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					Solar District Heating with
Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage
in Germany

Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Pauschinger




Steinbeis
Research Institute
for Solar and
Sustainable
Thermal
Energy Systems
www.solites.de

Meitnerstr. 8
70563 Stuttgart, Germany
www.solites.de
Solar District Heating with Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage


•   Introduction
•   National research programmes
•   Pilot plants



            Steinbeis Research Institute
            for Solar and Sustainable
            Thermal Energy Systems
            www.solites.de
Solites - Steinbeis Research Institute for Solar and Sustainable
Thermal Energy Systems
Member of the Steinbeis Foundation:
• turnover in 2010 over 100 Mio Euro
• technology transfer, consultancy and research


• Concept- and project development of sustainable energy supply systems
 (heat, cold and electricity, high reduction of CO2-emissions)

• Comprehensive energy concepts for buildings
 (adjustment of architectural concept, thermal insulation, building services and RES)

• Advisor to different ministries and international organisations (IEA/ OECD, EU, GER)
 (R&D for large scale solar thermal systems, STES and RES)

• Surveyor for large scale solar thermal systems with STES
• Chairman of the German experts group on seasonal thermal energy Storage
• Member of several international experts groups
 (R&D for large scale solar thermal systems, STES and RES)

             Steinbeis Research Institute
             for Solar and Sustainable
             Thermal Energy Systems
             www.solites.de
Background of scientific R+D
•   1992 – 2003: Solarthermie-2000 – Part 3
     part 3: Central Solar Heating Plants with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS)
     • Development of seasonal storage concepts
     • Realisation of eight pilot plants

• 2004 - 2008:            Solarthermie2000plus
     one central point: Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) for:
     • solar
     • waste heat
     • cooling
     • combined heating & cooling
     • CHP, biomass
     • etc.

• Since 2009:             R+D programme for solar thermal systems and storages

-> Fundamental: Funding of ca. 50 % of investment costs for solar system
            Steinbeis Research Institute
            for Solar and Sustainable
            Thermal Energy Systems
            www.solites.de
System concept of a central solar heating plant with seasonal storage

Target: solar fraction of total heat demand: 50 %

                                Solar collectors



 Central heating
 plant




                                                          District heating   Solar
                                                          network            network
                                            Seasonal
                                            thermal energy storage (STES)

             Steinbeis Research Institute
             for Solar and Sustainable
             Thermal Energy Systems
             www.solites.de
CSHPSS in Hamburg, 1996




                                       (Source: Gockell)




        Steinbeis Research Institute
        for Solar and Sustainable
        Thermal Energy Systems
        www.solites.de
                                                                                                Solar fraction:
Solar fractions of solar thermal systems                                                               7 – 10 %
                                                                                                     15 – 20 %
                                                                                                          ~ 50 %
     Heat amount



                                                          Solar irradiation

                   Total heat
                   demand




                   Jan      Feb        Mar         Apr   May   June July   Aug   Sep    Oct   Nov   Dec

   Domestic hot water system (100 % solar in summer)                                   Central Solar Heating Plant with
                                                                                       Seasonal Storage
   Combisystem (hot water and space heating)

                    Steinbeis Research Institute
                    for Solar and Sustainable
                    Thermal Energy Systems
                    www.solites.de
Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) – Concepts
 Tank thermal energy storage (TTES)         Pit thermal energy storage (PTES)
            (60 to 80 kWh/m³)                        (60 to 80 kWh/m³)




Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES)    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES)
            (15 to 30 kWh/m³)                        (30 to 40 kWh/m³)




           Steinbeis Research Institute
           for Solar and Sustainable
           Thermal Energy Systems
           www.solites.de
The pilot plants from the programs Solarthermie-2000 / 2000plus (1)

                                    Hamburg (1996)      Friedrichshafen
                                    3.000 m² FPC        (1996)
                                    4.500 m³             4.050 m² FPC
                                    Tank                12.000 m³
                                                        Tank


                                    Neckarsulm (1997)   Steinfurt (1998)
                                    5.300 m² FPC        510 m² FPC
                                    63.300 m³           1.500 m³
                                    BTES                Pit




                                    Rostock (2000)      Hannover (2000)
                                    1.000 m² FPC        1.350 m² FPC
                                    20.000 m³           2.750 m³
                                    ATES                Tank




          Steinbeis Research Institute
          for Solar and Sustainable
          Thermal Energy Systems
          www.solites.de
The pilot plants from the programs Solarthermie-2000 / 2000plus (2)

                                   Chemnitz, 1st CS     Attenkirchen (2002)
                                   (2000)               800 m² FPC
                                   540 m² VTC           500 + 9.350 m³
                                   8.000 m³             Tank + BTES
                                   Pit


                                   Munich (2007)        Crailsheim (2008)
                                   2.900 m² FPC         5.300 m² FPC
                                                        100 m³ + 480 m³
                                   5.700 m³
                                                        Buffer Tanks
                                   Tank                 37.500 m³
                                                        BTES


                                   Eggenstein (2008)
                                   1.600 m² FPC
                                   4.500 m³
                                   Pit



          Steinbeis Research Institute
          for Solar and Sustainable
          Thermal Energy Systems
          www.solites.de
The CSHPSS in Munich: installation of solar collectors, 2007




Start of operation: 2007

24.800 m² heated area (2.300 MWh/a)
2.900 m² solar collectors
5.700 m³ tank
Solar fraction: 47 %*
*simulation results ZAE

               Steinbeis Research Institute
               for Solar and Sustainable
               Thermal Energy Systems
               www.solites.de
Site plan
                                                        solar collectors on buildings

              buildings without
              solar collectors




    thermal
    energy
    storage




   central
                                                                          heat transfer substations
  heating
                                                                          in buildings
     plant
                                        solar network   local heat distribution network

                Steinbeis Research Institute
                for Solar and Sustainable
                Thermal Energy Systems
                www.solites.de
Construction of the seasonal heat storage in Munich, 5700 m³, 2007




          Steinbeis Research Institute
          for Solar and Sustainable
          Thermal Energy Systems
          www.solites.de
The CSHPSS in Crailsheim




service area: 260 apartments, school, gym.   STES:              37.500 m³ (BTES)
heat demand: 4.100 MWh/year                  el. heat pump:     530 kW
solar collectors: 7.300 m² (aperture)        solar fraction:    50 % (design)
buffer storage: 100 + 480 m³ (water tank)    solar heat cost:   19 Euro-Cent/kWh
            Steinbeis Research Institute
            for Solar and Sustainable
            Thermal Energy Systems
            www.solites.de
Solar collector fields in Crailsheim




                                         (Source: Stadtwerke Crailsheim)




          Steinbeis Research Institute
          for Solar and Sustainable
          Thermal Energy Systems
          www.solites.de
BTES in Crailsheim, 37.500 m³, 2008




         Steinbeis Research Institute
         for Solar and Sustainable
         Thermal Energy Systems
         www.solites.de
  Investment cost of seasonal thermal energy storages
                                                 500
                                                                 Ilmenau           Crailsheim                                                       realised
                                                                                   Aquifer
                                                 450
                                                                                                                                                    study
Investment cost per m³ water equivalent [€/m³]




                                                                              Rottweil                                                              Tanks
                                                 400
                                                                                                  Steinfurt                                         Pits
                                                                                                  (K/W)
                                                                                                                                                    BTES
                                                                                                                                                    ATES
                                                 350
                                                                                         Kettmann-
                                                                                         hausen
                                                 300

                                                                                                                   Hanover
                                                 250                                        Stuttgart

                                                                                                                                 Hamburg
                                                 200                                                                             (HW)
                                                                                                                         Bielefeld

                                                                                                                                                           Berlin-Biesdorf
                                                 150                                                            Eggenstein
                                                                                                                                Munich

                                                                                                     Chemnitz                            Friedrichshafen
                                                 100
                                                                                                     (K/W)                               (HW)
                                                                                                           Neckarsulm
                                                                                                            (1. phase)                                               Potsdam
                                                 50
                                                                                                                           Rostock
                                                                                                                                     Crailsheim
                                                                                                                                     Aquifer
                                                  0
                                                   100                                        1,000                                        10,000                              100,000
                                                                                        Storage volume in water equivalent [m³]


                                                         Steinbeis Research Institute
                                                         for Solar and Sustainable
                                                         Thermal Energy Systems
                                                         www.solites.de
Economics of solar thermal systems




         Steinbeis Research Institute
         for Solar and Sustainable
         Thermal Energy Systems
         www.solites.de
Outlook: R&D-targets for STES
• Materials and wall constructions for combined thermal and pressure stress
  (>100 C water / steam)
• Two fields of developments:
     •   Large scale storages above 1.000 m³
     •   Buffer storages between 100 und 500 m³.
• Improved reliability of storages
• Multi-functionality (heat sources, long-term / short-term etc.)
• Optimisation on total system level
• Comprehensive design and realisation process



Target 2020:         The first technologies of seasonal thermal energy storage
                     for high solar fractions and excess heat storage
                     are ready for the market.


             Steinbeis Research Institute
             for Solar and Sustainable
             Thermal Energy Systems
             www.solites.de
Contact and Support


Project website:                          www.solar-district-heating.eu


Coordinator:                              Solites
                                          Steinbeis Research Institute for Solar and Sustainable
                                          Thermal Energy Systems

                                          Dipl.- Ing. Thomas Pauschinger
                                          pauschinger@solites.de



Supported by:




The sole responsibility for the content of this document lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the funding authorities. The funding authorities are not
responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

                            Steinbeis Research Institute
                            for Solar and Sustainable
                            Thermal Energy Systems
                            www.solites.de

				
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