writing Corpora are a recod of

the Meluhhan trade in an extensive contact region of Eurasia, which extended east to

west from Rakhigarhi to Haifa, north to south from Altyn-depe to Daimabad.

Section 1: Stone-work, masonry

                                             T e g yp ics of ‘water-overf ow’’ are s own
                                             together with a buffalo on scribe Ibni-
                                             sharrum cylinder seal. Agade period, reign of
                                             Sharkali-Sharri (c. 2217-2193 BC)
                                             Mesopotamia Serpentine H. 3.9 cm; Diam.
2.6 cm Formerly in the De Clercq collection; gift of H. de Boisgelin, 1967 AO 22303
Richelieu wing Ground floor Mesopotamia, c. 2350–2000 BC Room 2

      G yp ‘ob ation, offering’: mḗdha m. ʻ sacrificia ob ation ʼ RV. Pa. mēd a -- m. ʻ

      sacrifice’ (CDIAL 10327). meḍ ‘iron’ (Munda) Vi a pa: maṇḍ kneeling (Telugu)

Rebus: manḍī       f. an exchange, a place where merchants meet to transact business

(Marathi) Ibni-Sharrum is offering for exchange stoneware, metal tools, pots and pans

and metalware.

Glyph: <lo->(B) {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''. See <lo-> `to be left over'. (Munda )
Rebus: o ‘copper’ (Hindi)

Glyph: khaṇṭi , kaṭā, ‘buffa o bull’ Rebus: āḍ ‘stone’. Ga. (Oll.) kanḍ, (S.) kanḍu (pl.
kanḍkil) stone (DEDR 1298). kaḍa-i-o (Skt. Sthapati, a mason) a bricklayer, mason
(Gujarati)

Glyph of flowing water in the second register:             āṇṭam , n. < āṇḍa. 1. Water;
sacred water;     ; āṇṭam ‘ewer, pot’              . (Tamil) Rebus:     āṇḍā ‘(a oyed
meta ) too s, pots and pans’ (Marat i).


                                              5
Thus the combined rebus reading of the entire pictorial motif: kaḍa-i-o ’mason’ + meḍ
‘iron’ + Ku. lokhaṛ ʻiron too s ʼ; H. lokhaṇḍ m. ʻ iron too s, pots and pans ʼ; G. o      ḍ n.
ʻtoo s, iron, ironwareʼ; M. o    ḍ n. ʻ iron ʼ(CDIAL 11171). T at is, iron and copper too s
and metalware.

                       Person throwing a spear at a buffalo and placing one foot on the
                       head of the buffalo. Text 2279 seal impression, Mohenjo-daro (DK
                       8165); after Mackay 1938: pl.88, no.279


                       khaṇṭi ‘buffa o bull’ (Tami ) kaṭā, aṭamā ‘bison’ (Tami )(DEDR
1114) (glyph). Rebus: khaṇḍ ‘too s, pots and pans, meta -ware’; kaḍiyo [Hem. Des.
kaḍa-i-o = (Skt. Sthapati, a mason) a bricklayer, mason (Gujarati)


kolsa ‘to ic t e foot forward, t e foot to come into contact wit anyt ing w en wa ing
or running’; kolsa pasirkedan ‘I ic ed it over’ (Santa i) kola, ‘ i ing, e.g. āḍukola =
woman-slaying (Telugu) Tu. o è murder (DEDR 2132). Rebus: Koḍ. o ë blacksmith;
Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge; Ta. kol working in iron, alloy, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith.
Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. (DEDR 2133). Vikalpa: mēṛsa = v.a. toss, kick with the
foot, hit with the tail (Santali.lex.) Rebus: mẽṛhet iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron
(Mu.); meḍ id. (Ho.)


Thus, the pictorial motifs on Mohenjo-daro seal impression connote kaḍa-i-o o ë ‘a
bric ayer/mason, b ac smit ’
      This glyhph on line 1 of the inscription on DK 8165 seal impression, could be a
      phonetic determinant: kwa .e ‘smit y, temp e in Kota vi age’ (Ko.); wa a. Kota
smithy (To.)(DEDR 2133).
Thus the entire seal as a stoneware/metalware catalog connotes: the bricklayer/mason,
blacksmith working with iron mineral stone in a smithy, forge for the temple.

Underlying sounds of language Meluhha (Mleccha), glosses of Indian sprachbund:
kole.l ‘smit y, temple in Kota vi age’ (Kota) ; To. wa a· ‘Kota smit y’ (Toda)
                                               6
kolom ‘cob’; o mo ‘seed ing, rice (paddy) p ant’ (Munda.) Rebus: kolimi ‘smit y, forge’
(Telugu)
                Pk. dhaḍa -- n. ʻ trun of body ʼ, S. dhaṛu m., P. dhaṛ f.; Ku. dhaṛ m. ʻ
                trunk of body or tree, midd e part of anyt ing ʼ; B. d aṛ ʻtrun of bodyʼ,
Or. dhaṛa ʻ trun of body or tree ʼ; Mt . dhar ʻ ead ess body ʼ; OAw. d ara m. ʻ body,
 eart ʼ; H. d aṛ m. ʻ trun of body ʼ (→ Mt . N. d aṛ), OMarw. dhaṛa m., G. dhaṛ n.; M.
dhaḍ n. ʻ headless body ʼ. (CDIAL 6712). Rebus: d ātu ‘minera ’ (Vedic); d atu ‘a
minera , meta ’ (Santa i) meḍ ‘body’, ‘dance’ (Santa i) Glyph: meḍ ‘body’ (Mu.) Rebus:
meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) T us, meḍ dhatu ‘iron ore’. meḍ dhatu āḍ ‘iron ore stone’.


Text 2279 The rebus of reading of the glyphs: meḍ dhaṛu āḍ ‘body, fu stature’ Rebus:
           meḍ dhatu āḍ ‘iron minera stone’ + o mo ‘seed ing’ Rebus: o imi ‘smit y,
           forge’ + o e. ‘smit y, temp e’.

                   People vaulting over a buffalo hieroglhyph is shown on three seals.
                   Either tumbling persons or drummer hieroglyphs (or both) also get
                   associated on a Harappa tablet (h182) – detailed in Section 2.

                    Steatite stamp seal with a water-buffalo and leapers. Seal: Mohenjo-

                   daro, Harappan, ca. 2600 – 1900 BCE. National Museum, New

Delhi, 147.

              m0312 Persons vaulting over a water-buffalo. Drummer hieroglyph is also
              shown on Mohenjo-daro seal m1406.



                                             2827 m1406At m1406B Pict-102: Drummer
                                        and people vaulting over? An adorant?

                                        kaḍī a chain; a hook; a link (G.) Rebus: kaḍiyo
[Hem. Des. kaḍaio = Skt. sthapati a mason] a bricklayer; a mason; kaḍiyaṇa, kaḍiyeṇa a
woman of the bricklayer caste; a wife of a bricklayer (G.)

                                              7
                             T e ‘c ain’ g yp occurs on Kalibangan seal. k020 Glyphs:
                             threaded beads + water-carrier. goṭā ‘seed’ (Bi.); goṭa
                             ‘numerative partic e’ (Mt .Hindi)(CDIAL 4271) Rebus: koṭe
                             ‘forging (meta )(Mu.) kaḍī ‘c ain’ Rebus: kaḍaio ‘mason’. kuṭi
       ‘water-carrier’ (Te ugu); Rebus: kuṭhi ‘sme ter furnace’ (Santa i)

Glyphs: 1. ḍ ō a m. ʻ arge drumʼ; 2. ḍollu. ‘To fa , to ro over’ Rebus: dol(u)cu to make
a hole; ḍ ōˋḷ ʻ arge stoneʼ. T e message of t e ierog yp s is thus: large ring-stone.
karṇaka rim of jar’(S t.) kanka ‘Rim of jar’ (Santa i) Rebus: karaṇa ‘business’; karṇaka
‘scribe’ (Te ugu); gaṇaka id. (Skt.) (Santali) Thus, the text message reads: kanka
‘scribe’ blacksmith casting metal. Thus, the seal m1406 denotes the business of a
mason working with large stones.

Section 2: Stone-work, masonry and metal-work

The gloss kol is remarkable and semantics of the word relate to both masonry/brickwork
and working with iron and metal alloys.

G yp : ‘pair of tigers’: o a ‘tiger’. du a ‘pair’. Rebus: du a o ‘casting working in iron’.
Rebus: kol , n. <            -. Working in iron;                   . 4. Blacksmith;             .
             kollaṉ , n. <         ². [M. kollan.] Blacksmith;              .
                             (              . 207).                koṟṟuṟai , n. <        ²+          .
Blacksmith's workshop, smithy;                              .                             (     . 95).
        ¹ oṟṟu , n. prob.              -. 1. Masonry, brickwork;                      .
         (               . 30, 23). 2. Mason, bricklayer;                  . Colloq. 3. The measure
of work turned out by a mason;                                                   .
                                   ?


                                 h182A                               h182B           4306 Tablet in
bas-relief




                                                      8
Text of inscription text 4306 read rebus: G. ar n. p . ‘wrist ets, bang es’; S. arāī f.

’wrist’ (CDIAL 2779). Rebus:      ār      ‘b ac smith’ (Kas miri) du a ‘pair’ Rebus: du

‘cast (meta)’. du ‘to cast in a mould’; du mẽṛhẽt, dul meṛeḍ, dul; koṭe meṛeḍ ‘forged

iron’ (Santa i)



                                                   har609 terracotta tablet, bas-relief

h182a Pict-107: Drummer and a tiger. h182b Five svastika signs alternating right- and

left-handed.

The glyph svastika reads rebus: स्वस्स्िकः svastikaḥ ‘A pa ace of particu ar form. A

mansion or temp e of a particu ar form wit a terrace in front.’ ‘A mansion or temp e of

a partic. Form’ VarBrS (Monier-Williams, p. 1283). Glyph: count of 5: mõṛẽ = five

(Santali) Rebus: maṇḍā = ware ouse, workshop (Kon.lex.) maṇḍom ‘a raised p atform

or scaffo d’ (Santa i). Ko. manḏ Toda mund (i.e. village); mandm (obl. mandt-) meeting.

To. moḏ (obl. moṟt-) locus of tribal activity, including village with dairy, dairy apart from
village, patrilineal clan. Ka. mandu hamlet of the Todas on the Nilagiri.

' The Svastika (house) is auspicious, if it has the terrace on the east side, and one
continual terrace along the west side, at the ends whereof begin two other terraces
going from west to east, while between the extremities of the latter lies a fourth terrace.'
– From Manasara, Chapter IX (Acharya, Prasanna Kumar, 1946, An encyclopaedia of
Hindu architecture, Manasara Series, Vol. VII, OUP, p.46) In connexion with the
description of a Svastika (shaped) –house, the text reads : Prishtie tu dirgha-koshthah
syat purva-koshtham tatha bhavet I
Bahya(-e) bahya(-e) sala-dvayam netram yuktam tu karkari-yutam (ibid., p.104).


Manasara, Chapter IX details the positioning of four gates for a village:


Svastikagram chatur-dikshu dvaram tesharh prakalpayet I
                                               9
Evam chashta-maha-dvaram dikshu dikshu dvayam tatah
Mrige chaivantarikshe va bhringaraja-bhrise tatha I
Seshe vapi cha roge va chaditau chodite'pi va I
Evam etad upa-dvaram kuryat tatra vichakshanah I
Maha-dvaram tu sarvesham langalakara-sannibham I
Kapata-dvaya-samyuktam dvaranam tat prithak prithak I
(Manasara, Ch. IX, pp. 355-361).


                                  A pavilion with three faces is called svastika:


                                  Dvi-vaktrah dandakah proktarh tri-vaktrah svastikah tatha I
                                  (Manasara, xxxiv, 552.)


                                  This may explain the presence of two polished pillars in
                                  Dholavira dividing the pavilion immediately after the
                                  gateway entrance into three faces or three parts.


The two 'sthambs' or pillars, in the pavilion of Dholavira. The main through-way in the
citadel was segregated in three sections, marked by means of 2 polished pillars thus
making it a svastika pavilion with three faces -- tri-vaktrah svastikah -, as described in
Manasara.


Thus, together, the set of 5 svastika glyphs connote a warehouse with a terrace or
raised platform in front.
Ring-stone as an architectural member to hold a pillar was found at Dholavira.

                            The archaeological evidence of ringstones from Mohenjo-daro,

                            Harappa and Tepe Yahya are appended.

                            கடை²-தல் kaṭai-, 4 v. [K. kaḍa.] tr. 1. To churn with a churning
                            rod; மத்தாற்கடைதல். பாம்பு கயிறாக் கைல் கடைந்த மாயவன்
                                                10
(சிலப். 17, 2). 2. To turn in a lathe; to form, as moulds on a wheel; மரமுதலியன
கடைதல். கடைந்த மணிச்சசப் சபன வீங்கு (கூர்மபு. தக்கன்வவ. 52). This lexeme kaḍa,
kaṭai ‘to turn in a at e’ exp ains 1) the process of producing ring-stone of the type
discovered in Dholavira to hold an architectural pillar and 2) Gujarati deśi word kaḍa-i-o
’mason’.


Section 3: Array of instruments: m ḍ; metal tools, ingots:    āṇḍā ḍ āḷako


                                                         m0442At m0442Bt Mohenjo-
                                                         daro, excavation number HR
                                                         4161, now in the National


                              Museum of India, New Delhi.




      Text 4251 h097 Pict-95: Seven robed figures (with stylized twigs on their head
and pig-tails) standing in a row.

Glyph: maṇṭi kneeling, kneeling on one knee as an archer (Tamil). maṇḍapa --

: S.kcch. māṇḍhvo m. ʻ booth, canopy ʼ.(CDIAL 9740). Rebus: manḍī मंडी f. an

exchange, a place where merchants meet to transact business. Rebus: M. m ḍ m.

ʻarray of instruments &c '

Glyph: miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus:
mẽṛhet, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)
Glyph: loa 'ficus religiosa' Rebus: lo 'copper'. Glyph: Kal. bahul the Pleiades Rebus:
bangala ‘go dsmit ’s portab e furnace’ G yp : adaru ‘twig’ Rebus: aduru ‘native meta ’.
Thus, the seven women ligatured with twigs on their heads can be read as: bangala
‘go dsmit ’s portab e furnace’ + aduru ‘native meta ’ + o 'copper'.

                                            11
The hieroglyphic composition denotes: meeting hall for trade exchanges, goldsmith's
portable furnac (for) iron, native metal, copper.



        Text 4251 Read rebus: Top line of inscription: Alloyed bronze ingot, iron mineral

        1. Glyph: kuṭi a ‘bent’. Rebus: kuṭi a, att ī = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts
         tin)   ōṭ ‘a oyed’ (Punjabi) koṭe ‘forged (meta ) (Santa i)
        2. Glyph: ḍabu ‘an iron spoon’ (Santa i) Rebus: ḍab, ḍhimba, ḍhompo ‘ ump
         (ingot?)’ (Mu.) Rebus: baṭa = a kind of iron (G.) bhaṭa ‘furnace’ (G.)

        3. Glyph: ḍato = claws of crab (Santali) ḍato ‘c aws or pincers (c e ae) of crabs’;
         ḍaṭom, ḍiṭom to seize with the claws or pincers, as crabs, scorpions; ḍaṭkop = to
         pinch, nip (only of crabs) (Santali) Rebus: d ātu = mineral (Skt.)

Rebus reading of bottom line of inscription: ingots, metal-ware entrustment articles

        Glyph: ḍ āḷ = a slope; the inclination of a plane;m ḍhāḷiyum = adj. sloping,
         inclining (G.) Rebus: ḍhāḷako = a large metal ingot (G.) खांडा [     āṇḍā] m A jag,
         notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon).      āṇḍā ‘too s, pots
         and pans and metal-ware’.

        G yp : o mo ‘t ree’; rebus: o ami ‘smit y’. s gāḍā m. ʻ frame of a bui ding ʼ
         (Marat i) Rebus: sangar ‘fortification’; jaṅgaḍ ‘entrusment artic es’.

Section 4: Engraver, carver

                 m1919 Pict-103 Horned (female with breasts hanging down?) person
                 with a tail and bovine legs standing near a tree fisting a horned tiger
                 rearing on its hindlegs.

                        Text1357 Glyph: pasaramu, pasalamu = an animal, a beast, a
brute, quadruped (Te.lex.) Rebus: pasra ‘smit y’ (Santa i) Ta. koṭiṟu pincers. Ma. koṭil

                                              12
tongs. Ko. koṛ hook of tongs. / Cf. Skt. (P. 4.4.18) kuṭi i ā- smith's tongs.(DEDR 2052).
ulai-k-kuṛaṭu smith's tongs (Ta.) Rebus: kuṭi a, att ī = bronze (8 parts copper and 2
parts tin)(CDIAL 3230). G yp : du a ‘pair’; rebus du ‘cast (meta )’. Thus the text reads
rebus: pasra ‘smit y’ + kuṭila ‘tin-bronze’ + du ‘cast (meta )’. T at is, bronze-casting
smithy.

 o ‘tiger’ Rebus: o ‘wor ing in iron, mason, artificer’ ōḍu ‘ orn’ Rebus: khoṭf ʻa oy
(Lahnda)

G yp : ōnḍō on a fours, bent doub e (Bra ui)(DEDR 2054a)

Glyph: kondā bull (Kol.); kōnda bullock (Kol.Nk.); bison (Pa.); kōnde cow (Ga.); kōndē

bullock (Ga.); kondā , konda bullock, ox (Go.)(DEDR 2216).

Rebus: कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, apidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marat i)

Glyph: Pe. kund- (kunt-) to punch with fist; xutting to dig, probe (Brahui); kutl act of

pricking, goring, butting (Ko.)(DEDR 1719). kuṭi a, att ī = bronze (8 parts copper and 2

parts tin)(CDIAL 3230

Glyph: 'stump of tree': kuṭi ‘tree’ Rebus: kuṭ i ‘furnace’. ’Vi a pa: M.     ṭ m. ʻstump of

tree’; P.   uṇḍ, °ḍā m. ʻpeg, stumpʼ; G.     uṭ f. ʻ andmar ʼ,    ṭɔ m., °ṭī f. ʻ peg ʼ, °ṭ n.
ʻstumpʼ (CDIAL 3 93). A ograp : (Kat iawar)          ṭ m. ʻBra mani bu ʼ(G.) Rebus:           ṭ

'community, guild' (Munda)

கூனி¹ ūṉi , n. < id. [K. M. ūni.] 1. Hunc -backed woman; கூனலுள்ளவன். கூனி தன்

சனாடு மணமடன புக்கு (சிலப். 3,171). Rebus: கூடன ūṉai, n. prob. கூனு-. [T. gūna,

K. ūni.] 1. Large earthen boiler; மிைா. கரும் வபந்திரத் சதாழுகு சாறகன் கூடனயின்

(கம்பரா. ஆறு சசல். 49). 2. Baling bucket; நீர்ச்சால். விழுந்த வபடரக் கூடனசகாண்

ைமிழ்த்துவார்வபால் (குற்றா. குற. 28).



                                              13
Section 5: Ivory turner’s wor s op, mason, tempered sharp tools, metalware,

blacksmith working in alloys, ingots

Ivory finds of Ugarit with inscriptions

One is an ivory rod with a cuneiform text. Another is a hieroglyph on cover of an ivory

box:




                                           Cuneiform record on an ivory rod fragment.
                                           Lower citadel, Ras Shamra. Cohen, Chaim,
                                           Joseph Maran & Melissa Vetters, 2011, An
                                           ivory rod with a cuneiform inscription, mot
                                           probably Ugaritic, from a final palatial
                                           workshop in the lower citadel of Tiryns,
Deutsches Archaologisches Institu, Hermer Verlag GmbH. http://www.ufg-va.uni-
hd.de/md/zaw/ufg/mitarbeiter/17._cohen-maran-vetters.pdf An ivory stick with cuneiform
text of six signs, was perhaps a tag attached to a consignment of containers. See also:
Schaeffer, Claude F.A., 1939, The cuneiform texts of Ras Shamra-Ugarit, The
Schweich lectures of the British Academy, 1936, OUP 1939
http://oilib.uchicago.edu/books/schaefer_cuneiform_ugarit_1939.pdf

Ras Shamra-Ugarit also yielded this hieroglyph which evidences Indus Writing:




                                           14
Goddess of fertility and                   carved ib the cover of an ivory box (14th
century BCE). Tomb III, harbor town at Minet-el-Beida. “… er attributes are entire y
Eastern. This ivory is without doubt one of the most beautiful Syrian-Mycenaean works
of art t at ave come down to us…In t e fifteenth and fourteenth centuries Ugarit
wealth encouraged luxury and patronized the arts. The presence in the town of many
Aegeans and Mycenaeans, amongst them artisans of every kind, sculptors, jewelers,
and bronze-smith explains the patent closeness of their work to the art of their native
                                                 ands.”(ibid., P ate XVI, p.20)

                                                 Glyph:        [kaṇḍe] kaṇḍe. [Tel.] n. A

                                                 head or ear of millet or

                                                 maize.              . Rebus: Ga. (Oll.)

                                                 kanḍ, (S.) kanḍu (pl. kanḍkil) stone
                                                 (DEDR 129 ). o a ‘woman’ o ‘tiger,

                                                 jac a ’ Rebus: o ‘wor ing in iron, a oys’.

                                                 Composite hieroglyph composed of

                                                 hieroglyphic elements and rebus

                                                 readings:

                                                 Glyph: moṇḍ the tail of a serpent

                                                 (Santali) Rebus: Rebus: M. m ḍ m. ʻ

array of instruments &c. ʼ (CDIAL 9736).

elephant: ibha ‘e ep ant’ (S t.) Rebus: ib ‘iron’ (Kon ani) ibbo 'merchant' (Gujarati)

trunk: cunda 'trunk of elephant' Rebus: cunda ‘ivory turner’ J vi.261 (Com: danta āra);

(Pali) undār turner.




                                            15
Sanjyot Mehendale. Begram: New Perspectives on the Ivory and Bone Carvings.
Berkeley: University of California, 2005 provides an interpretation of the history of
Begram and its ivories. An insight provided is that ivory sculptures became models for
architecture in stone and also for woodwork furniture. Ivory trade with Meluhha is
mentioned in ancient cuneiform texts. “Dilmun rose to prominence as a trading center
where travelers could obtain copper, carnelian and ivory which originated in Oman
(ancient Magan) and t e Indus Va ey of Pa istan and India (ancient Me u            a).”
http://archaeology.about.com/od/dterms/qt/Dilmun.htm

Section 6: Bricklayer, mason, blacksmith, maker of metal tools, pots and pans --

workshop

Composite animal hieroglyph:

horns: ōḍů, ōḍu horn (Tulu). Rebus: koḍ 'artisan's workshop'

neck-bands: kaḍum ‘nec -band, ring’; rebus:         āḍ ‘trenc , firepit’ (G.) kaḍaio = Skt.
sthapati a mason] a bricklayer; a mason Rebus:         āṇḍā ‘meta too s, pots and pans’.

tiger (paws on hind legs): kol 'tigr' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloys'

bovine (fore legs): ḍangar ‘bu ’; rebus: ḍangar ‘b ac smit ’ (Hindi

human face m      e ‘face’ (Santa i) ; rebus:m     metal ingot (Santali)

serpent as tail: Glyph: moṇḍ the tail of a serpent (Santali) Rebus: Rebus: M. m ḍ m. ʻ

array of instruments &c. ʼ

hood of srpent: Glyph: Cobra's hood; பாம்பின் விாிந்த தடலயிைம். டபந்நாப் பை வரவவ

ரல்குலுடம (திருவாச. 34, 1) పటము [ paṭamu ] paṭamu. [Skt.] The hood of a serpent

(Telugu) Rebus: patam ‘temper (of meta ), s arpness’. పదును [ padunu ]



                                              16
or పదను padunu Goodness of metal. The right degree of softness (in boiled areca nut,

&c.) పరిపాకము. ఆ కత్తికి పదును రాలేదు that knife is not properly tempered (Telugu).

              m1175a          2493 Composite animal: human face, zebu's horns, elephant
              tusks and trunk, ram's forepart, unicorn's trunk and feet, tiger's hindpart and
              serpent-like tail.

             m1176                     m1177                2450 Composite animal: human face,
             zebu's                    horns, elephant tusks and trunk, ram's forepart,
                                       unicorn's trunk and feet, tiger's hindpart and serpent-like
tail.

              m1179       2606 Human-faced markhor with long wavy horns, with neck-
             bands and a short tail.


                m1180a .              1303 Human-faced markhor


                              h593                      4250 [Composite animal].



                                   m1927am1927b m0299 Composite animal
                                   with the body of a ram, horns of a bull, trunk of
                                   an elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraise
                                   serpent-like tail.           1381

                   m0300 Pict51: Composite animal: human face, zebu's horns, elephant
                   tusks and trunk, ram's forepart, unicorn's trunk and feet, tiger's
                   hindpart and serpent-like tail.                 2521

                                       m0301 Composite motif: human face, body or forepart
of a ram,                              body and front legs of a unicorn, horns of a zebul, trunk
of an                                  elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraised serpent-
like tail.                                   2258
                                                    17
            m0302          1380 Composite animal with the body of a ram, horns of a bull,
            trunk of an elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraise serpent-like tail.

            G yp : ‘nec -band’: kaḍum ‘nec -band, ring’ kaḍī a chain; a hook; a link (G.);
            kaḍum a bracelet, a ring (G.) Rebus: Rebus: kaḍiyo [Hem. Des. kaḍaio =
Skt. sthapati a mason] a bricklayer; a mason; kaḍiyaṇa, kaḍiyeṇa a woman of the
bricklayer caste; a wife of a bricklayer (G.)

[The decoration on the neck of t e ‘ram’ g yp is comparable to the rings on the neck of
a heifer or on the neck of a composite animal.] miṇḍā ‘mar      or’ (Tōrwā ī) meḍho a ram,
a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120); rebus: mẽṛhet, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)

                           Two hooded serpents are shown flanking the person.

                           m453BC Seated in penance, the person is flanked on either

side by a kneeling adorant, offering a pot and a hooded serpent rearing up. Glyph:

kaṇḍo ‘stoo ’. Rebus; kaṇḍ ‘furnace’. Vi a pa: aṇḍ ‘stone (ore) metal’. Rebus:
kamaḍha ‘penance’. Rebus 1: kaṇḍ ‘stone ore’. Rebus 2: kampaṭṭa ‘mint’. G yp :
‘serpent ood’: paṭa. Rebus: pata ‘s arpness (of knife), tempered (metal). padm

‘tempered iron’ (Ko.) G yp : rim ess pot: baṭa. Rebus: bhaṭa ‘sme ter, furnace’. It

appears that the message of the glyphics is about a mint or metal workshop which

produces sharpened, tempered iron (stone ore) using a furnace.




          m0303 Composite animal.                    2411              h168




                                                18
               h096              4249                m0300. Mohenjo-
daro.            2521




            m1180a .           1303 Human-faced markhor

                  m1179. Mohenjo-daro seal.         2606 Human-faced markhor with long
                  wavy horns, with neck-bands and a short tail.

                  h594. Harappa seal. Composite animal (with elephant trunk and rings
                  (scarves) on shoulder visible).koṭiyum = a wooden circle put round the
neck of an animal; koṭ = neck (G.)




          m1172              m1173                 1191             m1175a      2493
Composite animal: human face, zebu's horns, elephant tusks and trunk, ram's forepart,
unicorn's trunk and feet, tiger's hindpart and serpent-like tail.




                                                             m1176
m1178        2559
m1177               2450 Composite animal: human face, zebu's horns, elephant tusks
                    and trunk, ram's forepart, unicorn's trunk and feet, tiger's hindpart and
                    serpent-like tailComposite animal with a two-glyph inscription (water-

                                              19
carrier, rebus: uti ‘furnace’; road, bata; rebus: bata ‘furnace’).
T ere are many examp es of t e depiction of ‘ uman face’ igatured to anima s:




                                             20
Ligatured faces: some close-up images.
                  The animal is a quadruped: pasaramu, pasalamu = an animal, a
                                        beast, a brute, quadruped (Te.) Rebus: pasra
                                        ‘smit y’ (Santa i) A ograp : pan ār ‘ adder,
                                        stairs’(Bs   .)(CDIAL 7760) T us t e composite
                  animal connotes a smithy. Details of the smithy are described
                  orthographically by the glyphic elements of the composition.


                  Rebus reading of t e ‘face’ g yp : m     e ‘face’ (Santa i) m    opening
                  or hole (in a stove for stoking (Bi.); ingot (Santa i) m   meta ingot
                  (Santa i) m     = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native
                  smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and
formed like a four-cornered piece a itt e pointed at eac end; mū ā mẽṛhẽt = iron
smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four
ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt o mū ā a ata = t e Ko es ave to-day produced pig iron
(Santa i. ex.) au a mengro ‘b ac smit ’ (Gypsy) m ecc a-mukha (Skt.) = milakkhu
‘copper’ (Pa i) T e Sans rit oss m ecc a-mukha should literally mean: copper-ingot
absorbing the Santali gloss, m    , as a suffix.




                                     m1430Bt                                      m1430At
m1430C, body of bison, three heads: bison, antelope, bull; a pair of goat(s), tree branch
Pict-101: Person throwing a spear at a buffalo and placing one foot on its head; three
persons standing near a tree at the center.

       2819 Pict-60: Composite animal with the body of an ox and three heads [one
       each of one-horned bull (looking forward), antelope (looking backward) and

                                              21
bison (looking downwards)] at right; a goat standing on its hindlegs and browsing from a
tree at the center. Glyph: oa ‘ficus re igiosa’ (Santa i) Rebus: o ‘meta ’ (S t.); oa
‘copper’ (Santa i)

    [     ōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf (Marathi). ōḍiya, ōḍe young bu (Te ugu)
Rebus: onḍu or konḍu ।           m. a hole dug in the ground for receiving consecrated
fire (Kashmiri) koḍ ‘wor s op’ (Kuwi) mẽḍ a ‘ante ope’; rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) ḍangar
‘bu ’ Rebus: ḍangar ‘b ac smit ’.

Hooded snake is shown on some Indus script inscriptions (e.g., tail of composite animal
glyph on a Mohenjodaro seal).

Rebus reading: ‘cast, s arp (tempered) a oy (metal, iron?)’

“Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals, alloys and g ass…T e
temperatures used in tempering are often too low to be gauged by the color of the
workpiece. In this case, the blacksmith will heat the work piece for a known amount of
time. Doing this ensures a certain degree of consistency in the tempering process from
work piece to work piece. The cumulative effects of time and temperature can also be
gauged by monitoring the color of the oxide film formed while tempering a well-polished
b ade.”

G yp : ‘pair’: du a ‘pair’. Rebus: du ‘cast (meta )

Glyph: G yp : ‘cobra’s ood’: paṭam , n. < phaṭa. 1. Cobra's hood (CDIAL 9040). Rebus:
‘s arpness of iron’: padm (obl.padt-) temper of iron (Ko.)(DEDR 3907). patam
‘s arpness, as of t e edge of a nife’ (Ta.)




                                              22
Section 7: Copper, iron merchant, alloy stone ore – eraka ibbo kol

                h1971 Harappa. Plano convex molded tablet discovered in 1996
                excavations by HARP. Three tablets with identical glyphic compositions
                on both sides: h1970, h1971 and h1972. Obverse: Seated figure or deity
                with reed house or shrine at one side. Crocodile + person kicking &
                spearing buffalo.



                Rebus reading of obverse side of tablet

                The vivid action on the pictorial narrative is a woman stretching full
length of her arms to hold back quarrelling tigers.


mēḍamu. A fight, battle,              .                     mēdamu-poḍuṭsu. v. n. To fight a
battle.                  ,                a cock fight.                    [ mēṇḍriñcu
] mēnḍrinṭsu. [Tel.] v. a. To divide, cut, sever;            . (Telugu) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’
(Ho.) mẽṛhet ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) mẽṛhet iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron (Mu.)

 āḍ ‘stretc onese f t e w o e engt of one’s body’ Rebus: āḍ ‘stone’ (Gadba).

Thus, the composite glyph reads: meḍ āḍ ‘iron stone’.

Pk. āṇa -- ʻblind of one eye, b indʼ; As .     ṛa, °ṛī f. ʻb indʼ, Kt. K   (CDIAL 3019)
Rebus: kāṇḍa ‘too s, pots and pans and meta -ware’.

kola ‘woman’ (Na a i) kol ‘tiger’ Rebus: kol working in iron, alloy, blacksmith
(Tamil). eraka ‘nave of w ee ’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper’. Ibha ‘e ep ant’ Rebus: ib ’
iron’ ibbo ‘merc ant’.

Thus, the complete message on obverse of the tablet reads: ib ‘iron’ + eraka
‘copper’ + kol ‘a oy’ + kāṇḍa ‘too s, pots and pans and meta -ware’.

Reverse side of Set 1 tablet: The hieroglyphs denote a smithy/forge stone-working,
                                              23
mint, working & trading in iron and copper.

mēḍamu 'spear' (Telugu) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’.

 arā, ‘crocodi e’ Rebus:     ār ‘b ac smit ’ (Kas miri) + kolsa, ‘ ic ing’ + meḍ ‘spear, iron’
+ Rebus: meḍ kolimi ‘iron smit y/forge’.

Glyph: cluster atop the person seated in penance:        ḍ2       m. a section, part in
genera ; a c uster, bund e, mu titude ( iv. 32).    ḍ1        ।     m. the stalk or stem of a
reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the compound with dan 5 (p. 221a, l. 13) the word is
spelt āḍ. (Kashmiri)          [ kaṇḍe ] kaṇḍe. [Tel.] n. A head or ear of millet or
maize.              . Rebus: āḍ ‘stone’. Ga. (Oll.) kanḍ, (S.) kanḍu (pl. kanḍkil) stone
(DEDR 1298). kamaḍha ‘penance’ (P t.) Rebus: kampaṭṭam ‘coiner, mint’ (Tami )

                         There are other tablets of the same site discovered in 1930
                         excavations , with a different set of hieroglyphs on reverse side:
                         crocodile + person seated on branch of tree + tiger looking back
                         and up + rhinoceros + tiger in procession. Reverse side of Set 2
tablet: The hieroglyphs denote a copper turner artisan (making) tools, pots and pans
and metal-ware. heraka ‘spy’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper’.        ōṇḍa ‘ eaf ess tree’ (Marat i)
Rebus: õdār ’turner’ (Benga i) arā, ‘crocodi e’       ār ‘b ac smit ’ (Kas miri) o ‘tiger’
Rebus: kol wor ing in iron, b ac smit (Tami ) ammara ‘turned bac ’ Rebus: amar
‘artisan’. Rhinoceros: gaṇḍá4 m. ʻ r inoceros ʼ lex., °a a -- m. lex. 2. *ga- yaṇḍa --
[Prob. of same non -- Aryan origin as khaḍgá --1: cf. gaṇōtsā a -- m. lex. as a
Sans ritized form ← Mu. PMWS 13 ]1. Pa. gaṇḍaka -- m., Pk. gaṁḍaya -- m., A. g r,
Or. gaṇḍā. 2. K. goḍ m., S. geṇḍo m. (lw. with g -- ), P. gaĩḍā m., °ḍī f., N. gaĩṛo,
H. gaĩṛā m., G. gẽḍɔ m., °ḍī f., M. gẽḍā m. WPah.kṭg. geṇḍɔ mirg m. ʻ r inoceros ʼ,
Md. genḍā ← H. (CDIAL 4000).                         āṇṭā-mirukam , n. [M. āṇṭāmṛgam.]
Rhinoceros;                . (Tamil) Rebus: kāṇḍa ‘too s, pots and pans and meta -ware’.




                                              24
               h1972A                 h1972B                   h1973A                  h1973




B               h1974A                  h1974B                  h1970A                   h197
0B




           h181A             h181B

                          m0308      āḍ ‘stretc onese f t e w o e engt of one’s body’
                          Rebus: āḍ ‘stone’ (Gadba).

                          kol ‘tiger’ Rebus: kol ‘wor ing in iron’; kollan ‘artificer, mason’.

                          One-eyed glyph: kāṇa ‘one-eyed’; rebus: kāṇḍa ‘too s, pots

                          and pans and metal-ware’; G yp ’eye as es’: Kol. (SR.) kaṇ ā

mindī, (Kin.) kandl mindig (pl.) eyelash. Go. (A. Ch. Ma.) mindi, (Tr. W. Ph.) mindī id.;

(M.) konḍā-mindī eyebrow; (Ko.) konḍa-minḍi eyelid, eyelash (Voc. 2831). / Cf.



                                             25
Halbi mendī eyelashes. (DEDR 4864).          mēḍ ā A twist or tang e arising in t read or

cord, a curl or snarl. (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)

bhaṭa ‘six ( air-knots)’; rebus: bhaṭa ‘furnace’. kola ‘woman’; o ‘tiger’; rebus: o
‘iron’. S ide 90 arappa.com (one-eye glyph)

                Text 2075        [ mēṇḍ arī ] f A piece in architecture.

      [mēnd a ā] m In architecture. A common term for the two upper arms of a

double        (door-frame) connecting the two. Called also         &       . It answers

to       the name of the two lower arms or connections. (Marathi) meḍ ‘iron’. Vikalpa:

pan ar ‘ adder, stairs’ (Bs   .)(CDIAL 7760) Rebus: pasra ‘smit y’ (Santa i) mẽṛ ā ʻpost,

pi arʼ; M. meḍ(h), meḍ ī f., meḍ ā m. ʻ post, for ed sta e ʼ. (CDIAL 10317) Rebus: meḍ

‘iron’ (Ho.) mẽṛ et ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) Vikalpa: sāṅgāḍā           ‘frame of a bui ding’
(Marathi); saṅgaḍ ‘portab e furnace’. Sa ‘sp inter’ Rebus: sa ‘wor s op’. ayas āṇḍa is a

compounded word attested in Panini. kāṇḍa ‘arrow’ (S t.) Rebus: खांडा [        āṇḍā] m A

jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon) ayo ‘fis ’ (Munda)

Rebus: aya ‘iron’ (G.)    āṇḍa ‘too s, pots and pans, and meta -ware’.

Section 8: Stone-worker business, bronze-smith, iron-smith, working in minerals and

alloy metals, metal tools, pots and pans, tin merchant, scribe

                                          Molded tablets. Slide 142. Harappa.com Molded

                                          tablets from Trench 11 sometimes have

                                          impressions on one, two, three or four sides.

                                          This group of molded tablets shows the

                                          complete set of motifs. One side is comprised

                                          entirely of script and has six characters, the first

                                          of which (on the very top) appears to be some
                                          sort of animal. A second side shows a human
                                             26
figure grappling with a short horned bull. A small plant with at least six branches is

discernible behind the individual. The third panel portrays a figure seated on a charpoy

or throne in a yogic position, with arms resting on the knees. Both arms are covered

with bangles, and traces of a horned headdress and long hair are visible on some of the

impressions. A second individual, also with long hair and wearing bangles, is seated on

a short stool to the proper left of the individual on the "throne." The fourth panel shows a

deity standing with both feet on the ground and wearing a horned headdress. A branch

with three pipal leaves projects from the center of the headdress. Bangles on seen on

both arms.




             h2029D                 h2030A                  h2030C                h2030D




               h2031A                 h2031B                 h2031C              h2031D




                                             27
                h178A              h178B           4318 Pict-84: Person wearing a diadem
or tall head-dress (with twig?) standing within an arch or two pillars?




              h179A           h179B          4307 Pict-83: Person wearing a diadem or tall
head-dress standing within an ornamented arch; there are two stars on either side, at
the bottom of the arch.

Glyph: Ka. tāṭu to strike against, touch, come in contact with, etc.; strike; (Hav.) tāḍu to

butt with horns. Tu. tāḍuni to gore, butt; tāḍu goring; tāḍe ů act of goring or

butting; tāṇṭuni to touch, hit, come into collision or contact with, quarrel,

fight; tāṇṭāvuni to make collide, etc.; (B-K. also) āṇṭu to collide. Kor. (O.) tāṇṭi to

hit.Te. tāṭincu to pat, slap. (DEDR 3156). Rebus: d ātu ‘minera ’ (Vedic); dhatu ‘a

mineral, metal’ (Santa i) Vi a pa: Glyph: Pe. kund- (kunt-) to punch with fist; xutting to

dig, probe (Brahui); kutl act of pricking, goring, butting (Ko.)(DEDR 1719). kuṭi a, att ī

= bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin)(CDIAL 3230).

ḍhangar ‘bu ’; rebus: ḍhangar ‘b ac smit ’. Thus on one side of the four-sided molded
tablet, the glyphs denote: bronze-smith, black-smith.

dhaṭu ‘scarf’ Rebus: dhatu ‘minera , ore’. kōḍu ‘ orn’ Rebus: khoṭf ʻa oy (Lahnda)


                                              28
Glyph: ar n. p . ‘wrist ets, bang es’ (Gujarati) G yp : āḍ ‘stretch oneself the whole

engt of one’s body’ Rebus: āḍ ‘stone’ (Gadba). T us, on one side of t e four-sided

molded tablet, the hieroglyph of horned person wearing a scarf and bangles denotes:

(working with) stone, mineral ore and metal alloys. Vikalpa: Glyph: Ka. kaṇe, kaṇi heavy

wooden roller which stands upright in the mortar of an oil-mill Rebus: kaṇicci battle-axe,

pickaxe, goad (Tamil); battle axe (Ma.)

On the third side of the four-sided molded tablet, one person in penance is seated on a
platform and another person is seated on a stool. kamaḍha ‘penance’ Rebus: Rebus:
kampaṭṭam ‘coiner, mint’ (Tami ) Glyph: maṇḍom ‘a raised p atform or scaffo d’ (Santa i).
maṇḍā = warehouse, workshop (Kon.lex.) Vikalpa: manḍuvā 'courtyard' Rebus:
manḍī मंडी f. an exchange, a place where merchants meet to transact business. Kur.
kaṇḍō a stoo . Malt. kanḍo stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar, furnace’
(Santali) Rebus: āḍ ‘stone’ (Gadba). T e g yp s t us connote: kampaṭṭam ‘mint’ + āḍ
‘stone’; t at is, a stone wor s op and p ace of trade exc anges.

                                  Text of the inscription: ṭagara ‘ante ope’;   takar, n.
                                  [T. tagaru, K. tagar.] 1. Sheep;                .(    .) 2.
                                  Ram;                         .(      .)
                              (      , 4 6). Rebus: tagara ‘tin’. Rebus: damgar
‘merc ant’.
kanka ‘Rim of jar’ (Santa i); karṇaka rim of jar’(S t.) Rebus: karṇaka ‘scribe’ (Te ugu);
gaṇaka id. (Skt.) (Santali)

kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ʻbac boneʼ (La nda) Rebus: āḍ ‘stone’ (Gadba). Rebus: Rebus:
kāṇḍa ‘too s, pots and pans and meta -ware’. kanka ‘Rim of jar’ (Santa i); karṇaka rim of
jar’(S t.) Rebus: karṇaka ‘scribe’ (Te ugu); gaṇaka id. (Skt.) (Santali) karaṇa ‘business’.

Glyph: meḍ ‘body’ (Mu.) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)



                                              29
Thus, the text reads rebus: meḍ ‘iron’+ tagara ‘tin’ + karṇaka ‘inscribed’ + kāṇḍa ‘too s,
pots and pans and metal-ware’.


h2023A                 h2023B                 h2023C



                            h2024A                     h2024B                         h202
4C



             h2025C                  h2026A                 2026B                  h2026C




             h2026D                  h2027A                 h2027B                 h2027C




             h2027D                 h2028A                 h2028B                 h2028C




                                             30
               h2028A                   h2029A                   h2029B                   h2029C

A comparable inscription occurs on a Harappa seal h1997:




                h1997A                  h1997B kuṭi ’tree’ Rebus: kuṭhi ‘sme ter, furnace’.
  ōṇḍa ‘ eaf ess tree’ (Marat i) Rebus: õdār ’turner’ (Benga i) kaḍa, kaḍru, kaṛa ‘a
buffalo bull’ (Santa i) Or. kaṛā ʻ castrated male buffalo ʼ, Bi. āṛā m., ṛī f. ʻ buffa o ca f ʼ,
H. āṛā m. (CDIAL 2658)              kaṇṭi buffalo bull (Tamil) kaṇḍ ‘buffa o’; rebus: kaṇḍ
‘stone (ore)’. T us, toget er, t e ierog yp s on obverse of t e sea denote kaṇḍ õdār
stone-turner. On the reverse, the rectangle with 24 dots may denote a writing tablet,
comparable to the tokens used with bullae in Ancient Near East to account for products.

kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ʻbac boneʼ (Lahnda)(CDIAL 2670) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘stone (ore)’.
karaṇaka ‘rim of jar’ Rebus:        karaṇa ‘business, scribe’.      gsī f. ʻ comb ʼ (Gujarati)
Rebus: kamsa ‘bronze’. Fish         + corner, aya koṇḍa, ‘meta turned, i.e. forged. Vikalpa,
aya ‘meta ’ +: aḍaren, ḍaren        lid, cover (Santali) Rebus: aduru ‘native meta ’ (Ka.)
aduru = gan.iyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not
subjected to melting in a furnace (Ka. Siddhānti Subrahmaṇya’ śāstri’s new
interpretation of t e Amara os’a, Banga ore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1 72, p. 330) Thus
the message as hieroglyphs on both obverse and reverse sides of the seal denote:
forged metal, stone ore, bronze business (of) kaṇḍ õdār stone-turner with kuṭhi furnace


                                                31
Section 9: Copper-smith, artificer, worker in alloy metals

                h163 Pict-108 eraka, hero = a messenger; a spy (G.lex.) heraka = spy

                (Skt.); er to look at or for (Pkt.); er uk- to play 'peeping tom' (Ko.) Rebus:

era a ‘copper’ (Ka.)

      [ ō ā]         [ ō ēṃ ] A jac a (Marat i) u ‘tiger’ (Santa i); ō u id. (Te.) ō upu i
= Bengal tiger (Te.) Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha — m. ʻ jac a ʼ Rebus: kol ‘furnace, forge’
(Kuwi) o ‘a oy of five meta s, pañca o a’ (Tami )

Rebus: kol ‘wor ing in iron, blacksmith (Ta.); kollan- blacksmith (Ta.); kollan blacksmith,

artificer (Ma.)(DEDR 2133) Thus, together the hieroglyphs read rebus: eraka kol

‘copper, a oy meta smit ’.

          Kalibangan050c         8031 Pict-53: Composition: body of a tiger, a human
          body with bangles on arm, a pig-tail, horns of an antelope crowned by a twig.
          dhaṭu m. (also dhaṭhu) m. ‘scarf’ (WPa .) (CDIAL 6707) Rebus: d ātu =
mineral (Skt.), dhatu id. (Santali) ūdī, ūṭī bunc of twigs (Sans rit) Rebus: kuṭhi
‘sme ter furnace’.

gaṇḍa ‘four’ (Santa i). kaṇḍa ‘fire-altar, furnace’ (Santa i). khaṇḍa ‘too s, pots and pans
and metal-ware’

kolma hoṛo = a variety of t e paddy p ant (Desi)(Santa i.) o om ‘t ree’ (Mu.) Rebus:
 o imi ‘furnace, smithy’ (Te ugu). T us, t e sea message reads rebus: eraka kol
‘copper, a oy meta smit ’ + d atu ‘minera ore’ kuṭhi ‘sme ter furnace’ + o imi ‘furnace,
smithy’ + (ma ing) khaṇḍa ‘too s, pots and pans and meta -ware’.

             m0311 Pict-52: Composite motif: body of a tiger, a human body with

             bangles on arms, antelope horns, tree-branch and long pigtail.

                       2347 See identical hieroglyphs on Kalibangan050 seal. In addition,

the person ligatured to the tiger is shown with an upraised arm: eṛa a ‘upraised arm’

                                              32
(Tamil); rebus: eraka = copper (Kannada). This hieroglyph element is thus a phonetic

determinant of the copper smelter furnace. In the Text of the inscription, two E glyphs

are shown:     gsī f. ʻ comb ʼ (Gujarati) Rebus: amsa ‘bronze’. Du a ‘pair’ Rebus: du

‘cast (meta )’. T us t e pair of comb g yp s denote dul kamsa ‘cast bronze’ + sa

‘sp inter’ Rebus: sa ‘wor s op’ + koḍi ‘f ag’ (Ta.)(DEDR 2049) Rebus: koḍ ‘wor s op’

(Kuwi) Glyph: mund? mandu hamlet of the Todas on the Nilagiri. Rebus: maṇḍā =

warehouse, workshop (Konkani)

             Kalibangan049          8013 Glyph: lo, no ‘nine’ Rebus: lo ‘copper’. kuṭi

             ‘water-carrier’ Rebus: kuṭhi ‘sme ter furnace’. T us, the message reads

             rebus: lo kuṭhi copper smelter furnace. The hieroglyphs of pictorial motif

read rebus: eraka kol ‘copper, a oy meta smit ’.



                          h176A                             h176B


                          h176bb          4303 Tablet in bas-relief h176a Person standing
at the center between a two-tiered structure at R., and a short-horned bull (bison)
standing near a trident-headed post at L. h176b From R.—a tiger (?); a seated, pig-
tailed person on a platform; flanked on either side by a person seated on a tree with a
tiger, below, looking back. A hare (or goat?) is seen near the platform.

Text of inscription: dula ‘pair’ dul ‘cast (meta ) eraka ‘nave of w ee ’ Rebus: eraka
‘copper’. T us, t e inscription reads dul eraka ‘cast copper’ araṇa ‘business’.

Kol. (SR.) tāḍ- to spread bedding; tāre ād bedding. Nk. tāṛ- to spread. Ga. (S.3) tāṭ- to
spread like a mat. Go. (Tr.) tārānā to spread out clothes, etc., build a nest; (Ph. A.
G.) tār-, (M.) tārānā to spread; (Mu.) tār- to spread (cloth, mat, etc.), build nest;
(Ma.) tār to spread, (bird) to build nest (Voc. 1706); (ASu.)tār- to spread the
bed. Kur. t ṛnā to lengthen, elongate, draw or stretch out. Malt. táṉṛye to spread out,

                                              33
stretch out; táṉṛgre to be spread out. (DEDR 3154). Rebus: dhatu ‘minera ’ meḍ ‘body’
Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’. ḍangar ‘bu ’ Rebus: ḍhangar ‘b ac smit ’. baṭhu ‘ arge pot’ Rebus:
‘furnace’. Thus, together the hieroglyphs denote: ḍhangar ‘smit ’ (wor ing wit ) meḍ
‘iron’ dhatu ‘minera ’ baṭhu ‘furnace’ (toget er wit cast copper business).

Hieroglyphs on either side of the scarfed person seated on a platform in penance: eraka

kol ‘copper, a oy meta smit ’.

dhaṭu m. (also dhaṭhu) m. ‘scarf’ (WPah.) (CDIAL 6707) Rebus: d ātu = mineral
(Skt.), dhatu id. (Santali) kamaḍha ‘penance’ (P t.) Rebus: kampaṭṭam ‘coiner, mint’

(Tamil) Glyph: maṇḍom ‘a raised p atform or scaffo d’ (Santa i). maṇḍā = warehouse,

workshop (Kon.lex.) Vikalpa: manḍuvā 'courtyard' Rebus: manḍī मंडी f. an exchange, a

place where merchants meet to transact business.




           m1184            m1185                 m0309 Pict-109: Person with hair-bun
seated on a tree branch; a tiger looks at the person with its head turned backwards.
            2522 See identical rebus readings of Kalibangan049 seal.




         m0310AC            1355

              Chanhudaro27 kammara ‘turned bac ’ Rebus: kamar ‘artisan’. kol kamar
              ‘a oy artisan’.




          m1452Bct              2912 tagara amar ‘tin artisan’.




                                             34
Section 10: Scribe of workshop, warehouse, furnace of tin smithy, forge



                        h180A                            h180B               4304 Tablet
in bas-relief h180a Pict-106: Obverse: Nude female figure upside down with thighs
drawn apart and crab (?) issuing from her womb; two tigers standing face to face
rearing on their hindlegs at L. Reverse: h180b Pict-92: Man armed with a sickle-
shaped weapon on his right hand and a cakra (?) on his left hand, facing a seated
woman with disheveled hair and upraised arms.

Glyphic elements of the pictorial motif on the tablet:

Two tigers rearing on their hindlegs standing face to face.

Glyph: tiger: o a ‘tiger’. Rebus: o ‘wor ing in iron’ G yp : du a ‘pair’. Rebus: du

‘casting (metal). Thus, together, the glyphs read rebus: casting iron.

               A person carrying a sickle-shaped weapon and a wheel on his bands

               faces a woman with disheveled hair and upraised arm. kuṭhāru ‘armourer’

(Skt.) salae sapae = untangled, combed out, hair hanging loose (Santali.lex.) Rebus: sal

workshop (Santali) The glyptic composition is decoded as kuṭhāru sal ‘armourer

wor s op.’ eṛaka 'upraised arm' (Ta.). Rrebus: eraka = copper (Ka.) Thus, the entire

composition of t ese g yp ic e ements re ate to an armourer’s copper wor s op.

The entire text on h180:

                4304 koḍi ’f ag’ Rebus: koḍ ‘wor s op’ + koṭ ‘ware ouse’ + an a sa

                ‘wor s op scribe’ + ranku kolami kuṭhi ‘tin forge smit y furnace’. That is,

scribe of workshop, warehouse, furnace of tin smithy, forge.

     koḍi ‘f ag’ (Ta.)(DEDR 2049). koḍ ‘wor s op’ (Kuwi)

     Sign 187 is comparable to the sign used to depict a koṣhāgāra ‘ware ouse’ on
Sohgaura copper plate. Rebus: kuṭhāru ‘armourer’ (S t.) Ta. koṭṭakai shed with sloping
                                             35
roofs, cow-stall; marriage pandal; koṭṭam cattle-shed; koṭṭil cow-stall, shed, hut; (STD)
koṭambe feeding place for cattle. Ma. koṭṭil cowhouse, shed, workshop, house. Ka.
koṭṭage, koṭige, koṭṭige stall or outhouse (esp. for cattle), barn, room. Koḍ. koṭṭï shed.
Tu.koṭṭa hut or dwelling of Koragars; koṭya shed, stall. Te. koṭṭamu stable for cattle or
horses; koṭṭāyi thatched shed. Kol. (Kin.) koṛka, (SR.) or ā cowshed; (Pat., p. 59)
konṭoḍi henhouse. Nk. khoṭa cowshed. Nk. (Ch.) koṛka id. Go. (Y.) koṭa, (Ko.) koṭam (pl.
koṭak) id. (Voc. 880); (SR.) koṭkashed; (W. G. Mu. Ma.) koṛka, (Ph.) korka, kurka
cowshed (Voc. 886); (Mu.) koṭorla, koṭorli shed for goats (Voc. 884). Malt. koṭa hamlet. /
Influenced by Skt. goṣṭha- Ta. koṭi banner, flag, streamer; ōṭu summit of a hill, peak,
mountain;    ōṭai mountain;     ōṭar peak, summit of a tower; kuvaṭu mountain, hill,
peak;kuṭumi summit of a mountain, top of a building, crown of the head, bird's crest, tuft
of hair (esp. of men), crown, projecting corners on which a door swings.Ma. koṭi top,
extremity, flag, banner, sprout; ōṭu end; kuvaṭu hill, mountain-top; kuṭuma, kuṭumma
narrow point, bird's crest, pivot of door used as hinge, lock of hair worn as caste
distinction; koṭṭu head of a bone. Ko. koṛy flag on temple; koṭ top tuft of hair (of Kota
boy, brahman), crest of bird; kuṭ clitoris.To. wïṭ tip, nipple, child's back lock of hair. Ka.
kuḍi pointed end, point, extreme tip of a creeper, sprout, end, top, flag, banner; guḍi
point, flag, banner;kuḍilu sprout, shoot; ōḍu a point, the peak or top of a hill; koṭṭu a
point, nipple, crest, gold ornament worn by women in their plaited hair; koṭṭa state of
being extreme; koṭṭa-kone the extreme point; (Hav.) koḍi sprout; Koḍ. koḍi top (of
mountain, tree, rock, table), rim of pit or tank, flag. Tu. koḍi point, end, extremity, sprout,
flag; koḍipuni to bud, germinate; (B-K.) koḍipu, koḍipel; a sprout; koḍirè the top-leaf;
koṭṭu cock's comb, peacock's tuft. Te.koḍi tip, top, end or point of a flame; koṭṭa-kona
the very end or extremity. Kol. (Kin.) koṛi point. Pa. ūṭor cock's comb. Go. (Tr.) koḍḍī
tender tip or shoot of a plant or tree; koḍḍi (S.) end, tip, (Mu.) tip of bow; (A.) koḍi point
(Voc. 891). Malt. qoṛgo comb of a cock; ? qóru the end, the top (as of a tree). Cf. 2081
Ta. koṇṭai and 2200 Ta Ta. koṇṭai and 2200 Ta. ōṭu.(DEDR 2058)

       Sign 343 sa ‘sp inter’; rebus: sa ‘wor s op’ (Santa i) kaṇḍa an a ‘rim of jar’
       (Santa i); rebus: ‘furnace scribe’ T us t e first t ree g yp s (signs) from eft read:


                                              36
koḍ kuṭhāru sa    aṇḍa an a ‘armourer wor s op furnace account scribe’. T e Santali
gloss kan-ka is instructive. It may be a dimunitive form of *kan-khar ‘copper smith’
comparable to the cognate gloss: kaṉṉār ‘coppersmit s,b ac smit s’ (Tami ) If so,
kaṇḍa kan-khār connotes: ‘copper-smith furnace.’

            The set of next three glyphs (signs) read rebus: ran u ‘ iquid measure’;
            rebus: ran u ‘tin’ (Santa i)     o mo ‘paddy p ant’ (Santa i); rebus:      o ami
‘forge, smithy’ (Te ugu) uṭi ‘water-carrier’ (Te.); rebus: uṭ i ‘sme ter,furnace’. ranku
kolami kuṭhi ‘tin forge smit y furnace’.

Thus, the entire composition of the two-sided tablet h180 with Indus script inscription is

read rebus: workshop furnace account (scribe); tin forge smithy stone ore furnace

blacksmith; armourer copper workshop. Casting (metal) working in iron.


G yp : ‘pair’: du a ‘pair’. Rebus: du ‘cast (metal)

Section 11: Shapes of Bronze Age weapons and tools made in Ancient Near East as

tokens for accounting stoneware, metalware and possibly, writing tablets

The system of tokens and bullae in Ancient Near East as early accounting systems and

administrative records of communities found a leap forward by recording hieroglyphs as

representations of underlyings sounds of Meluhha speech to account for Bronze Age
processes in workshops and stone- or metal-mints.




             h325A                h325B           4416 Pict-130: Inscribed object in the
shape of a writing tablet (?) The writing tablet has been inscribed with a message
related to Bronze Age activitiesin a smithy/forge. Glyph ): kuṭila ‘bent’. Rebus: kuṭila,
 att ī = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin)(CDIAL 3230). gaṇḍa set of four (Santali)
kaṇḍa ‘fire-a tar’. karaṇaka ‘rim’ Rebus: karaṇa ‘business’. eraka ‘nave of w ee ’
Rebus: eraka ‘copper’.

                                             37
        badhi ‘to igature, to bandage, to sp ice, to join by successive ro s of a igature’
        (Santali) batā bamboo slips (Kur.); bate = thin slips of bamboo (Malt.)(DEDR
        3917). Rebus: baḍhi = worker in wood and metal (Santali) bāṛ , bāṛ ‘ nife’
(Hindi)Thus, the inscription reads; eraka baḍ i ‘wor er in wood and copper’, wit kuṭila
kaṇḍa karaṇa ‘furnace for bronze business.’ Vikalpa: eraka bāṛh ‘copper nife’, with
kuṭila kaṇḍa karaṇa ‘furnace for bronze business. it could also have denoted: Phal.
baḍ īˊr ʻ axe (?), s edge ammer ʼ (CDIAL 113 5)

See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/08/bronze-age-kanmer-bagasra.html
Bronze Age Meluhha, smithy/lapidary documents, takṣat vā , incised speec


          h326A             h326B             4564 Double-axe?



           h327A             h327B             5472



           h819At              h819Bt Shape of object: Blade of a weapon?               5302

See curved shape of Rojdi axe or knife. Rojdi. Ax-head or knife of
copper, 17.4 cm. long (After Possehl and Raval 1989: 162, fig. 77

The shape of this tablet is comparable to the bronze saw used today:

                      Turbinella pyrum shell bangle manufacturing
                      process. [a to f]: preliminary chipping and
                      removal of internal columella; [g to k]: sawing
                      shell circlets; [l to n]: finishing the shell blank; [o]: final incising.
                      (After Fig. 5.23 in Keyoner, 1998).

                      A skilled sawyer and shells ready for sawing, in Calcutta
                      (Kolkata). This bronze saw weighs 25 kgs. And is hung using
                      ropes fixed to t e cei ing of t e sawyer’s wor s op to cut t e

                                             38
turbinella pyrum to create shell bangles. The sawyer is holding the shell between the
soles of his feet.




                                                          h232A                   h232B

                                         tablet in bas relief         4368 Inscribed
                                         object in the shape of a double-axe.


                                                   h817At           h817Bt Inscribed
object in the shape of a double-axe.One or more dotted


circles.             h818At      h818Bt Inscribed object in the shape of a double-axe.

           4376

                                                These double-axe shapes compare with
                                                the double-axes found at Chanhu-daro:

                                                These shapes compare with a
                                                hieroglyph shown on a Chanhu-daro
                                                seal:




                                                          Chanhu-daro23


                                                            6402 Goat-antelope with a
                                                short tail. The object in front of the goat-
                                                antelope is a double-axe.

                                                The message Chanhu-daro23 seal is of
a mint of a metal merchant as the select hieroglyphs read rebus:

                                           39
mẽḍha ‘ante ope’; rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.) meḍh ‘merc ant’ (G.) āmaṭhum = a bow;
kāmaṭhiyo a bowman; an archer (Skt.) Rebus: kammaṭa = portable furnace (Telugu)

kampaṭṭam coiner, mint (Tamil)      uṭ m. ʻ corner (Hindi) Rebus: kundam, kund a

sacrificial fire-pit (Skt.) pasaramu, pasalamu ‘an anima , a beast, a brute, quadruped’

(Telugu); rebus: pasra ‘smit y’ (Santa i) sa ‘sp inter’ Rebus: sa ‘wor s op’. loa, ’fig eaf’

Rebus: loh, ‘copper’. Ko mo ‘t ree’ Rebus: o imi ‘smit y, forge’



              m0592At                  m0592Bt               3413 Pict-133: Double-axe
(?) without shaft. [The sign is comparable to the sign which appears on the text of a
Chanhudaro seal: Text 6402, Chanhudaro Seal 23].



               h1139A                 h1139B                  h1140A                 h1140


B               h1141A                  h1141B                 h233A                 h233B


       4387 Tablet in bas-relief. Sickle-shaped. Pict-131: Inscribed object in the shape
of a crescent? For example, rebus readings of h233 (Text 4387) miniature tablet: kolmo
‘t ree’ Rebus: kolami ‘smit y, forge’. baṭhu ‘ arge pot’ Rebus: ‘furnace’ (h233B).
kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ʻbackboneʼ (Lahnda) Rebus: kāḍ ‘stone’ (Gadba). Rebus: Rebus:
kāṇḍa ‘too s, pots and pans and meta -ware’. kanka ‘Rim of jar’ (Santa i); karṇaka rim of
jar’(S t.) Rebus: karṇaka ‘scribe’ (Te ugu); gaṇaka id. (Skt.) (Santali) karaṇa ‘business’.
k gsī f. ʻ comb ʼ (Gujarati) Rebus: kamsa ‘bronze’. (h233A) Fish-shape is explained
rebus: ayo ‘fis ’ Rebus: aya ‘iron’ (Gujarati) ayas ‘meta ’(Sans rit).

Hieroglyphs of h1140 and h1141 read rebus: dhāḷ ‘a s ope’; ‘inc ination of a p ane’
(Gujarati) Rebus: dhāḷa i ‘ arge ingot’. bāṭa, ‘road’ Rebus: baṭa ‘furnace’. Glyph: kaṇe,
kaṇi heavy wooden roller which stands upright in the mortar of an oil-mill (Kannada)
Rebus: kaṇicci battle-axe, pickaxe, goad (Tamil); battle axe (Malayalam) du a ‘pair’


                                             40
Rebus: du ‘cast (meta )’ karṇaka rim of jar’(S t.) ) Rebus: karaṇa ‘business’. T e
message is: furnace for large ingot.; battle-axe cast (metal) business.

              These fish-shaped and sickle-shaped miniature tablets of Harappa may be
              compared with the modern-day sickles in use by farmers of India (Rajkot,
              Gujarat).

                m1653 ivory plaque         1905 kaṇ ‘eye’ Rebus: kaṇicci battle-axe bhaṭa,
                ‘warrior’ Rebus: b aṭa ‘furnace’




Section 12: Artisans’ gui ds pātra, ‘troug ’; pattar, ‘merc ant, gui d’.

A significant numberof seals/tablets in Indus writing corpora provide a unique modifying

glyptic element in front of both wild and domestic animals. The modifying element is a

watering trough: for e.g. the watering trough hieroglyph is shown in front of animal

hieroglyphs such as rhinoceros, tiger, elephant. Some examples are presented below.




              m0486at                  m0486bt                 m0486ct          1625



               m1405Bt Pict-48 A tiger and a rhinoceros in file       2841


              m1405At Pict-97: Person standing at the center pointing with his right hand


at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand pointing to the sign      Obverse: A
tiger and a rhinoceros in file.

pattharika [fr. Patthara] a merchant Vin ii.135 ( aŋsa˚). (Pa i) [An allograph pattara
‘troug ’ is a g yp used in front of many types of animals including wild animals and
composite animal g yp s. T e exeme pattar connotes a ‘gui d’.]

                                              41
Glyph:      pātra, ( .) s. Vesse , cup, p ate; receptac e. [ w. S . Id.] (Nepa i) pātramu A
utensil,             . Hardware. Metal vessels. (Telugu)                  pattal, n.        ¹ pattar 1.
A wooden bucket;                                               .
(          . 19, 23).


Rebus:         ² pattar , n. < T. battuḍu. A caste title of goldsmiths;
                           .               ¹ paṭṭaṭai , n. prob.   ¹- +        ¹-. 1. [T. paṭṭika, K.
paṭṭaḍe.] Anvil;               .(    .)                                                (    , 821). 2.
[K. paṭṭaḍi.] Smithy, forge;                                   pattal , n. 1. A wooden bucket;
                                       .                                       (           . 19, 23).
      ¹ pattar , n. 1. See           , 1, 4, 5. 2. Wooden trough for feeding animals;                     .
                           (        , 257).

WPa . pátt ər m. ʻ stone, roc ʼ; pəthreuṇõ ʻ to stone ʼ; J. pāt ar m. ʻ stone ʼ; Omarw.
Pāt arī ʻ precious stone ʼ. (CDIAL             57) paṭṭarai ‘wor s op’ (Ta.)

Paṭṭar-ai community; guild as of workmen (Ta.); pattar merchants; perh. Vartaka (Skt.)
                   vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter.                  battuḍu. n. A
worshipper.               . The caste title of all the five castes of artificers
as                      a carpenter.                        one who makes a god of his belly. L.
xvi. 230.(Telugu) The merchant, battuḍu, pattar is shown in a worshipful state kneeling
in adoration on many inscriptions.

Entrustment articles           jāṅgaḍa of metal (copper alloys, khoṭā alloyed forged ingots,
turner)’




                                                      42
              h1690A           m0319           m0319C                 2260




              h094     4246             h088           4253       h077




      h078             4244            h079     5060



       h080                   4245       Chanhudaro22a




      6115              h076            4241        h081       5063          h082a

Text 4238




              m1923a                 m1917             m1912                 m1916a




              m1928a                 m1911a              m1891a                m190



                                         43
3a          m1889         m1890                  m1907a              m188




7          m1888a         m1906                  m1886a              m187



6a       m1226A.        1326 Unfinished seal.




m1166.       1351     m1165a             2064             m1136



m1152         1369      m1138.            1344




          m1877         m1878a                   m1879a             m1880




a          m1881         m1882                   m1883             m1884a




          m1885a     m1225A           m1225B.        1311 Cube seal with

                                 44
perforation through the breadth of the seal Pict-118: svastika_ , generally within a



square or rectangular border              m1202A                  m1094



m1095                 2495 Bison          m1096            2410



m1089a.                  1315             m1088         2268               m1093




m1087a.               1319             m1090               2675            m1091



m1092          1312             m1085.                1322             1086a     3070



        m1097          2313            m1083          m1084       1316 Bison


m1081a                   2129             m0572At              m0572Bt


        3317                 m0573At             m0573Bt            3415



m0557At               m0557Bt            3341           m0553At



m0553Bt               3353              m0554At              m0554Bt           1712


m0547At               m0547Bt                  3303            m0543At                m0543Bt


                3363 [Note t e ‘ eart’ ort ograp on t e body of the antelope. This is
                                                45
comparable to Sign 323        ]           m0528At                   m0528Bt          3368



              m0527At                    m0527Bt             3336


m0530At               m0530Bt            3356                m0524At             m0524Bt


    3391             m0522At                  m0522Bt         3378



m0519At               m0519B                     1710           m0415a Bison



     2500             m0275                    2131




          m0276AC                 3122               m0274                    1342




m0277             2309               m0266.                  1306             m0267 Water-



buffalo             2257           m0268 Water-buffalo                2445



          m0255            2409 [The second sign is diamond-shaped?]




            m0254             2090             m0235           2689             m0236
             2123
                                                46
         m0237            m0238AC         2534          m0239           2238




m0240.             1324           m0241              1536        m0242              221
6




          m0243                 2390         m0244              2399           m0245



             2290           m0246.               1317           m0247            2298



          m0248.                 1310            m0249             2378



         m0250.          1308




m0251             2370            m0252                 2423           m0253




            2701            m0234.                1321           Lothal045
             7028




                                            47
            Lothal046                 7107            Kalibangan029



     8018               Kalibangan030        8002                Kalibangan033         8025



               h1770A                    h1770B

Section 13: Tin merchant, blacksmith, lathe-turner

                Bet Dwaraka 1 ankha (turbinella pyrum) seal. One-horned bull, short-
                horned bull looking down and an antelope looking backward.

                        1. Tin merchant: Glyph: Head turned back: kammara ‘turned
          bac ’ Rebus: kamar ‘artisan’. tagara ‘ram, ante ope’ Rebus: damgar
          ‘merc ant’ tagaram ‘tin’.

      2. Blackismith: Glyph: ḍangar ‘bu ’ Rebus: ḍangar ‘b ac smit ’.

      3. Lathe-turner: Glyph: kōnda ‘young bu ’ Rebus: õdā ‘ at e-turner’ kunda
          ‘turner’ undār turner (A.);     dār,        dāri (B.); undāru (Or.); kundau to turn on
          a lathe, to carve, to chase.

Glyph: M. s gaḍ f. ʻ a body formed of two or more fruits or animals or men &c. linked
together (CDIAL 12859). Oriya. saṅg āṛibā ʻ to mix up many materials, stir boiling curry,
tie two catt e toget er and eave to graze ʼ (CDIAL 12 60). Rebus: sangar ‘fortification’.
                   That is, the tin merchant, the blacksmith and the lathe-turner are
                   functioning from a fortified place, sangar. Artificers functioning from
                   such a fortified place were perhaps constituted as guilds of
                   professiona artisans. See Section 12: Artisans’ gui ds.

                   Kalibangan043                        8039 Pict-59:Composite motif: body of

                                                 48
an ox and three heads: of a one-horned bull (looking forward), of antelope (looking
backward), and of short-horned bull (bison) (looking downward).




           m1169a               2024 Pict-58: Composite motif: body of an ox and three
heads: of a one-horned bull (looking forward), of antelope (looking backward), and of
short-horned bull (bison) (looking downward).




           m1169a               2024 Pict-58: Composite motif: body of an ox and three
heads: of a one-horned bull (looking forward), of antelope (looking backward), and of
short-horned bull (bison) (looking downward).




               Amri06           m1171              m1170a     1382 Composite animal




          m0298                  Bhirrana2

Ancient writing systems provide messages about the professions and technologies
which were evolving during the Bronze Age in Ancient Near East.

Section 14: Artificers working with stones, minerals, alloys, metals

Scores of Indus writing inscriptions deploy many animal hieroglyphs. Typically, the
animals deployed as hieroglyphs are:

       E ep ant: ib a (g yp ). Rebus: ibbo (merc ant of ib ‘iron’)

                                             49
Tiger: kola (glyph). Rebus: kol (working in iron, alloys, kolami
‘smit y/forge’)


Rhinoceros: gaṇḍá (g yp ). Rebus: āṇḍā 'meta tools, pots and pans,
metalware'


Buffalo: கண்டி kaṇṭi (glyph). Rebus: kaṇḍ 'stone' kaḍa-i-o 'mason'

Ram, antelope: tagar (glyph) Rebus: damgar 'merchant' tagaram 'tin'

Zebu: 1.      ṭ (g yp ) Rebus:     ṭ ‘gui d, community’ (Santa i) 2.adar ḍangar

‘zebu’ Rebus: aduru ḍhangar ‘native, unsmelted metal smith’. aduru = gaṇiyinda

tegadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to
melting in a furnace (Ka. Siddhānti Subrahmaṇya’ astri’s new interpretation of

the Amarako a, Bangalore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1872, p.330); adar = fine sand

(Ta.); ayir – iron dust, any ore (Ma.) The lexeme aduru is considered cognate

with ayir ‘ore’ in etyma: Ta. ayil iron. Ma. ayir, ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru native

metal. Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron. (DEDR 192).

Bull: ḍangar (glyph) Rebus: ḍhangar ‘b ac smit ’ (Hindi).

Young bull:       ōṇḍa (glyph) Rebus: koḍ = place where artisans work õdā ‘ at e-
turner’

Markhor: miṇḍā (glyph) Rebus: mẽṛhet, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)


Crocodi e: arā (g yp ) Rebus:       ar ‘b ac smit ’ (Kas miri)




                                       50
                         m1429At                                     m1429Bt Pict-125:


Boat.                              m1429Ct                  3246 Gharial holding a fish in
its jaws. ayakāra ‘ironsmit ’ (fis , aya + crocodile, karā) Pali: ayakāra ‘iron-smit ’.
                     kāruvu = mechanic, artisan, Viśvakarma, the celestial artisan
                     (Telugu) khār 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)

                     Ant ropomorp wit ‘fis ’ sign incised on t e c est and wit curved

                     arms like the horns of a markhor. Sheorajpur (Kanpur Dist., UP,

                     India). State Museum, Lucknow (O.37) Typical find of Gangetic

                     Copper Hoards. 47.7 X 39 X 2.1 cm. C. 4 kg. Early 2nd millennium

BCE. A copper ant ropomorp         ad a ‘fis ’ g yp incised. Ant ropomorp wit ‘fis ’ sign

incised on the chest and with curved arms like the horns of a markhor. Sheorajpur

(Kanpur Dist., UP, India). State Museum, Lucknow (O.37) Typical find of Gangetic

Copper Hoards. 47.7 X 39 X 2.1 cm. C. 4 kg. Early 2nd millennium BCE.

miṇḍā mar     or (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) meḍ iron (Ho.)
meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Mu.lex.) ayo ‘fis ’;
rebs: ayo ‘meta ’ (Gujarati)


                m417AC         1383 Pict-62: Composition: six heads of
                animals: of unicorn, of short-horned bull (bison), of
                antelope, of tiger, and of two other uncertain animals)
radiating outward from a hatched ring (or 'heart' design).

Dilmun seal from Barbar; six heads of antelope radiating from a circle;
similar to animal protomes in Failaka, Anatolia and Indus. Baṭa ‘six’ (G.);
rebus: bhaṭa furnace (Santali)


                                              51
                                  Rhinoceros, elephant, lizard.Tell Asmar (Eshnunna),
                                  Iraq. IM 14674; glazed steatite; Frankfort, 1955, No.
                                  642; Collon, 1987, Fig. 610.




Hieroglyphs from a vase in Tell                                                Asmar
(29-27th cent. BCE). Pair of tigers, pair of zebu; a person holding two snakes; eagle and
lion attacking a zebu.




       m0294 One-horned bull?; elephant             1376

              m0489At                m0489Bt                m0489Ct

             m0418acyl


              m1402At                 m1402Bt              m447At           m447Bt



              m448t                m449Bt                  m449AC       2836




                   m0304B m0304AC Pict-81: Person (with three visible faces)
wearing bangles and armlets seated on a platform (with an antelope looking
backwards) and surrounded by five animals: rhinoceros, buffalo, antelope, tiger and

elephant.                2420




                                            52
            m0295 Pict-61: Composite motif of three tigers joined together.
             1386




              m2015A                  m2015B                  m2016A            m1393t




                       m1394tm1395At                m1395Bt                m0439t




        m440AC            m0441At           m0441Bt

Some examples of unique or distinct hieroglyphs:



              Mohenjodaro MIC, Pl. CVI,93            1093

              vartaka = a duck (Skt.)(CDIAL 11361). Rebus: vartaka ‘merc ant’
(Skt.) The circumference within which the duck is ligatured may connote: veḍh ʻ
circumference ʼ (Marat i) Rebus: veṛ ā ’enc osure, courtyard’. T is cou d be t e
meeting place for trade. Rebus: vḗdi f. ʻ raised piece of ground serving as an a tar and
usu. strewed wit    uśa grass ʼ RV., ʻ stand, benc ʼ MB ., ʻ p atform for wedding
ceremony ʼ; A. bei ʻ quadrangular frame of greenery forming platform on which
ceremonia bat ing of bride and bridegroom is performed ʼ.(CDIAL 12107). T e
composite hieroglyph may thus read rebus: vartaka vḗdi ‘merc ants’ trading p atform’.



                                            53
urseal11Seal; UPenn; a scorpion and an elipse [an eye (?)]; U. 16397; Gadd, PBA 18
                 (1932), pp. 10-11, p . II, no. 11 [Note: Is t e ‘eye’ an ova representation
                 of a bun ingot.) Glyph: bichā ‘scorpion’ (As+samese) Rebus: bica
                 ‘stone ore’ (Munda)

                       Glyph shown together with stong of scorpion on Urseal 1. Rebus:
                           [khōṭa] ‘ingot, wedge’; A mass of metal (unwrought or of old
metal melted down)(Maratthi) khoṭf ʻalloy (Lahnda) Hence               [khōṭasāḷa]
a(     &       from        ) Alloyed--a metal. (Marathi) Bshk. khoṭ ʻ embers ʼ, Phal. khūṭo ʻ
ashes, burning coal ʼ; L. khoṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, awāṇ. khoṭā ʻ forged ʼ; P. khoṭ m. ʻ base, alloy
ʼ M.khoṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, (CDIAL 3931) Kor. (O.) The seal thus depicts an ingot made of
bica, ‘stone ore’.

                     khōṭ ‘a oyed ingots’ Susa, stamp seal from the Gulf, Louvre, MDAI,
                     43, No. 1716 (From:Shaika Haya Ali Al Khalifa and Michael Price,
                     1986, Bahrain through the ages, the Archaeology, Kegan Paul
                     International) depicts two goat-antelopes crouching head to tail, inside
and outside an oval. Incised eyes are saucer-shaped. Stamp seal from Susa , at Louvre
Museum. “Susa is one of t e o dest nown sett ements of t e wor d, possib y founded
about 4200 BC, although the first traces of an inhabited village have been dated to ca.
7000 BCE. The seal depicts two goat-antelopes head to tail, outside an oval.”
(http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0809/0809.3566.pdf (Amelia Carolina Sparavigna,
2008, Symmetries in images on ancient seals.) Glyph: tagaru ‘ram’ (Tu u) Rebus:
tagarm ‘tin’ (Kota). damgar ‘merc ant’ (A     .) T us, t e sea depicts a tin, alloyed ingots
merchant.
                                    khōṭ ‘a oyed ingots’ An early cylinder seal from
                                    Mesopotamia (Frankfort, pl.IIIb).Double snake and
                                    rosette between double goat .
                                    Chanhu-daro Seal obverse and reverse. The oval sign
of this Jhukar culture seal is comparable to other inscriptions. Fig. 1 and 1a of Plate L.

                                              54
After Mackay, 1943. The hieroglyphs of the seal relate representations of bun ingots to
two ort ograp ic representations of ‘ante opes’: one is s own wa ing, t e ot er is
shown with head turned backwards. A flower is shown, perhaps, a representation of
tabernae Montana. Hierog yp of ‘ oo ing bac ’:                     [krammaru] krammaru.
[Tel.] v. n. To turn, return, go back.       .                   or
krammarinṭsu. V. a. To turn, send back, recall. To revoke, annul, rescind.
                   .             krammara. Adv. Again.                         or
             Same as                . krəm backʼ(Kho.)(CDIAL 3145) Kho. Krəm ʻ back ʼ
NTS ii 262 with (?) (CDIAL 3145)[Cf. Ir. *kamaka – or *kamraka -- ʻ back ʼ in Shgh.
Čůmč ʻ back ʼ, Sar. Čom EVSh 26] (CDIAL 2776) cf. Sang. kamak ʻ back ʼ, Shgh. Čom
(< *kamak G.M.) ʻ back of an animal ʼ, Yghn. Kama ʻ neck ʼ (CDIAL 14356). Kár,           r
‘nec ’ (Kas miri) Ka . Gřä ʻ neck ʼ; Kho. Goḷ ʻ front of neck, throat ʼ. Gala m. ʻ throat,
neck ʼ MBh. (CDIAL 4070) Rebus: karmāra ‘smit , artisan’ (S t.) amar ‘smit ’ (Santa i)


Glyph: tagaru ‘ram’ (Tu u) Rebus: tagarm ‘tin’ (Kota). damgar ‘merc ant’ (A         .) T us,
the seal depicts a tin ingot merchant.                  [ krammaru ] v. n. To turn, return, go
bac (Te ugu) Rebus: amar ‘smit , artisan’ (Santa i).

T e ‘ova ’ glyph on Chanhu-daro seal is comparable to a bun ingot shape.

            m0297a Head of a one-horned bull attached to an unidentified five-point


            symbol (octopus-like?)               2641 A lexeme for a Gangetic/Indus river

octopus is retained as a cultural memory only in Jatki (language of the Jats) of Punjab-

Sindh region. The lexeme is veṛ ā. A homonym is: WPah.kṭg. beṛɔ m. ʻ pa ace ʼ,

J. beṛā m. ʻ id., esp. t e fema e apartments ʼ, u . beṛā ʻ building with a courtyard ʼ; A.

also berā ʻ fence, enc osure ʼ M. veḍh ʻ circumference ʼ; L. veṛh, vehṛ m. ʻ fencing,

enc osure in jung e wit a edge, (Ju.) b oc ade ʼ,veṛ ā, vehṛā m. ʻ courtyard, (Ju.)

enc osure containing many ouses ʼ; P. veṛ ā, be° m. ʻ enc osure, courtyard ʼ (CDIAL

12130).

                                                 55
                       Glyptic elements of m296 seal impression: 1. Two heads of one-
                       horned young bulls; 2. ligatured to a pair of rings and a standard
                       device; 3. ligatured to a precise count of nine ficus leaves.

                       Hieroglyphs read rebus: koḍiyum ‘young bull, rings on neck’
                       (Gujarati); खोंड [   ōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi)
గోద [ gōda ] gōda. [Tel.] n. An ox. A beast. kine, cattle.(Telugu) koḍiyum (G.) Rebus :
 õdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali); Or. unda ‘ at e’,    dibā, ud ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur.
 ud ‘ at e’) (CDIAL 3295). Rebus: koḍ ‘wor s op’ (Kuwi.G.); du a ‘pair’ (Kas miri);
rebus: du ‘cast metal’ (Mu.) L. nõ˅, khet. nau, awāṇ. naɔ (CDIAL 6984) lo, no 'nine'; loa
‘ficus re igiosa’ (Santa i) Rebus: loa 'copper' (Santali); loha 'copper' (Skt.) kaḍī a chain; a
hook; a link (Gujarati) Rebus: kaḍiyo [Hem. Des. kaḍaio = Skt. sthapati a mason] a
bricklayer; a mason. sangaḍa ‘jointed anima s’ (Marat i); sangaḍa ‘ at e’ (G.) Rebus:
jaṅgaḍ ‘entrusment artic es’. Part of the pictorial motif is thus decoded rebus: loh dul koḍ
‘meta cast(ing) smit y turner ( at e) wor s op’. Part of t e inscription is read rebus:
kole.l ‘smit y’ Rebus: kole.l ‘temp e’. Glyphs: arrow + fish: ayas āṇḍa kole.l ‘smit y,
excellent quantity of iron’. badhi ‘to igature, to bandage, to splice, to join by successive
ro s of a igature’ (Santa i) batā bamboo slips (Kur.); bate = thin slips of bamboo
(Malt.)(DEDR 3917). Rebus: baḍhi = worker in wood and metal (Santali) Glyph: ōnṭa
‘corner’ (N .); Tu. ōṇṭu ‘ang e, corner’ (Tu.). Rebus: õdā ‘to turn in a at e’ (B.) era a
‘nave of w ee ’ Rebus: era a ‘copper’. T us t e composite g yp reads: eraka õdā
‘copper turner’. The entire message on the Seal impression m296 relates to copper
casting and profession of a wood- and metal-worker, a mason and a turner in a smithy
which is also a temple.

               m0712             1091 Note Sign391 Glyph ligatured to the neck of the
               young bu : era a ‘nave of w ee ’ Rebus: era a ‘copper’.




                                              56
                 Mohenjodaro FEM, Pl. LXXXVIII, 316            2316
                 kōṭaram monkey (Tamil) (DEDR 2196) kuṭ āru = a monkey (Skt.) kuṭ āru
                 ‘armourer or weapons ma er’(meta -worker), also a scribe.

            Kalibangan027        8022 'Unicorn or young bull' with two horns! "Bull with two
            long horns (otherwise resembling the 'unicorn')", generally facing the
            standard device. T at it is t e typica ‘one- orned bu ’ is surmised from two
ligatures: the pannier on the shoulder and the ring on the neck. This evidences that the
one-horned young bull should be read as such without assuming it to be a ‘unicorn’.

Glosses from Indian sprachbund:

G yp : ‘fu stretc of one’s arms’: āḍ 2          ।        m. a man's length, the stature of a
man (as a measure of engt ) (Rām. 632, zangan kaḍun āḍ, to stretch oneself the
whole length of one's body. So K. 119)(Kashmiri). Rebus: āḍ ‘stone’. Ga. (Oll.) kanḍ,
(S.) kanḍu (pl. kanḍkil) stone (DEDR 1298). mayponḍi kanḍ whetstone; (Ga.)(DEDR
4628).       A roc , stone. āṭha m. ʻ roc ʼ ex. [Cf. ānta -- 2 m. ʻ stone ʼ lex.]Bshk. ōr ʻ
arge stone ʼ AO xviii 239.(CDIAL 301 ). অয়সঠন [ aẏaskaṭhina ] as hard as iron;
extremely hard (Bengali) āṭha m. ʻ roc ʼ ex. [Cf. ānta -- 2 m. ʻ stone ʼ ex.] Bs           . ōr ʻ
arge stone ʼ AO xviii 239. கண்டு³ aṇṭu , n. < gaṇḍa. 1. Clod, lump; கட்டி. (டதலவ.
டதல. 99.) 2. Wen; கழடலக்கட்டி. 3. Bead or something like a pendant in an ornament
for the neck; ஓர் ஆபரணவுரு. புல்லிடகக்கண்ை நாண் ஒன்றிற் கட்டின கண்டு ஒன்றும்
(S.I.I. ii, 429). Marathi: खड्डा [ khaḍḍā ] m A rough hole or pit. M. khāḍ f. ʻ hole, creek
ʼ, °ḍā m. ʻ o e’ (CDIAL, no. 3 74). Pa.kandi (pl. –l) necklace, beads. Ga. (P.) kandi (pl.
–l) bead, (pl.) necklace; (S.2) kandiṭ bead (DEDR 1215). Kandil, kandīl = a globe of
glass, a lantern (Ka.lex.)


 āṇá ʻone -- eyedʼ RV. Pa. P . āṇa -- ʻb ind of one eye, b indʼ; As .        ṛa, °ṛī f. ʻb indʼ,
Kt.      , Wg.     macrdotdot;, Pr. k&schwatildemacr;, Tir. āˊna, Kho. āṇu NTS ii
260, ánu BelvalkarVol 91; K. ônu ʻone -- eyedʼ, S. āṇo, L. P. āṇ ; WPah. rudh.
śeu. āṇā ʻb indʼ; Ku. āṇo, gng.       &rtodtilde; ‘b ind of one eyeʼ, N. ānu; A. anāʻ

                                               57
‘b indʼ; B. āṇā ʻone -- eyed, b indʼ; Or. kaṇā, f. āṇī ʻone -- eyedʼ, Mt . ān, °nā, ana ā,
Bhoj. ān, f. °ni, anwā m. ʻone -- eyed manʼ, H. ān, °nā, G. āṇ ; M. āṇā ʻone --
eyed, squint -- eyedʼ; Si. kaṇa ʻone -- eyed, b indʼ. -- Pk. āṇa -- ʻfu of o esʼ,
G. āṇ ʻfu of o esʼ, n. ʻ o eʼ (< ʻ empty eye o e ʼ? Cf. d ḷ n. ʻ o eʼ < andhala -- ).
 āṇá -- : S.kcch. āṇī f.adj. ʻone -- eyedʼ; WPa . ṭg. kaṇɔ ʻb ind in one eyeʼ, J. āṇā;
Md. kanu ʻb indʼ.(CDIAL 3019).

Glyph: ḍhol ‘a drum beaten on one end by a stic and on t e ot er by t e and’

(Santali); ḍhol ‘drum’ (Na a i); dhol (Kurku) ḍ ō a m. ʻ arge drum ʼ Rudray. 2. *ḍ ō a --

. [Only OAw. definitely attests -- l -- ] 1. Gy. pal. daul ʻ drum ʼ, Paš. ḍū (← Par. ḍu ū IIFL

iii 3, 65), Kho. (Lor.) dol, K. ḍō m., kash. ḍ ō , L. P. Ku. N. A. B. ḍhol, OAw. ḍhora m.,

H. ḍhol m. -- Ext. -- kk -- : L. ḍ o ī f. ʻ sma drum ʼ, Ku. ḍholko, H. ḍholak f. 2.

Pk. ḍholla -- m., Or. ḍhola, Mth. Bhoj. Aw. lakh. Marw. G. M. ḍhol m. S.kcch. ḍ o ī f. ʻ

sma drum ʼ; Pa . ṭg. ḍ ōˋ m. ʻ arge drum ʼ, ḍ ò i f. ʻ sma drum ʼ, ḍ ò ɔ m. ʻ drum ʼ;

-- WPah.kṭg. ḍ ò u ʻ drummer ʼ. (CDIAL 5608). డోలు [ ḍō u ] ḍō u. [Tel.] n. A drum.

ḍollu. [Tel.] v. n. To fall, to roll over. పడు, పొరలు. డొలుచు [ ḍolucu ] or ḍoluṭsu. [Tel.] v.
n. To tumble head over heels as dancing girls do (Telugu) Mth. Bhoj. Aw. lakh. Marw.
G. M. ḍhol m. *ḍ ō ayati ʻ ma es fa ʼ(CDIAL 560 ). *du ati ʻ swings ʼ. 2. *du yati. [√dul]
1. Pk. ḍu aï ʻ s a es ʼ; -- altern. < 2: K. ḍulun ʻ to roll ʼ(CDIAL 6453). <Dula> {VT} ``to
^roll (something)''. *De.<Dul->(GM) `to lie down; to turn oneself over', <Dul-i.Dul-i>(G)
`rolling', <Dul-> `to roll'. @V0501. #6521. <Dulei> {VI} ``to ^roll, to ^sway''. *De.<Dul-
ai->(GM) `to lay down a child; to turn back, to wallow, roll down'. @V0502,V0646.
#6530.(Munda etyma)


Ta. toḷ (toṭp-, toṭṭ-) to perforate, bore with an instrument; toḷkal perforating;
toḷku excavation, pit; toḷḷal hole; toḷḷai hole, perforation, pit, anything tubular, fault,

defect;toḷai (-pp-, -tt-) to perforate, bore; n. hole; tuḷai (-pp-, -tt-) to make a hole, bore,

drill, punch, pierce as with an arrow; n. hole, orifice, aperture, perforation, hollow as of a

                                                58
tube, bamboo, gateway, passage, flaw in a diamond; tuḷavai hole; tōḷ (tōṭp-, tōṭṭ-) to

perforate, bore through, dig out, scoop; n. hole; toṇṭi hole. Ma. toḷḷa hole,

cavity; tuḷahole, bored hole; tuḷayuka to be perforated; tuḷekka to perforate, pierce,

bore. Ko. toyḷ- (toḷc-) to pierce; toyḷ hole in pen-post; toḷ hole, vagina; teḷi·(g) hole in wall

between two houses (for handing through fire, etc.). To. tüḷy gate-post of pen with holes

for bars; tüḷy- (tüḷc-) to make hole in stone or tree. Ka. toḷe hole, bored hole; toḷḷe hollow,

hole, cavity, deficit, debt; ṭoḷḷe hollow, cavity; ṭoḷḷu, toḷḷu state of being hollow, void, or

empty within; toli hole, socket. Tu. to uvè hole; tolpuni, doḷpuni to prick; toḷu hole;

empty; ḍoḷḷu, ṭoḷḷu, toḷḷè void, hollow. Te. toli, tolika hole; tol(u)cu to bore, perforate,
hollow, dig, scoop, carve; doṇḍi hole; (K.) dol(u)cu to make a hole; ḍolla hollow,

concave. Go. (Tr.) tu ānā to be bored, pierced; caus. tu uttānā; (Mu.) tullih- to scrape

out or bore out the pulp of a gourd (Voc. 1762); (A. Y.) ḍoḍḍo pit (ASu. ḍhoḍḍō);

(Tr.) ḍ ōḍhur hole in a tree (Voc. 1611); (Tr.) ṭōṭī the hole-entrance to the nest of the

bee called mas-p u ī (Voc. 1536). Kui doḍa a pitted surface, pitted sore. ? Cf. 3532

Ta. toḷḷ-āyiram. (DEDR 352 ).

WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍ ōˋḷ m. ʻstoneʼ, ṭg. ḍ òḷṭɔ m. ʻbig stone or bou derʼ, ḍ òḷṭu ʻsma id.ʼ
Him.I 87. Ku. dalo ʻ arge stone ʼ; Ku. da ā, dā ā ʻ large rocks and stones, debris and
sand ʼ.L. ḍilh (pl. ° ĩ) f. ʻ bou der ʼ, (CDIAL 5536).

Vikalpa: maṇḍao ‘to occupy a new ouse, to ta e up one’s residence’; maṇḍhwa,

maṇḍua, maṇḍwa ‘a temporary s ed or boot erected on t e occasion of a marriage’;
maṇḍom ‘a raised p atform or scaffo d’; m ṛom ‘a p atform, used to eep straw on, or
from w ic to watc crops’ (Santa i) mandar ‘t e eadman of a vi age’; maṇḍwari ‘t e

Marwari caste of indus’ Ko. manḏ Toda mund (i.e. village); burning place for dry

funeral; mandm (obl. mandt-) meeting. To. moḏ (obl. moṟt-) locus of tribal activity,

including village with dairy, dairy apart from village, and funeral place; patrilineal clan.
Ka. mandu hamlet of the Todas on the Nilagiri. Koḍ. mandï vi age green; Ta. maṉṟu hall
                                                59
of assembly, golden hall of Chidambaram, court of justice, arbitration court, cow-stall,

herd of cows, raised platform under a tree for village meetings, center of a garden,

junction of four roads or streets (DEDR 4777).

m ḍvī f. ʻ sma canopy over an ido ʼ (Marat i). maṇḍa6 ʻ some sort of framewor (?) ʼ.
[In nau -- maṇḍḗ n. du. ʻ t e two sets of po es rising from t e t warts or t e two bamboo

covers of a boat (?) ʼ Br. (as i ustrated in BPL p. 42); and in BHS . and Pa. bōd i --

maṇḍa -- n. per . ʻ t atc ed cover ʼ rat er t an ʻ raised p atform ʼ (BHS ii 402). If so, it
may belong to maṇḍapá -- and maṭha -- ] (CDIAL 9737) maṇḍapa m.n. ʻ open

temporary s ed, pavi ion ʼ Hariv., °pi ā -- f. ʻ sma pavi ion, customs ouse ʼ Kād.

2. maṇṭapa -- m.n. lex. 3. *maṇḍhaka -- . [Variation of ṇḍ with ṇṭ supports supposition of

non -- Aryan origin in Wackernagel AiGr ii 2, 212: see EWA ii 557. -- Prob. of same

origin asmaṭha -- 1 and maṇḍa -- 6 with which NIA. words largely collide in meaning and

form] 1. Pa. maṇḍapa -- m. ʻ temporary s ed for festive occasions ʼ; P . maṁḍava -- m.

ʻ temporary erection, boot covered wit creepers ʼ, °viā -- f. ʻ sma do. ʼ;

Phal. maṇḍau m. ʻ wooden ga ery outside a ouse ʼ; K. manḍav m. ʻ a ind of ouse

found in forest vi ages ʼ; S. mana     m. ʻ s ed, t atc ed roof ʼ; Ku. m ṛyā,manyā ʻ

rest ouse ʼ; N. āṭ m ṛau ʻ t e city of Kat mandu ʼ ( āṭh -- < āṣṭ á -- ); Or. maṇḍua ʻ

raised and s aded pavi ion ʼ, paṭā -- maṇḍoi ʻ pavilion laid over with planks below roof
ʼ, muṇḍoi, °ḍei ʻ raised unroofed p atform ʼ; Bi. m ṛo ʻ roof of betel plantation

ʼ, m ṛuā, maṛ°, ma wā ʻ lean -- to t atc against a wa ʼ,maṛaī ʻ watcher's shed on

ground wit out p atform ʼ; Mt . māṛab ʻ roof of bete p antation ʼ, maṛwā ʻ open erection

in courtyard for festive occasions ʼ; OAw.māṁḍava m. ʻ wedding canopy ʼ;

H. m ṛwā m., °wī f., maṇḍwā m., °wī f. ʻ arbour, temporary erection, pavi ion ʼ,

OMarw. maṁḍavo, māḍhivo m.; G. m ḍavm. ʻ t atc ed open s ed ʼ, m ḍvɔ m. ʻ boot

ʼ, m ḍvī f. ʻ s ig tly raised platform before door of a house, customs house

ʼ, m ḍaviyɔ m. ʻ member of bride's party ʼ; M. m ḍav m. ʻ pavi ion for festiva s ʼ, m ḍvī f.
                                              60
ʻ sma canopy over an ido ʼ; Si. maḍu -- va ʻ ut ʼ, maḍa ʻ open a ʼ SigGr ii 452. 2.

Ko. māṁṭav ʻ open pavi ion ʼ.3. H. m ḍ ā, māṛ ā, m ḍ ā m. ʻ temporary s ed, arbour ʼ

(cf. OMarw. māḍhivo in 1); -- Ku. m ṛā m.p . ʻ s ed, rest ouse ʼ (or < maṇḍa -- 6?]

maṇḍapa -- : S.kcch. māṇḍhvo m. ʻ boot , canopy ʼ.(CDIAL 9740).

Rebus: M. m ḍ m. ʻ array of instruments &c. ʼ (CDIAL 9736).

Ta. maṇṭi kneeling, kneeling on one knee as an archer. Ma. maṇṭuka to be seated on
the heels. Ka. maṇḍi what is bent, the knee. Tu. maṇḍi knee. Te.maṇḍ kneeling on one

knee. Pa. maḍtel knee; maḍi kuḍtel kneeling position. Go. (L.) meṇḍā, (G. Mu.

Ma.) minḍa knee (Voc. 2827). Konḍa (BB) meḍa, meṇḍa id. Pe. menḍa

id. Manḍ. menḍe id. Kui menḍa id. Kuwi (F.) menda, (S. Su. P.) menḍa, (Isr.) meṇḍa id.

Cf. 4645 Ta. maṭaṅku (maṇi-forms). / ? Cf. Skt. maṇḍū ī- part of an elephant's hind leg;

Mar. meṭ knee-joint. (DEDR 4677).

Exchange place. Rebus: maṇḍī ʻ grain mar et ʼ (CDIAL 9735) manḍī           f. an

exchange, a place where merchants meet to transact business (Gr.M.).                   ³
maṇṭi, n. < U. maṇḍī. 1. Large grain mar et;                                  .
     . 2. Shop, stall, warehouse; large shop where things are sold wholesale or in large
quantities;                                            . (W.)        [ maṇḍuvā ] manḍuvā.
[Tel.] n. A courtyard. A booth. A stable for horses,             ,                 .       . i.

      [ maṇḍi ] or       manḍi. [Tel.] [H.] n. A wholesale shop,
               .

कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, apidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marat i) कोंदण [ kōndaṇa ] n

(कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems.(Marathi) খোদকার [ khōdakāra ] n an engraver; a

carver. খোদকারি n. engraving; carving; interference in ot er’s wor . খোদাই [ khōdāi ] n

engraving; carving. খোদাই করা v. to engrave; to carve. খোদানো v. & n. en graving;

carving. খোদিত [ khōdita ] a engraved. (Bengali) खोदकाम [ khōdakāma ] n Sculpture;

                                             61
carved work or work for the carver. kundau dhiri = a hewn stone; kundau murhut = a

graven image (Santa i) unda a turner’s at e (S t.)(CDIAL 3295) ) A. undār, B.                 dār,

ri, Or. undāru; H.     derā m. ‘one w o wor s a at e, one w o scrapes’, rī f.,         dernā ‘to

scrape, p ane, round on a at e’; unda ara— m. ‘turner’ (S t.)(CDIAL 3297). N.              dnu ʻ
to s ape smoot y, smoot e, carve, ew ʼ,             duwā ʻ smoot y s aped ʼ; A. kund ʻ lathe
ʼ, kundiba ʻ to turn and smoot in a at e ʼ, undowā ʻ smoot ed and rounded ʼ; B.               dʻ
at e ʼ,   dā, õdā ʻ to turn in a at e ʼ; Or. ū˘nda ʻ at e ʼ,       dibā, ud° ʻ to turn ʼ (→
Drav. Kur. ud ʻ at e ʼ); Bi. kund ʻ brassfounder's at e ʼ; H. unnā ʻ to shape on a lathe

ʼ, uniyā m. ʻ turner ʼ, unwā m.

Ta. kulavu (kulavi-) to bend, curve; n. bend, curve. Kui ōnga ( ōngi-) to be contracted,

drawn in, bent up;    ōp a(< ō -p-;      ō t-) to contract, draw up, depress. Kur.xo       nā,

xo xnā to cause one to bend the head;xo         rnā, xo xrnā to bend the head, bow, stoop.

Malt. qo ġrubelow, beneath, underneath; kolge to curve, bend; kolgro bent, curved. DEN

29 (Pfeiffer for Kur. Malt.) (DEDR 2136) * ō a4 ʻ curved, croo ed ʼ. [Cf. kaula -- m. ʻ

worshipper of a ti according to eft -- and ritua ʼ,         ō a -- 3 ʻ ame ʼ s.v.   ōra -- 1.

Prob. < *kaura -- (IE. *qou -- lo -- cf. WP i 371?) in Khot. ūra -- ʻ croo ed ʼ BSOS ix 72

and poss. Sk. ōra -- m. ʻ movab e joint ʼ Suśr.] Ash. kṓlə ʻ curved, croo ed ʼ; Dm. ō a ʻ

croo ed ʼ, Tir. kṓolə; Paš. ō āˊ ʻ curved, croo ed ʼ, S um. o āˊṇṭa; Kho. koli ʻ croo ed ʼ,

(Lor.) a so ʻ eft and, eft ʼ; Bs   . ō ʻ croo ed ʼ, Tor. ō (Grierson Tor 161 < kuṭila -- :

rejected by Morgenstierne AO xii 181), Phal. ūu o; Sh. ō ṷ ʻ curved, croo ed ʼ. (CDIAL

3533).

(Skt.Rasaratna samuccaya, 5.205) Rebus: kuṭi a, att ī = bronze (8 parts copper and 2

parts tin) [cf. āra- ūṭa, ‘brass’ (S t.) Vi a pa:      [   ōnda ] n A hump (on the back):

also a protuberance or an incurvation (of a wall, a hedge, a road). Rebus: koḍ

‘wor s op’ (Kuwi)

                                               62
Allograph

kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MB . (CDIAL 3231); rebus: kuṭhi ‘sme ter’
       (Santali) [Shape of oval is consistent with the traditiojn of Koles to form
       equilateral lumps pointed at each end of ingots: m h metal ingot (Santali) m h
= the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes;
iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at
each end; mū ā me~r. e~t = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral
lump a little pointed at each end; o e te en me~r. e~t o mū ā a ata = the Kolhes
have to-day produced pig iron (Santa i. ex.) au a mengro ‘b ac smit ’ (Gypsy) paired:
du ‘ i eness’; du ‘cast (meta )’]

A group of six or seven women wearing twigs may not represent Pleiades, bagaḷā).
G yp (seven women): ba u ā = P eiades (Skt.) bagaḷā = name of a certain godess (Te.)
bagaḷā ,bagaḷe, vaga ā (Ka.); ba a , bagaḷ ā , vagaḷā (Te.) ba kula = a demon, uttering
 orrib e cries, a form assumed by t e Ya        a Aja a āpa a, to terrify t e Budd a
(Pali.lex.) ba u ā f. p . t e P eiades VarBrS., i ā -- f. p . ex. [ba u á -- ] Kal. bahul the
Pleiades , Kho. bó , (Lor.) boul, bolh, Sh. (Lor.) b*lle (CDIAL 9195) bahulegal. = the
Pleiades or Kṛitti ā-s (Ka. ex.) ba u ā (VarBr.S.); ba u (Ka .) six presiding fema e
deities: va u ā t e six presiding fema e deities of t e P eiades (S t.); vā u ai id.
(Ta.)(Ta. ex.) P eiades: ba u i ā p . p eiades; ba ula born under the pleiades; the
p eiades (S t. ex.) ba u e, ba u ega . t e p eiades or r.tti ās (Ka.)(Ka. ex.) Image:
fema e deities of t e p eiades: vā u ēyan- < va_kulēya Skanda (Ta.lex.) பாகுளி pā uḷi,
n. per . bā u ī. Fu moon in t e mont of Puraṭṭāci; புரட்ைாசி மாதத்துப் சபளர்ணமி.
அடதப் பாகுளி சயன்று (விநாயகபு. 37, 81).

       G yp (twig on ead on seven women): adaru ‘twig’; rebus: aduru ‘native meta ’.

Thus, the seven women ligatured with twigs on their eads can be read as: ba u ā +

adaru; rebus: banga a ‘go dsmit ’s portab e furnace’ + aduru ‘native meta ’.



                                               63
         bā u ēya Kārtti ēya, son of S'iva; bā u a t e mont               ārtti a (S t.Ka.)(Ka. ex.)

வாகுடல vā u ai, n. < Va u ā. T e six presiding fema e deities of t e Pleiades. Rebus:
bagalo = an Arabian merchant vessel (G.lex.) bagala = an Arab boat of a particular

description (Ka.); baga ā (M.); bagarige, bagarage = a kind of vessel (Ka.) bagalo = an

Arabian merchant vessel (G.lex.) cf. m1429 seal.

         bā uḷyamu. [Skt. from బహుళము.] n. Abundance.


         Vi a pa: Rebus: b āgaḷiyo = a bazaar shopkeeper (G.lex) ba āḷa (Ka.); baā a = a
shopkeeper with contemptuous imp ications (M.)(Ka. ex.) ba ā = [Ar. ba                     ā,a
greengrocer fr. ba cū, vegetab e] a petty s op eeper; a ānia (so ca ed in contempt);
ba ā u = fres vegetab es (G. ex.)

         Vikalpa: bangala = n. An oven. కుంపటి. kumpaṭi = angāra śakaṭī = a c afing dish
a portab e stove, a go dsmit ’s portab e furnace (Te.lex.) cf. bangaru, bangaramu = gold
(Telugu)

G yp : ‘rings on nec ’: oṭiyum = a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal; koṭ =
neck (G.) Vikalpa: kaḍum ‘nec -band, ring’; rebus:             āḍ ‘trenc , firepit’ (G.) Vikalpa:
khaḍḍā f. o e, mine, cave (CDIAL 3790) andu a, anda a ditc , trenc (Tu.);
kandakamu id. (Te.); kanda trench made as a fireplace during weddings (Konda); kanda
small trench for fireplace (Kui); kandri a pit (Malt)(DEDR 1214) khaḍḍa— ‘ o e, pit’. [Cf.
*gaḍḍa— and ist s.v. artá—1] Pk. khaḍḍā— f. ‘ o e, mine, cave’, ḍaga— m. ‘one w o
digs a o e’, ḍō aya— m. ‘ o e’; Bs           . (Biddu p ) " ād" (= khaḍ?) ‘va ey’; K.            ḍ m.
‘pit’,    ḍü f. ‘sma pit’, khoḍu m. ‘vu va’; S. khaḍa f. ‘pit’; L. khaḍḍ f. ‘pit, cavern, ravine’;
P. khaḍḍ f. ‘pit, ravine’, ḍī f. ‘ o e for a weaver's feet’ (→ Ku. khaḍḍ, N. khaḍ; H. khaḍ,
khaḍḍā m. ‘pit, ow ground, notc ’; Or.             ḍi ‘edge of a deep pit’; M. khaḍḍā m. ‘roug
 o e, pit’); WPa .     aś. khaḍḍā ‘stream’; N.          āṛo ‘pit, bog’,     āṛi ‘cree ’,    āṛal ‘ o e (in
ground or stone)’. — A tern. < *          āḍa—: Gy. gr. xar f. ‘ o e’; Ku.       āṛ ‘pit’; B.    āṛī
‘cree , in et’,   āṛal ‘pit, ditc ’; H.     āṛī f. ‘cree , in et’, khaṛ—har, al m. ‘ o e’; Marw.
   āṛo m. ‘ o e’; M.     āḍ f. ‘ o e, cree ’, ḍā m. ‘ o e’, ḍī f. ‘cree , in et’. 3 63          atra— n.
                                                   64
‘ o e’ HPariś., ‘pond, spade’ Uṇ. [√           an] P . khatta— n. ‘ o e, manure’, aya— m. ‘one
w o digs in a fie d’; S.        āṭru m. ‘mine made by burg ars’, ṭro m. ‘fissure, pit, gutter
made by rain’; P.          āt m. ‘pit, manure’,     āttā m. ‘grain pit’, ud .     attā m. (→ H.        attā
m.,      atiyā f.); N.     āt ‘ eap (of stones, wood or corn)’; B.       āt,     ātṛū ‘pit, pond’; Or.
     āta ‘pit’, tā ‘artificia pond’; Bi.    ātā ‘ o e, gutter, grain pit, notc (on beam and yo e
of p oug )’,       attā ‘grain pit, boundary ditc ’; Mt .       ātā,    attā ‘ o e, ditc ’; H.        āt m.
‘ditc , we ’, f. ‘manure’,        ātā m. ‘grain pit’; G.    ātar n. ‘ ousebrea ing, ouse
sweeping, manure’,           ātriy n. ‘too used in ousebrea ing’ (→ M.             ātar f. ‘ o e in a
wa ’,      ātrā m. ‘ o e, manure’,         ātryā m. ‘ ousebrea er’); M.         at n.m. ‘manure’ (deriv.
     atāviṇẽ ‘to manure’,       āterẽ n. ‘muc pit’). — Un- expl. ṭ in L.         āṭva m. ‘excavated
pond’,       āṭī f. ‘digging to c ear or excavate a cana ’ (~ S.       ātī f. ‘id.’, but     āṭyāro m.
‘one emp oyed to measure cana wor ’) and khaṭṭaṇ ‘to dig’. (CDIAL 3790) •gaḍa— 1 m.
‘ditc ’ ex. [Cf. *gaḍḍa—1 and ist s.v. artá—1] Pk. gaḍa— n. ‘ o e’; Paš. gaṛu ‘di e’;
Kho. (Lor.) gōḷ ‘ o e, sma dry ravine’; A. garā ‘ ig ban ’; B. gaṛ ‘ditc , o e in a
 us ing mac ine’; Or. gaṛa ‘ditc , moat’; M. gaḷ f. ‘ o e in t e game of marb es’. 39 1
*gaḍḍa— 1 ‘ o e, pit’. [G. < *garda—? — Cf. *gaḍḍ—1 and ist s.v. artá—1] Pk.
gaḍḍa— m. ‘ o e’; WPa . b a . cur. gaḍḍ f., paṅ. gaḍḍṛī, pāḍ. gaḍōṛ ‘river, stream’; N.
gaṛ—tir ‘ban of a river’; A. gārā ‘deep o e’; B. gāṛ, ṛā ‘ o ow, pit’; Or. gāṛa ‘ o e, cave’,
gāṛiā ‘pond’; Mt . gāṛi ‘piercing’; H. gāṛā m. ‘ o e’; G. garāḍ, ḍɔ m. ‘pit, ditc ’ (<
*graḍḍa— < *garda—?); Si. gaḍaya ‘ditc ’. — Cf. S. giḍi f. ‘ o e in t e ground for fire
during Mu arram’. — X             ānī—: K. gān m. ‘underground room’; S. (LM 323) gāṇ f.
‘mine, o e for eeping water’; L. gāṇ m. ‘sma emban ed fie d wit in a fie d to eep
water in’; G. gāṇ f. ‘mine, ce ar’; M. gāṇ f. ‘cavity containing water on a raised piece of
and’ WPa . ṭg. gāṛ ‘ o e (e.g. after a not in wood)’. (CDIAL 3947) 3 60 *                      āḍa— ‘a
 o ow’. [Cf. *      aḍḍa— and ist s.v. artá—1] S.            āṛī f. ‘gu f, cree ’; P.      āṛ ‘ eve
country at the foot of a mountain’, ṛī f. ‘deep watercourse, cree ’; Bi.                ārī ‘cree , in et’;
G.      āṛi , ṛī f., ṛɔ m. ‘ o e’. — Altern. < *khaḍḍa—: Gy. gr. xar f. ‘ o e’; Ku.           āṛ ‘pit’; B.
     āṛī ‘cree , in et’,    āṛal ‘pit, ditc ’; H.   āṛī ‘cree , in et’, khaṛ—har, al m. ‘ o e’; Marw.
     āṛo m. ‘ o e’; M.      āḍ f. ‘ o e, cree ’, ḍā m. ‘ o e’, ḍī f. ‘cree , in et’.


                                                     65
A group of six or seven persons constitute unique glyphs. Each of the six or seven
glyphs is ligatured with a twig on the head and a scarf as a hair-dress. The other glyphs
associated with the Pleiades, in the four pictorial compositions are:

       Human face ligatured to a ram with neck-bands

       Kneeling adorant with horns and scarf as pigtail

       Standing person (horns, twig as head-dress, scarf as pigtail) within a pot

        ligatured with leaves

       Temple (smithy?) glyph (third line of signs)

       Dotted fish, rim of jar, body (person)

       Pincers, claws (ligatured to ingots) ḍ ā a o Sign 274; rebus: ‘a arge meta ingot

        (G.)’

       Spoon in a rimless pot (Second sign on line 1, text 4251)


()The first sign from right on line 1 of Inscribed text 4251 and                connotes ‘cast
bronze’; it is a g yptic formed of a pair of brackets (): kuṭila                ‘bent’; rebus:
kuṭi a, att ī = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) [cf. āra- ūṭa, ‘brass’ (S t.) (CDIAL
3230) kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’ (S t.)(CDIAL 3231).

kuṭika— ‘bent’ MB . [√ uṭ 1] Ext. in H. kuṛuk f. ‘coi of string or rope’; M. kuḍċā m. ‘pa m
contracted and o owed’, kuḍapṇẽ ‘to cur over, crisp, contract’. CDIAL 3231 kuṭi á—
‘bent, croo ed’ Kāty r., aka— Pañcat., n. ‘a partic. p ant’ ex. [√ uṭ 1] Pa. kuṭila— ‘bent’,
n. ‘bend’; P . kuḍila— ‘croo ed’, illa— ‘ umpbac ed’, illaya— ‘bent’ DEDR 2054 Ta.
koṭu curved, bent, crooked; koṭumai crookedness, obliquity; koṭukki hooked bar for
fastening doors, clasp of an ornament. A pair of curved lines: dol ‘ i eness, picture, form’
[e.g., two tigers, two bulls, sign-pair.] Kashmiri. dula दुल । युग्मम् m. a pair, a couple, esp.
of two simi ar t ings (Rām. 966). Rebus: du meṛeḍ cast iron (Mundari. Santali) dul ‘to


                                               66
cast metal in a mou d’ (Santa i) pasra meṛed, pasāra meṛed = syn. of koṭe meṛed =
forged iron, in contrast to dul meṛed, cast iron (Mundari.lex.)

Thus, dul kuṭila ‘cast bronze’.



Allograph:                        ( ) kuṭila = bent, croo ed. T e number of suc ‘arc ed’

glyphs connote the proportions of tin alloyed with copper. The shape may indicate that

t e ‘inverted U g yp represents a ‘bun ingot’ of bronze, kuṭila made with 8 parts of

copper and 2 parts of tin.


A seal from Mohenjo-daro, excavation number DK 6847 (m1186A), now in the National
Museum of Pakistan, Karachi. Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government
                                                of Pakistan. m1186A, Text 2430
                                                Composition: horned person with a pigtail
                                                standing between the branches of a pipal
                                      on a creeper; a low pedestal with offerings (? Bowl
with two ladles?);a horned person kneeling in adoration;a ram with short tail and curling
horns; a row of seven robed figures, with twigs on their pigtails.

   •   bhaṭa ‘six’; rebus: bhaṭa ‘furnace’

   •   eae ‘seven’ (Santa i); rebus: eh- u ’stee ’ (Ta.)


adaru ‘twig’; rebus: aduru ‘native, unsme ted meta ’. o a ‘woman’; rebus: o ‘wor ing in
iron’ (Ta.) T us t e group of women (six or seven) may connote: pl. kole.l rebus:
‘smit y, temp e’ (Ko.)(DEDR 2133). Six women wit twigs: adaru o b aṭa ‘native
metal, iron furnace’; seven women wit twigs: adaru o e -ku ‘native meta , iron, steel’.

A kneeling person in a posture of adoration is shown on the following seals/tablets of
Indus Writing corpora:


                                               67
          Person kneeling under a tree facing a tiger. [Chanhudaro Excavations, Pl. LI,

18]      6118



               m0488At                m0488Bt                  m0488Ct                  2802
Prism: Tablet in bas-relief. Side b: Text +One-horned bull + standard. Side a: From R.:
a composite animal; a person seated on a tree with a tiger below looking up at the
person; a svastika within a square border; an elephant (Composite animal has the
body of a ram, horns of a zebu, trunk of an elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an
upraised serpent-like tail). Side c: From R.: a horned person standing between two
branches of a pipal tree; a ram; a horned person kneeling in adoration; a low pedestal
with some offerings.


                m0478At                   m0478Bt


               m0479At                 m0479Bt            3224


               m0480At                 m0480Bt Tablet in bas-relief. Side a: Tree Side b:
Pict-111: From R.: A woman with outstretched arms flanked by two men holding
uprooted trees in their hands; a person seated on a tree with a tiger below with its head

turned backwards; a tall jar with a lid. Is the pictorial of a tall jar the Sign 342     with a

lid? Sign 45    seems to be a kneeling adorant offering a pot (Sign 328          )

         2815 Pict-77: Tree, generally within a railing or on a platform.              3230




                                               68
             h177A                 h177B                 4316 Pict-115: From R.—a
person standing under an ornamental arch; a kneeling adorant; a ram with long curving
horns.




             m0487At                 m0487Bt                 m0487Ct            2852


            m1431A                  m1431B                 m1431C



             m1431E              2805 Row of animals in file (a one-horned bull, an
elephant and a rhinoceros from right); a gharial with a fish held in its jaw above the
animals; a bird (?) at right. Pict-116: From R.—a person holding a vessel; a woman with
a platter (?); a kneeling person with a staff in his hands facing the woman; a goat with
its forelegs on a platform under a tree. [Or, two antelopes flanking a tree on a platform,
with one antelope looking backwards?]

Glyph: Ta. kaṇai cylindrical or globular shape. Ma. kaṇa roller of mills, the cylindrical

wood of an oilpress. Ka. kaṇe, kaṇi heavy wooden roller which stands upright in the

mortar of an oil-mill, pair of such rollers used for a sugar-mill. (DEDR 1168). Rebus:

Skt., Pali kaṇaya- a kind of spear or lance. kaṇicci battle-axe, pickaxe, goad (Tamil);
battle axe (Ma.) kaṇ ob knife used in child's hair-cutting ceremony (Toda) kaṇkeyt,

kaṇ i·t sic e (i.e. and e + aty knife)(Kota)

Glyph: Pk. kuḍa -- m. ʻ tree ʼ; Paš. auṛ. kuṛāˊ ʻ tree ʼ(CDIAL 322 ). G yp : Ka. unda a

pillar of bricks, etc. Tu. kunda pillar, post. Te. kunda id. Malt. kunda block, log. (DEDR

1723) Rebus: S t. uddā a- spade, hoe (CDIAL 3286). Ta. kuntā i, untāḷi pickaxe. Ma.

 untā i, ūntā i id. Kurub. (LSB 1.11) id i a spade. Ko. uda·y oe. Ka. gudda i, gud i a

kind of pickaxe, hoe. Koḍ. guddali hoe with spade-like blade. Tu. guddali, guddoli, (B-K.)
                                             69
guddoḷi a kind of pickaxe; guddolipuni to dig with a pickaxe. Te. guddali, (VPK) guddili,

gudde a, guddē i, guddē u a oe; gudda incu to oe. N . udaḷ spade. Go. (G. Mu.)

kudaṛ spade, axe; (Ma. M. Ko.) guddaṛ spade, hoe (Voc. 749); (LuS.) goodar hoe.

Konḍa gudeli hoe-like instrument for digging. Malt. qoda i a spade(DEDDR 1722). 3244

 u āra m. ʻ axe ʼ R., °ra a -- m. VarBrS., °rī -- f. ex., °ri ā -- f. Suśr. [ uṭ ātaṅka -- m.,

° ā -- f. ex. Prob. ← Drav. and conn. wit √ uṭṭ EWA i 223 with lit.] Pa. kuṭ ārī -- f., Pk.

kuḍ āra -- m., u āḍa -- m., °ḍī -- f. (for ṭh -- r ~ h -- ḍ see piṭhara -- ), S. u āṛo m., L.

P. u āṛā m., °ṛī f., P. u āṛā m., °ṛī f., WPa . b a . ur āṛi f., Ku. u yāṛo, gng. u yāṛ,

B. kuṛa , ° i, uṛul, Or. kuṛā a, urāṛ a, °ṛ i, ur āṛi, kuṛāri; Bi. u ārī ʻ arge axe for
squaring ogs ʼ; H. u āṛā m., °ṛī f. ʻ axe ʼ, G. u āṛɔ m., °ṛī f., uvāṛī f., M. ur āḍ, °ḍī f.,

Si. keṇeri Hettiaratchi Indeclinables 6 (connexion, if any, with keṭeri, °ṭēriya ʻ ong --

 and ed axe ʼ is obscure). WPa . ṭg. khəṛari, kəṛari f. ʻ axe ʼ.(CDIAL 3244).

Kho. bəḍīˊr ʻ s edge ammer (?) ʼ (→ Gaw. bäḍí ), Bs        . baḍīˊr; P a . baḍ īˊr ʻ axe (?),

s edge ammer ʼ (CDIAL 113 5)

vard a i m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MB . [√vard ] Pa. vaḍḍhaki -- m. ʻ carpenter, bui ding mason ʼ;

Pk. vaḍḍ aï -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, °aïa -- m. ʻ s oema er ʼ; WPa . jaun. bāḍ ōī ʻ carpenter

ʼ, (Jos i) bāḍhi m., N. baṛ aï, baṛa i, A. bārai, B. bāṛaï, °ṛui, Or. baṛ aï, °ṛ āi, (Gaṛjād)

bāṛhoi, Bi. baṛa ī, B oj. H. baṛ aī m., M. vāḍ āyā m., Si. vaḍu -- vā. WPa . ṭg. báḍḍhi
m. ʻ carpenter ʼ; ṭg. bəṛhe\i, báṛhi, kc. baṛ e ← H. beside genuine báḍḍhi Him.I 135), J.

bāḍhi, Garh. baṛ ai, A. a so bāṛhai AFD 94; Md. vaḍīn, vaḍin pl.(CDIAL 11375).

N. bāṛ ʻ b ade of   u ri ʼ; Bi. bāṛ ʻ boo binder's papercutter ʼ; H. bāṛ , bāṛ f. ʻ edge of

 nife ʼ, G. vāḍh f.; -- P. vāḍ , bāḍ f. ʻ cutting edge ʼ (CDIAL 11371) vard a a in cmpd. ʻ

cutting ʼ, m. ʻ carpenter ʼ R. [√vard ] Pa. cīvara -- vaḍḍhaka -- m. ʻ tai or ʼ; K o. bardog,

°ox ʻ axe ʼ (ear y → Ka . wadó before v -- > b -- in Kho.); <-> Wg. wāṭ ʻ axe ʼ, Paš.dar.
wāˊṭak (ṭ?).(CDIAl 11374).
                                               70
7799 paraśu -- m. ʻ axe ʼ RV. 2. *p araśu -- .1. Pa. Pk. parasu -- m. ʻ axe ʼ; H. parsā ʻ

 atc et ʼ, parsiyā f. ʻ reaping oo ʼ; Si. porova ʻ axe ʼ H. Smit JA 1950, 20 (or < 2),

Md. furō. 2. Pa. P . p arasu -- m. ʻ axe ʼ, Ku.gng. p ars; N. p arsā ʻ ong -- handled

battle -- axe ʼ; B. H. p arsā m. ʻ axe ʼ, G. p arśī f.; M. p aras m. ʻ batt e -- axe ʼ, p arśī f.

ʻ batt eaxe, arge c ise ʼ(CDIAL 7799)

See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2011/12/indus-script-hieroglyphs-composite.html
Indus script hieroglyphs: composite animal, smithy



Section 15: Bronze Age Smithy (Shahdad standard)




                                                                             See:



http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/07/ancient-near-east-shahdad-bronze-age.html
Ancient Near East: Shahdad bronze-age inscriptional evidence, a tribute to Ali Hakemi
Rebus readings: śyēná m. ʻ aw , fa con, eag eʼ RV.Pa. sēna -- , °a a -- m. ʻ aw ʼ, P .
sēṇa -- m.; WPa .b ad. śeṇ ʻ iteʼ; A. xen ʻ fa con, aw ʼ, Or. seṇā, H. sen, sẽ m., M.
śen m., śenī f. (< MIA. *senna -- ); Si. sen ʻfa con, eag e, iteʼ. (CDIAL 12674)
Rebus: Senaka a carter T A 271 (=sā aṭika of Th 2, 443) (Pali) sēnāpati m. ʻ eader of
an army ʼ AitBr. [sḗnā -- , páti -- ] Pa. sēnāpati -- , °i a -- m. ʻgenera ʼ, P . sēṇāvaï -- m.;
M. śeṇvaī, °vī, śeṇai m. ʻa c ass of Bra mansʼ, Ko. śeṇvi; Si. senevi ʻgenera ʼ (CDIAL

                                               71
13589). pajhar 'kite'. Rebus: pasra ‘smit y’ (Santa i) Kur. kaṇḍō a stoo . Malt. kanḍo
stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: kaṇḍ = a furnace, altar (Santali.lex.) kola 'woman'
(Na a i). Rebus: o ‘wor ing in iron’; pañca o a, a oy of five meta s (Tamil). Shown are
the glyphs of 1. zebu and 2. tigers which are also glyphs on Indus writing which I
decode as related respectively to 1. blacksmithy on unsmelted metal (adar ḍhangar,
‘zebu’) 2. working with alloys (kol, tiger) !!! The tree kuṭi is a smelter furnace (kuṭhi). The
endless-knot motif or twisted rope motif is meṛhao ‘twisted’ (Santali) Rebus: iron (meḍ).
A star is shown on the horizon on Shahdad standard: meḍ a ‘po ar star’ (Marat i).
mẽṛhẽt, ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) Rebus: meṛha, meḍ i ‘merc ant’s c er ; (Gujarati)




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