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                           July | August 2013
 Improving poultry health and production
        efficiency with probiotics
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 poultry health
 and production
 efficiency with
 by Dr Detlef Kampf
 Orffa Additives, the Netherlands

       o avoid diseases resulting from high
       pathogenic pressure in intensive
       broiler and turkey housing systems,
antibiotic growth promoters have been
used in many cases in the past. Since
the EU-prohibition of these products, an
increasing interest exists for alternatives to
support the microbiota in the intestine and
for the maintenance of animal health.

    Therefore, the use of probiotics has               Image 1: Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (compact and                             Bacillus subtilis
                                                       singular colony form)                                            (incoherent colony form)
been established. Probiotics are living
cultures of non-pathogenic strains of
bacteria and yeasts which are able to                  Different modes of action form the basis         as, Salmonella, E. Coli, Campylobacter and
influence the microbiota in the intestine          of the use of Bacillus subtilis in poultry feed,     Clostridiae (Hosoi et al. 2000).
of the host animal in a positive way (Fuller       so the influence of improved production                  Many trial results, concerning the reduc-
1989). Many of the known probiotics are            parameters can be explained. Bacillus subtilis       tion of these pathogens have already been
unable to survive the techniques used in           consumes oxygen in the digestive tract and           published (Marutra et al. 1996, Fritts et al.
modern feed production, for example                produces different enzymes like, for exam-           2000, La Ragione and Woodward 2003).
heat exposure during the pelleting proc-           ple, subtilisin and catalase. As a result, the       For example, Maruta et al. (1996) described
ess of temperatures up to 90°C. One                environmental conditions for beneficial bac-         not only fewer infected animals in a trial with
possibility to mitigate these problems             teria, such as Lactobacilli, will improve. These     in total 18,000 broilers, but also a reduced
is the use of spore forming probiotics,            bacteria colonize the gut wall and block             concentration of pathogenic bacteria in the
especially probiotics of the genus Bacillus        the binding sites of pathogenic bacteria,            faeces of infected animals was observed
subtilis. Also, the compatibility with other       a mechanism called competitive inhibition.           (Table 1).
feed additives, such as organic acids, coc-        Additionally, Lactobacilli produce lactic acid,          In another research trial in broilers, a
cidiostats and antibiotics for therapeutic         which can affect pathogenic bacteria, such           reduction of campylobacter infection from
purposes, has to be considered in
a practical situation.
                                            Table 1: Influence of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin®) on the concentration of Clostridium
Mode of action                              perfringens and Salmonella (Maruta et al. 1996)
    Potential probiotics are charac-
terized by the forming of natural                                                                    control
                                                                                                                           Bacillus subtilis C-3102
colonies with a complex aerobic                                                                  (9,000 broiler)
                                                                                                                           (3x108 CFU/kg feed)
structure, which has to be seen
in connection with higher bacte-
rial possibilities (Image 1). If bacteria
                                                   Clostridium perfringens, log10/g faeces            3.39±0.79                 2.62±0.47*
are kept in an artificial environment
('domesticated'), they lose many of                      Cl. perfringens, % positive animals            93%                         47%*
their natural capabilities. Therefore
                                                           Salmonella spp., log10/g faeces            2.97±0.36                  3.06±0.62
probiotics can be evaluated in a
simple plate test concerning to their                   Salmonella spp., % positive animals             57%                         17%*
efficacy due to their aerobic form
                                            * P<0.01
(Aguilar et al. 2007).

20 | July - august 2013                                                                                            Grain&feed millinG technoloGy

   Table 2: Zootechnical results of the use of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 in broilers and turkeys                           nella and clostridia (La Ragione
   (Gracia and Medel 2004, Gracia et al. 2007, EFSA 2010, Blair et al. 2004)                                              and Woodward 2003) or with
                                                                                                                          salmonella and campylobacter
                     Number of animals          Calsporin®                                                 Feed
                                                                    Body weight       Average daily                       (Fritts et al. 2000) by the use
                    (replications per trial   Bacillus subtilis                                         conversion
       Trial no.                                                     at trial end      weight gain                        of Bacillus subtilis.
                            group                C-3102                                                  (kg feed/
                                                                         (kg)           (g/day)                               As mentioned before not
                       x animals/pen)         (CFU/kg feed)                                              kg gain)
                                                                                                                          only the compatibility with
                                                                                                                          other feed components like
                                                                                                                          organic acids, coccidiostats
       Broiler 1           5524                      0                 2.599               61.2            1.90
       (4 trials)      (63 x 22-100)               5x108               2.640*              62.2*          1.85**          and therapeutic antibiotics
                                                                                                                          but also the stability against
       Broiler 2           8208                     0                  2.372              55.5             1.82           heat treatments during feed
       (4 trials)      (139 x 26-50)              10x108              2.436***           57.0***          1.77***         production is crucially impor-
                                                                                                                          tant. Spore forming probiot-
                            600                      0                 6.498               77.7            2.06           ics like Bacillus subtilis exist
     Turkeys 1#
                          (12 x 25)                3x108              6.732**             80.5**           2.05           in an inactive stable form
                                                                                                                          and germinate only under
                            960                      0                 9.522              112.6            2.05           ideal conditions (Hongh et al.
     Turkeys 2#                                                                                                           2005). This advantage, com-
                          (32 x 15)                3x108              9.854**            116.6**          2.02**
                                                                                                                          pared to non spore forming
                            400                      0                 13.41              105.9            2.42           probiotics is reflected in the
     Turkeys 3#                                                                                                           results of several investiga-
                          (8 x 25)                 3x108              14.32**            113.2**           2.42
                                                                                                                          tions on the influence of heat
   Significant differences between trial and control group *P<0.10; **P<0.05; ***P<0.001
                                                                                                                          exposure and pelleting proc-
   # Trial 1 only female animals, trial 2 and 3 only male animals                                                         esses of temperatures up to
                                                                                                                          90°C and also under expan-
                                                                                                                          sion conditions up to 105°C
  100 percent in the control group to 40              number of infected birds reduced, but also a       (Nollet 2005, Kampf and van der Aa 2010).
  percent in the trial group was found when           significantly lower concentration of campylo-      The compatibility of Bacillus subtilis C-3102
  Bacillus subtilis was fed from day 34 to 56,        bacter in the faeces of the infected animals       with coccidistatics, therapeutical antibiotics
  and to 16 percent when Bacillus subtilis was        was measured (Maruta et al. 1996).                 and organic acids has also been proven in
  fed from day 17 - 56 (Maruta et al. 1996).              Further studies describe a lower pathogenic    scientific investigations (Enthoven and van
  Also in this investigation not only was the         contamination of broiler carcasses with salmo-     der Lee 2004).

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CALSPORIN®                                                        … The global probiotic
• Very efficient probiotic for stabilising an optimal intestinal microflora
• Highly concentrated spore-forming bacteria
  (Bacillus subtilis C-3102 with minimum 1.0 x 1010 cfu/g)
• Heat-stable even at high temperatures
• Very stable when used in combination with coccidiostats,
  therapeutic antibiotics and organic acids
• Highly efficient in terms of growth, feed conversion and feed costs
                                                                                                                    Orffa UK Ltd c/o The Potter Group
                                                                                                                 Green Lane, Melmerby, Ripon HG4 5HP
Healthy animals > improved performance > more profitable production                                              T +44 7595 894 761 F +44 1765 640 544
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  Grain &feed millinG technoloGy                                                                                                   July - august 2013 | 21

                                                                                                                                   of the animals has
  Table 3: Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin®) on feed conversion (corrected to 1,500 g live weight) and daily       been established
  gain (g/day) in broiler chicken under EU practical conditions (2008-2012)
                                                                                                                                   in feeding practice
   Trial   Run       No. birds    Country            FCRc1500             Difference               ADG              Difference     in recent years.
                                                                                                                                   Especially spore
                                               Control     Calsporin®                      Control    Control       Calsporin®
                                                                                                                                   forming probiot-
                                                                                                                                   ics of the genus
      1               90,200        NL          1.461        1.439           -1.5%           54.3      1.461          1.439        Bacillus     subtilis
                                                                                                                                   have been referred
      2              102,000        NL          1.410        1.368           -3.0%           56.8      1.410          1.368        to because they
      3               50,000        NL          1.561        1.478           -5.3%           50.0      1.561          1.478        can      be    used
      4       1       66,000        NL          1.413        1.379           -2.4%           56.0      1.413          1.379
                                                                                                                                   without issue in
                                                                                                                                   combination with
      4       2       66,000        NL          1.413        1.426            0.9%           56.0      1.413          1.426        organic       acids,
     5*             1,500,000       FR          1.660        1.641           -1.1%           49.2      1.660          1.641        coccidiostats and
                                                                                                                                   therapeutic antibi-
     6*               39,270        FR          1.666        1.634           -1.9%           51.0      1.666          1.634
                                                                                                                                   otics, beside that
      7               33,000        UK          1.295        1.233           -4.8%           66.1      1.295          1.233        these products can
      8                 128         PO          1.238        1.222           -1.3%           60.2      1.238          1.222        easily survive heat
                                                                                                                                   treatments during
      9       1         175         GE          1.235        1.149           -7.0%           66.1      1.235          1.149
                                                                                                                                   feed production
      9       2         150         GE          1.193        1.180           -1.1%           64.0      1.193          1.180        e.g. while pelleting.
   10#               480,000        GE          1.263        1.289            2.1%           56.9      1.263          1.289            Concerning
                                                                                                                                   the use of spore
       Average      2,426,923                   1,401        1.401           1.370          -2.2%       57.2          1.401        forming probiotics,
  * = in these trials Calsporin was tested in comparison to a positive control with essential oils
                               ®                                                                                                   and in particular
  # = in this trial Calsporin was showing a significant reduction of necrotic enteritis corresponding with a significantly
                             ®                                                                                                     the strain Bacillus
  lower amount of treatments in the Calsporin® group                                                                               subtilis    C-3102
                                                                                                                                   numerous studies
Trial results for broiler and turkey to the supplementation with Bacillus subtilis exist describing the positive effects to
     Of course the effectiveness of viable C-3102 (- 69.0 %, Blair et al. 2004).                         achieve an optimized gut flora with regard
spores in broilers and turkeys in feeding                                                                to a reduction of pathogens in the gut and
practice has to be proven in scientific inves- Practical experience                                      also in the carcass. In numerous efficacy
tigations. Furthermore, all probiotics need             Probiotics also need to be tested con- studies with in total nearly 14,000 broil-
be to registered according to the current tinuously under practical conditions. Table ers and 2,000 turkeys it has also been
EU legislation, without use in general is 3 shows an overview of results obtained proven, those viable spores of Bacillus sub-
not possible. In order to obtain such a from practical broiler trials with the product tilis C-3102 in turkey as well as in broiler
registration for Bacillus subtilis C-3102, a Calsporin® (Bacillus subtilis C-3102) col- feed have a positive effect on production
total of eight studies were carried out at lected from 2008 to 2012. These results parameters especially daily weight gain
several research institutes involving tests on are in good accordance with the results and feed conversion. The results of these
13,732 broilers. The results of these studies from scientific studies. Very interesting to studies, together with widespread practical
have been evaluated in two meta-analyses highlight is trial 10 where Calsporin® was trials, show the contribution of a stable
(Gracia and Medel 2004, Gracia et al. 2007). resulting in a significant reduced occur- in feed probiotic for efficient turkey and
Furthermore three studies with 1960 turkeys rence of necrotic enteritis (approximately broiler production.
have been performed for the registration in - 40%) corresponding with a significantly                       In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis C-3102
turkeys (EFSA 2010, Blair et al. 2004).             lower amount of treatments (0.5 vs. 3.0 in (Calsporin ®) can be used successfully in
     The zootechnical results of all studies are control) in this group. This can be seen as broiler and turkey production. Its use
presented in Table 2. The supplementation evidence of a markedly improved intestinal can help to maintain good gut health
of 10x108 CFU Bacillus subtilis C-3102/kg health through the use of Calsporin® but and pathogenic bacteria can be reduced,
feed improved growth (+ 2.7 %) and feed the fewer treatments can also be viewed thereby reducing the incidence of disease
conversion (- 2.7 %) significantly. By applying as the reason for not improved production in the poultry themselves and potential
5x108 CFU/kg feed a better daily weight parameters in this experiment.                                   food poisoning episodes in humans after
gain (+ 1.6 %) and improved feed conver-                Concerning the economic consideration, the consumption of poultry meat.
sion (- 2.6 %) was obtained in broilers. In it should be mentioned that the costs for a                     Literature is available upon request from
both meta-analyses an increased EPEF-Value probiotic like Calsporin® according to the the author.
(European Production Efficiency Factor) was required dosage (3x108 CFU/kg feed for
calculated (Gracia and Medel 2004, Gracia turkeys, and 5x108 CFU/kg feed for broilers)
et al. 2007).                                       will be between €0.15-0.25 /100 kg feed.
     The supplementation of 3x108 CFU/kg When contrasting the extra costs with the                         More InforMatIon:
feed caused a significantly higher daily weight improvements in feed conversion (Table 2                   Dr Detlef Kampf
gain (in average + 4.6 %) in turkeys in com- and 3), the supplementation of Bacillus subti-                Orffa Additives B.V.
parison to the control group. Concerning lis C-3102 results in an economic benefit in                      Vierlinghstraat 51
the feed conversion only one trial showed feed costs of €0.75-0.90 /100 kg produced                        4251 LC Werkendam
a significant influence (- 1.5 %, table 3, EFSA meat.                                                      The Netherlands
2010; Blair et al. 2004). Beside that in the                                                                 Tel: +31 183 447771
third trial a reduced ammonia concentration Conclusions                                                      Email:
in the faeces of only 7.8 ppm versus 25.2               The use of probiotics to support the                 Website:
ppm in the control group could be seen due gut microflora and to maintain the health

22 | July - august 2013                                                                                           Grain  &feed millinG technoloGy
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