Languages_ Dialects_ and Varieties - apl623-f12-macedo by pptfiles

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									LANGUAGES, DIALECTS,
     AND VARIETIES
  An Introduction to Sociolinguistics:
                  Ronald Wardhaugh
OVERVIEW
Important Terms:
   VARIETY
   LANGUAGE
   DIALECT
       Dialect geography, isoglosses, boundaries, and continuum
     VERNACULAR
     PATOIS
     KOINE
     Style/Register
     Accent
Bell’s Seven Criteria For Languages
   standardization, vitality, historicity, autonomy,
    reduction, mixture, and de facto norms
VARIETY
“A set of linguistic terms with similar
 distribution” (Hudson 1996, 22 via
 Wardhaugh 23)


Bonjour


Salve
VARIETY CONT.
“any body of human speech patterns which is
 sufficiently homogeneous to be analyzed by
 available techniques of synchronic description
 and which has a sufficiently large repertory of
 elements and their arrangements or processes
 with broad enogh semantic scope to function in
 all formal contexts of communication” (Ferguson
 1972, 30 via Wardhaugh 23)
“Such varieties as Standard English, Cockney,
 lower-class New York City speech, Oxford English,
 legalese, cocktail party talk, and so on. One
 important task, then, in sociolinguistics is to
 determine if such unique sets of items or
 patterns actually do exist” (Wardhaugh 23)
LANGUAGE VS. DIALECT
Ambiguous – “As Haugen says, the terms
 ‘represent a simple dichotomy in a situation
 that is almost infinitely complex’”
 (Wardhaugh 25)
“Language is used to refer either to a single
 linguistic norm or to a group of related norms,
 and dialect is used to refer to one of the
 norms” (Wardhaugh 25)
Influence of “ideological dimensions – social,
 cultural, and sometimes political –
 beyond…purely linguistic ones” (Wardhaugh
 32)
Standard VS. non-standard
DIALECTS
Dialect
 geography
Isoglosses
Dialect
 boundaries
Dialect
 continuum
VERNACULAR
“the language a person grows up with and
 uses in everyday life in ordinary,
 commonplace, social interactions”
 (Wardhaugh 24)
Negative connotations
PATOIS
French distinction between “un dialecte and
 un patois. The former is a regional variety of
 language that has an associated literary
 tradition, whereas the latter is a regional
 variety that lacks such a literary tradition”
 (Wardhaugh 25)
Pejorative
Literary tradition after advent of
 standardization excludes
KOINE
“a form of speech shared by people of
 different vernaculars – though for some of
 them the koine itself may be their
 vernacular” (Petyt 1980, 25 via Wardhaugh
 40)
OTHER FACTORS
Styles/Registers
Accent
BELL’S SEVEN CRITERIA FOR LANGUAGES
Standardization
Vitality
Historicity
Autonomy
Reduction
Mixture
De facto norms
MY VARIETIES
Dialects:
  Vernacular: Standard English
  Koine: Standard English
  Neo-Latin
  (German, Spanish, French)
  *Attic Greek, Koine
Accent: General American         http://en.wikipedia.org/
                                  wiki/General_American
Registers:
  Casual
  Formal
  Tourist
  Latin class/Conventiculum

								
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