Exploring the challenge of single versus multi-enzyme dosing comparisons

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                             July | August 2013
Exploring the challenge of single versus multi-
        enzyme dosing comparisons
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Exploring the challenge of single
versus multi-enzyme dosing
      by Dr Helen Masey O’Neill, research manager, and Tiago dos Santos, global technical
                                                    manager, AB Vista, United Kingdom

            hile the inclusion of phytases        Table 1: Types and estimated levels of the main fibre polysaccharide components present in key
            has become almost ubiquitous          cereal grains
            in monogastric feeding, both                                                               % of dry matter
to release phosphorus and to reduce
                                                  Cereal                                                                               Uronic
the anti-nutritive effect of phytate itself                                Xylan1 ß-Glucan Cellulose Mannan2 Galactan3                                Total
(superdosing), the use of enzymes to
tackle issues associated with non-starch
polysaccharides (NSP, i.e. fibre) remains          Wheat      Soluble        1.8        0.4          -           -           0.2          -           2.4
the subject of much discussion. There                         Insoluble      6.3        0.4        2.0           -           0.1        0.2           9.0
is still no general consensus on how to             Barley    Soluble        0.8        3.6          -           -           0.1          -           4.5
achieve the greatest benefits with these                      Insoluble      7.1        0.7        3.9         0.2           0.1        0.2           12.2
enzymes, and the potential to incorporate
                                                     Oats     Soluble        1.0        2.8          -         0.2           0.2        0.1           4.3
them into a multi-enzyme dosing strategy
                                                              Insoluble      9.2        0.5        8.2         0.1           0.4        0.7           19.1
has only added to the debate.
                                                      Rye     Soluble        3.4        0.9          -         0.1           0.1        0.1           4.6
                                                              Insoluble      5.5        1.1        1.5         0.2           0.2        0.1           8.6
Single vs multiple enzymes                           Corn     Soluble        0.1         -           -           -            -           -           0.1
     The use of either single commercial                      Insoluble      5.1         -         2.0         0.2           0.6          -           8.0
products incorporating multiple enzymes, or       1Arabinose+xylanose; 2Mannose; 3Galactose; 4Galacturonic + glucuronic acids (Source: Choct, 1997)
the combination of separate products with
different modes of action, would appear in
theory to have clear advantages, but the
reality is much more complex. As such,
when looking to make commercial decisions
between single versus multi-enzyme dosing,
it is important to be aware of the factors that
influence target animal performance.
     The most commonly used commercial
feed enzymes typically fall into one of two
broad categories, namely phytases and NSP
enzymes, with the latter containing a range
of enzymes developed with the aim of
breaking down the various fibre compo-
nents in the diet. This fibrous content will
differ depending on the feed ingredients
used, however, with the main constituents
being cellulose, arabinoxylans, mixed-linked
ß-glucans, glucomannans, galactomannans                                                  Figure 1: pH profile of several fungal and bacterial
and arabinans.                                                                                           xylanases (Source: AB Vista, 2013)
     The values in Table 1 illustrate the

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                           variation in these cell wall components between              Figure 1, for example, shows the pH profiles
                           the main cereals used in pig and poultry diets.          for several fungal and bacterial xylanases, indicat-
                           ß-glucans are present in most cereals, and               ing how activity levels vary as pH changes. The

 EXPERIENCE                particularly prevalent in barley and oats, whilst
                           arabinoxylans and cellulose make up the major-
                                                                                    problem for any comparative testing that involves
                                                                                    more than one enzyme is that activity which

                           ity of the cell wall NSP in corn, wheat, rye, oats       might appear to be similar or additive when
                           and barley grains.                                       tested at pH5.5 may well produce completely
                                                                                    different results under the variable conditions

  SESSION                  Not all enzymes are equal
                               The challenge when it comes to comparing
                           single versus multi-enzyme dosing is that each
                                                                                    present in the digestive tract (more acid in the
                                                                                    stomach or gizzard, more alkaline in the small

RECORDINGS                 of these NSPs are not only present in different
                           quantities in different feed ingredients, but are
                           also broken down by a different enzyme type,
                                                                                    Do enzyme characteristics matter?
                                                                                       It may be argued that as long as animal
 FROM IAOM’S               and can affect digestion and subsequent animal          performance is improved in trials, awareness of
 2013 ANNUAL               performance in different ways. Soluble ß-glucans        these differences in enzyme characteristics and
                           may be responsible for much of the increased            identifying exactly which activities are causal is
 CONFERENCE                digesta viscosity that reduces digestibility in barley  unimportant. However, evidence available to
 THROUGH THE               diets, but it is the soluble arabinoxylans that         date suggests that in many such comparisons,
                           appear to have a similar effect in wheat. Further,      multi-enzyme dosing fails to outperform the best
   IAOM LIVE               as these polysaccharides are closely associated in      of the single enzyme products.
   LEARNING                the cell wall structure, anything that affects the          Even where an improvement has been
                           structure of one is likely to influence that of the     achieved, it is often not possible to determine
    CENTER                 others.                                                 whether the result was due to the additional
                               Cell wall NSPs are also known to decrease           enzyme types or, for example, more of the
                           the availability of intracellular starch for break-     original enzyme type. If a study compares
                           down within the animal gut – hence the                  product A (a xylanase) with product B (a
     Recordings are        improvement in starch digestibility achieved by         multi-enzyme product containing a different
     complimentary         appropriate NSP enzymes. On top of this are             xylanase), any performance improvement from
       for all 2013        the less clearly defined benefits that come from        product B may not come from the additional
  Annual Conference        improved populations of beneficial gut micro-           enzymes, but could instead be related to other
  attendees as well as                                                                                          factors, such as the
    IAOM members.                                                                                               xylanase being sup-
                                                                                                                plied at a higher
                                                                                                                dose rate, having
                                                                                                                improved activity, or
                                                                                                                being more appro-
                                                                                                                priate to the test
                                                                                                                diet being used.
                                                                                                                    Figure 2 shows
                                                                                                                the results of an AB
                                                                                                                Vista broiler trial car-
                                                                                                                ried out to investigate
                                                                                                                the difference in per-
                                                                                                                formance between
                                             Figure 2: Comparison of bird performance (0-42 days)               four commercial xyla-
                                             when fed a range of xylanase-based enzyme products                 nase-based products.                                                (Source: AB Vista, unpublished)          In this case, a single
                                                                                                                xylanase      product
                                                                                                                (Econase XT) out-
                           flora when incorporating certain NSP enzymes, performed both the other single xylanase prod-
                           which release oligosaccharides, in the diet.            uct and the two multi-enzyme products tested. It
                               Very clearly, any comparison therefore needs is clear that in this trial, choosing a multi-enzyme
                           to take into account not just the types of product is not necessarily beneficial.
                           enzymes involved, but also the impact different             In fact, what the results show is that the
                           feed ingredients might have on the results. In characteristics and dose of the enzyme being
                           addition, the effect of any products of enzyme used are far more important than the number of
                           activity need to be considered, some of which enzymes present in each product. This is critical
                           (such as specific oligosaccharides) may be ben- when it comes to choosing between products in
                           eficial, possibly pre-biotic, while others (such as a commercial situation.
                           free sugars) may be detrimental.                            Furthermore, if there is no uniformity in per-
                               Finally, keep in mind that commercial enzymes formance response to even the same enzyme
                           are not pure, so a product labelled as a xylanase will from different origins due to variation in enzyme
                           also invariably contain ß-glucanase and a number of characteristics, then valid direct comparisons
                           other activities. Any variation in dose rate between become difficult to achieve. Table 2 lists the
                           the commercial products being evaluated must also minimum number of trial treatments needed
                           be accounted for, and the testing procedure able to to provide a complete comparative dataset for
                           cope with any differing characteristics exhibited by an example product containing three enzymes.
                           enzymes even of the same type.                              However, even this relies on each xylanase

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       NEWS                                                                                                                                            2013
                                                                                                                                         July - August FEATURE                       News
  Kerry Agribusiness at the same sion ratio) when thesesystem, which handles a diverse
   being from the same origin,       profitability at a farm level. two   Table 2: Hypothetical experimental treatment design for multi-
   dose rate and supplied in the same form, activities were combined of animal feed products.
                                     From their Farranfore Feed range
  getssimilar criteria bag ß-glucanase Kerry (Kalmendal and Tauson, early 2003, evaluationspare           NUMBER
   with retrofit for the                                                                                  CRUNCHING
                                     Mill and     Agribusiness has Since Treatment genuine activity

                                                                                                                        Animal feed
   protease. Achieving such a comparison using 2012).top quality parts matched to the original
                                     been supplying
   only commercially available products is sim- across the Munster Chronos Richardson design
                                          animal feeds Similar results have

                                                                                                      Test product - known to contain xylanase,
   ply noterry Agribusiness Feed region.
             possible in the vast majority of cases. been seen for the inter-   authority documentation and
                                                                                                  1                     37% of global overall diets are
                                                                                                      ß-glucanase and protease activity
        It isM ill beenF proposed that since the the retrofit project,xylanase
              also i n ar r a n fore , As part of actions between               drawings have been supplied by          made up of animal products in North
   response to additional enzyme P r e m i e r andc h C h r o n oin maize- Premier TechXylanase
             Co. Kerry, Ireland has inclusion Te ß-glucanase s fellow                             2
                                                                                                       company;         America and Western Europe
  recently installed a retrofit bag service engineers supported broilers.
   is dependent upon the remaining fibrous soy-based diets in                                     3 Glucanase
                                                                                Premier Tech Chronos. That
  former with help from Premier response r r y A g r i b u s i enzymes experience and4 expertise is
   content of the diet, any such t h e Ke Despite the n e s s                    also                 Protease          5-7% of global overall diets are
                                                                                                  5 for service ß-glucanase of animal products in Sub-
  Tech be reduced with every extraengineers who re-installed at differentavailable today Xylanase and
   will Chronos, UK. The retrofit           enzyme being tested and still                                               made up
                                           in Table dose the SSV was and aftermarket support for the protease
  project replaces example outlinedre-commissioned rates, it Bag found
   included. In the a bag forming                                                                 6 Xylanase and        Saharan Africa and South Asia
  until that was originally supplied to poten-One of the major aims entire company product range. and protease
   2, the ability of a ß-glucanase Former.              that whilst the xylanase and              7 ß-glucanase
   tially improve performance when added ß-glucanase aloneto This expertise and No enzyme
  more than 20 years ago.                 of the retrofit project was improved               Control   capability       38% of global cereal is used for
   to a xylanase (treatment 5) or a ensure continued optimum was an important factor in the
                                          protease feed conversion, combining                                           animal feed
  Kerry Agribusiness provides a packing outputs were achieved company’s ability to support
   (treatment 7) may be irrelevant to its both together resulted in
  range of products and services on – the no further improvements (Cowieson et al., on this clarity25 far from feedstuff arethe to
   effect as part of the test product the previously supplied bag Kerry Agribusiness lack of                               is units of helpful, and used
  that are aimed atxylanase plus placing and2010).preparation particular project.
   combination of optimising protease                     bag                                                           produce versus multi-enzyme
                                                                                                          comparison of single one unit of livestock output
   might simply be so effective that there is                                                             dosing is an area that would appear to justify
   little performance response available from Achieving consistent results                                further study.34.8 million tonnesan fish was used
                                                                                                                          In the meantime, of aware-
  Bayer launches
   addition of the ß-glucanase.                             Bayer’s K-Obiol® stores more at least one ness of
                                           to know about The one situation where harbourconsist- species of thosefor terrestrial factors which in 2004
                                                                                                                          underlying livestock feed can
        Interestingly, in the limited number of ent results appear to beinsect known to infest grain. “When animal performance is vital when
                                           insecticide.                            achievable is when influence
  product guide                                         a phytase is supplemented with an NSP with the                  7 data that is is demanded globally
   studies in which a more complete com-grain comes with a variety grain prices are high and unravelling the times more feedused to pro-
   parison has been made, it is not challenges,” says Ken Black, possibility of growers choosing to
                                           of usu- enzyme, perhaps due to the greater dif- mote enzymefor ruminants than monogastrics
                                                                                                                          products in the marketplace.

               enzyme product with the greatest ferences in for rural store and substrate. Remember that good data still needs correct
   ally the ow is prime time for national account managermode of action their grain for longer a planned
                                                                                   of dietary good grain interpretation2 the right conclusions are toglobal
                of activities that results in the Evaluation of the effectsapproach to enzymes storage is
   number growers to plan their hygiene, Bayer.                                                                          if crop categories dominate
                                                         three factors of broilers fed We hope our
   best performance. grain storage study to areon performance that essential.a maize-soy-guide will help
              pre-harvest In one 2012 “There                                                              be drawn! livestock feed: cereals and oil crops.
                                                                                  found make the best
   treatments and Bayer of making influence the quality of the example, growersthat the only decisions for
   evaluate the effects is a xylanase and a based diet, for grain:
   protease in broilers fed wheat-soy-based combination of enzymes producing a yield.”
   this process easier by the launch of temperature, moisture content protecting theirfurther                               Source: The Impact of Industrial Grain
   diets, both enzymes guidebook. and storage period. The in performance over K-Obiol grain
   a new grain protectantimproved performance improvement greater To order a single                                             Fed Livestock Production on Food
                                                                                                            M ok
   individually. However, no further improve- enzymes the greater pluso xylanaset (Walkd e b oore InforMatIon: extended literature review,
                                           the quantity of grain, was phytase p r t e c t a n g u i                        Security: an
   The manual seen in any growth parameters infestation.”
   ment was provides farmers and the risk of et al., 2011).                      email pestcontrolexpert @    Website:
                                                                                                                                    Alpen-Adria University, Austria
   pest controllersfeed intake or feed An estimated 90 percent of farm grain
   (bodyweight, with all they need          conver-        For the feed manufacturer, this general

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    | July - feed millinG technoloGy                                                                                                  Grain     &feed millinG technoloGy
                                                                                                                                                                    2013 15:37:04
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Description: While the inclusion of phytases has become almost ubiquitous in monogastric feeding, both to release phosphorus and to reduce the anti-nutritive effect of phytate itself (superdosing), the use of enzymes to tackle issues associated with non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, i.e. fibre) remains the subject of much discussion. There is still no general consensus on how to achieve the greatest benefits with these enzymes, and the potential to incorporate them into a multi-enzyme dosing strategy has only added to the debate.