Digital Re-print -
July | August 2013
Exploring the challenge of single versus multi-
enzyme dosing comparisons
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Exploring the challenge of single
versus multi-enzyme dosing
by Dr Helen Masey O’Neill, research manager, and Tiago dos Santos, global technical
manager, AB Vista, United Kingdom
hile the inclusion of phytases Table 1: Types and estimated levels of the main fibre polysaccharide components present in key
has become almost ubiquitous cereal grains
in monogastric feeding, both % of dry matter
to release phosphorus and to reduce
the anti-nutritive effect of phytate itself Xylan1 ß-Glucan Cellulose Mannan2 Galactan3 Total
(superdosing), the use of enzymes to
tackle issues associated with non-starch
polysaccharides (NSP, i.e. fibre) remains Wheat Soluble 1.8 0.4 - - 0.2 - 2.4
the subject of much discussion. There Insoluble 6.3 0.4 2.0 - 0.1 0.2 9.0
is still no general consensus on how to Barley Soluble 0.8 3.6 - - 0.1 - 4.5
achieve the greatest benefits with these Insoluble 7.1 0.7 3.9 0.2 0.1 0.2 12.2
enzymes, and the potential to incorporate
Oats Soluble 1.0 2.8 - 0.2 0.2 0.1 4.3
them into a multi-enzyme dosing strategy
Insoluble 9.2 0.5 8.2 0.1 0.4 0.7 19.1
has only added to the debate.
Rye Soluble 3.4 0.9 - 0.1 0.1 0.1 4.6
Insoluble 5.5 1.1 1.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 8.6
Single vs multiple enzymes Corn Soluble 0.1 - - - - - 0.1
The use of either single commercial Insoluble 5.1 - 2.0 0.2 0.6 - 8.0
products incorporating multiple enzymes, or 1Arabinose+xylanose; 2Mannose; 3Galactose; 4Galacturonic + glucuronic acids (Source: Choct, 1997)
the combination of separate products with
different modes of action, would appear in
theory to have clear advantages, but the
reality is much more complex. As such,
when looking to make commercial decisions
between single versus multi-enzyme dosing,
it is important to be aware of the factors that
influence target animal performance.
The most commonly used commercial
feed enzymes typically fall into one of two
broad categories, namely phytases and NSP
enzymes, with the latter containing a range
of enzymes developed with the aim of
breaking down the various fibre compo-
nents in the diet. This fibrous content will
differ depending on the feed ingredients
used, however, with the main constituents
being cellulose, arabinoxylans, mixed-linked
ß-glucans, glucomannans, galactomannans Figure 1: pH profile of several fungal and bacterial
and arabinans. xylanases (Source: AB Vista, 2013)
The values in Table 1 illustrate the
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variation in these cell wall components between Figure 1, for example, shows the pH profiles
the main cereals used in pig and poultry diets. for several fungal and bacterial xylanases, indicat-
ß-glucans are present in most cereals, and ing how activity levels vary as pH changes. The
EXPERIENCE particularly prevalent in barley and oats, whilst
arabinoxylans and cellulose make up the major-
problem for any comparative testing that involves
more than one enzyme is that activity which
ity of the cell wall NSP in corn, wheat, rye, oats might appear to be similar or additive when
and barley grains. tested at pH5.5 may well produce completely
different results under the variable conditions
SESSION Not all enzymes are equal
The challenge when it comes to comparing
single versus multi-enzyme dosing is that each
present in the digestive tract (more acid in the
stomach or gizzard, more alkaline in the small
RECORDINGS of these NSPs are not only present in different
quantities in different feed ingredients, but are
also broken down by a different enzyme type,
Do enzyme characteristics matter?
It may be argued that as long as animal
FROM IAOM’S and can affect digestion and subsequent animal performance is improved in trials, awareness of
2013 ANNUAL performance in different ways. Soluble ß-glucans these differences in enzyme characteristics and
may be responsible for much of the increased identifying exactly which activities are causal is
CONFERENCE digesta viscosity that reduces digestibility in barley unimportant. However, evidence available to
THROUGH THE diets, but it is the soluble arabinoxylans that date suggests that in many such comparisons,
appear to have a similar effect in wheat. Further, multi-enzyme dosing fails to outperform the best
IAOM LIVE as these polysaccharides are closely associated in of the single enzyme products.
LEARNING the cell wall structure, anything that affects the Even where an improvement has been
structure of one is likely to influence that of the achieved, it is often not possible to determine
CENTER others. whether the result was due to the additional
Cell wall NSPs are also known to decrease enzyme types or, for example, more of the
the availability of intracellular starch for break- original enzyme type. If a study compares
down within the animal gut – hence the product A (a xylanase) with product B (a
Recordings are improvement in starch digestibility achieved by multi-enzyme product containing a different
complimentary appropriate NSP enzymes. On top of this are xylanase), any performance improvement from
for all 2013 the less clearly defined benefits that come from product B may not come from the additional
Annual Conference improved populations of beneficial gut micro- enzymes, but could instead be related to other
attendees as well as factors, such as the
IAOM members. xylanase being sup-
plied at a higher
dose rate, having
improved activity, or
being more appro-
priate to the test
diet being used.
Figure 2 shows
the results of an AB
Vista broiler trial car-
ried out to investigate
the difference in per-
Figure 2: Comparison of bird performance (0-42 days) four commercial xyla-
when fed a range of xylanase-based enzyme products nase-based products.
softconference.com/IAOM (Source: AB Vista, unpublished) In this case, a single
(Econase XT) out-
flora when incorporating certain NSP enzymes, performed both the other single xylanase prod-
which release oligosaccharides, in the diet. uct and the two multi-enzyme products tested. It
Very clearly, any comparison therefore needs is clear that in this trial, choosing a multi-enzyme
to take into account not just the types of product is not necessarily beneficial.
enzymes involved, but also the impact different In fact, what the results show is that the
feed ingredients might have on the results. In characteristics and dose of the enzyme being
addition, the effect of any products of enzyme used are far more important than the number of
activity need to be considered, some of which enzymes present in each product. This is critical
(such as specific oligosaccharides) may be ben- when it comes to choosing between products in
eficial, possibly pre-biotic, while others (such as a commercial situation.
free sugars) may be detrimental. Furthermore, if there is no uniformity in per-
Finally, keep in mind that commercial enzymes formance response to even the same enzyme
are not pure, so a product labelled as a xylanase will from different origins due to variation in enzyme
also invariably contain ß-glucanase and a number of characteristics, then valid direct comparisons
other activities. Any variation in dose rate between become difficult to achieve. Table 2 lists the
the commercial products being evaluated must also minimum number of trial treatments needed
be accounted for, and the testing procedure able to to provide a complete comparative dataset for
cope with any differing characteristics exhibited by an example product containing three enzymes.
enzymes even of the same type. However, even this relies on each xylanase
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July - August FEATURE News
Kerry Agribusiness at the same sion ratio) when thesesystem, which handles a diverse
being from the same origin, profitability at a farm level. two Table 2: Hypothetical experimental treatment design for multi-
dose rate and supplied in the same form, activities were combined of animal feed products.
From their Farranfore Feed range
getssimilar criteria bag ß-glucanase Kerry (Kalmendal and Tauson, early 2003, evaluationspare NUMBER
with retrofit for the CRUNCHING
Mill and Agribusiness has Since Treatment genuine activity
protease. Achieving such a comparison using 2012).top quality parts matched to the original
only commercially available products is sim- across the Munster Chronos Richardson design
animal feeds Similar results have
Test product - known to contain xylanase,
ply noterry Agribusiness Feed region.
possible in the vast majority of cases. been seen for the inter- authority documentation and
1 37% of global overall diets are
ß-glucanase and protease activity
It isM ill beenF proposed that since the the retrofit project,xylanase
also i n ar r a n fore , As part of actions between drawings have been supplied by made up of animal products in North
response to additional enzyme P r e m i e r andc h C h r o n oin maize- Premier TechXylanase
Co. Kerry, Ireland has inclusion Te ß-glucanase s fellow 2
company; America and Western Europe
recently installed a retrofit bag service engineers supported broilers.
is dependent upon the remaining fibrous soy-based diets in 3 Glucanase
Premier Tech Chronos. That
former with help from Premier response r r y A g r i b u s i enzymes experience and4 expertise is
content of the diet, any such t h e Ke Despite the n e s s also Protease 5-7% of global overall diets are
5 for service ß-glucanase of animal products in Sub-
Tech be reduced with every extraengineers who re-installed at differentavailable today Xylanase and
will Chronos, UK. The retrofit enzyme being tested and still made up
in Table dose the SSV was and aftermarket support for the protease
project replaces example outlinedre-commissioned rates, it Bag found
included. In the a bag forming 6 Xylanase and Saharan Africa and South Asia
until that was originally supplied to poten-One of the major aims entire company product range. and protease
2, the ability of a ß-glucanase Former. that whilst the xylanase and 7 ß-glucanase
tially improve performance when added ß-glucanase aloneto This expertise and No enzyme
more than 20 years ago. of the retrofit project was improved Control capability 38% of global cereal is used for
to a xylanase (treatment 5) or a ensure continued optimum was an important factor in the
protease feed conversion, combining animal feed
Kerry Agribusiness provides a packing outputs were achieved company’s ability to support
(treatment 7) may be irrelevant to its both together resulted in
range of products and services on – the no further improvements (Cowieson et al., on this clarity25 far from feedstuff arethe to
effect as part of the test product the previously supplied bag Kerry Agribusiness lack of is units of helpful, and used
that are aimed atxylanase plus placing and2010).preparation particular project.
combination of optimising protease bag produce versus multi-enzyme
comparison of single one unit of livestock output
might simply be so effective that there is dosing is an area that would appear to justify
little performance response available from Achieving consistent results further study.34.8 million tonnesan fish was used
In the meantime, of aware-
addition of the ß-glucanase. Bayer’s K-Obiol® stores more at least one ness of
to know about The one situation where harbourconsist- species of thosefor terrestrial factors which in 2004
underlying livestock feed can
Interestingly, in the limited number of ent results appear to beinsect known to infest grain. “When animal performance is vital when
insecticide. achievable is when influence
product guide a phytase is supplemented with an NSP with the 7 data that is is demanded globally
studies in which a more complete com-grain comes with a variety grain prices are high and unravelling the times more feedused to pro-
parison has been made, it is not challenges,” says Ken Black, possibility of growers choosing to
of usu- enzyme, perhaps due to the greater dif- mote enzymefor ruminants than monogastrics
products in the marketplace.
enzyme product with the greatest ferences in for rural store and substrate. Remember that good data still needs correct
ally the ow is prime time for national account managermode of action their grain for longer a planned
of dietary good grain interpretation2 the right conclusions are toglobal
of activities that results in the Evaluation of the effectsapproach to enzymes storage is
number growers to plan their hygiene, Bayer. if crop categories dominate
three factors of broilers fed We hope our
best performance. grain storage study to areon performance that essential.a maize-soy-guide will help
pre-harvest In one 2012 “There be drawn! livestock feed: cereals and oil crops.
found make the best
treatments and Bayer of making influence the quality of the example, growersthat the only decisions for
evaluate the effects is a xylanase and a based diet, for grain:
protease in broilers fed wheat-soy-based combination of enzymes producing a yield.”
this process easier by the launch of temperature, moisture content protecting theirfurther Source: The Impact of Industrial Grain
diets, both enzymes guidebook. and storage period. The in performance over K-Obiol grain
a new grain protectantimproved performance improvement greater To order a single Fed Livestock Production on Food
individually. However, no further improve- enzymes the greater pluso xylanaset (Walkd e b oore InforMatIon: extended literature review,
the quantity of grain, was phytase p r t e c t a n g u i Security: an
The manual seen in any growth parameters infestation.”
ment was provides farmers and the risk of et al., 2011). email pestcontrolexpert @ Website: www.abvista.com
Alpen-Adria University, Austria
pest controllersfeed intake or feed An estimated 90 percent of farm grain bayercropscience.com
(bodyweight, with all they need conver- For the feed manufacturer, this general
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| July - feed millinG technoloGy Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
July - august21/02/12| 37
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