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To avoid diseases resulting from high pathogenic pressure in intensive broiler and turkey housing systems, antibiotic growth promoters have been used in many cases in the past. Since the EU-prohibition of these products, an increasing interest exists for alternatives to support the microbiota in the intestine and for the maintenance of animal health.
Digital Re-print - July | August 2013 Pig feed pelletizing technology Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872 www.gfmt.co.uk FEATURE Pig feed pelletizing technology by Joyce Li, service centre manager, Amisy Machinery, China T he advantages of feed pellets in pig Modulation can gelatinize starch, sterilize and should have substances like milk residue farming are well documented so pig increase pellet quality (particle hardness and powder, added sugar, grease and also a breeders are inclined to adopt pellets durability), which is related to feed intake. certain of vegetable protein. into feed and are interested in improving The moisture and temperature factors Piglet feed pellets should mainly consider feed pellet quality. Research shows that mainly affect modulation. Supplying moisture the energy and protein level. The level is there is a proportional relationship by steam can lubricate materials and reduce between 20 - 25 percent and the coarse between factors which determine pig feed energy consumption. However, the amount fibre content is under 4 percent. The feed pellet quality. Feed formulation accounts of steam added should be restricted. Higher pellets for piglets should contain balanced for 40 percent, raw material granularity or lower modulating temperature makes nutrition, with a soft texture and good 20 percent, modulating 20 percent, ring pellet structure loose, increases pellet break- palatability. die specification 15 percent, cooling 5 age ratio and pulverulent ratio and loses The amount of digestive enzymes and percent and other factors 5 percent. nutritional content. So discharge tempera- their activity are radically reduced so the ture of pig feed pellet should be controlled weaned piglets cannot entirely digest the So in the case of determined feed formu- between 76 and 92 degrees Celsius. vegetable protein which causes diarrhea. lation, feed pelleting technology is crucial to The increased PH value, which inhibits lacto- pig feed quality. Feed pellets are produced Feed pellet cooling bacillus growth and stimulates the colon through a serious of processes such as crush- The pelleting follow-up processes such as bacillus production also causes diarrhea. So ing feed ingredients, mixing raw materials, cooling and spraying should also be valued. feed pellets for weaned pigs should reduce pelleting, cooling, spraying and packing. Each Pelleted feed has a high moisture content diarrhea and increase survival rate and daily procedure is obligatory. and temperature. In this case, feed pellets weight gain. have a soft texture and are prone to mildew Feeds should incorporate high-energy Crushing and mixing during storage so the cooling process is nec- ingredients such as grains, fat and lactose. The sequence of crushing and mixing essary. The cooling airflow and cooling time The grains must be ripened because they feed ingredients affects pellet quality. Mixing should be controlled strictly. During the pel- can improve digestion and absorption rate feed ingredients after crushing has been leting process some nutritional ingredients and reduce diarrhea. The easily digestible universally adopted in America, China and are damaged or lost by the high temperature proteins such as bean pulp, whey powder other countries. Raw materials which have and friction force, in order to ensure pig feed and soybean concentrate protein are ideal different shapes and thicknesses should be pellet quality, some liquid nutrition should protein sauces. Some antigen substances ground before mixing otherwise it will not be reintroduced to increase the energy level within soybean concentrate protein like be possible achieve the optimal mixing and help prevent diseases. glycinin and polymerization globulin cause effect. Different sized ingredients are difficult brief allergic reaction in the early growth to mix evenly and the nutritional content Feed formulation for pigs at stage of weaned piglets. Even so, the feed of the feed will be inconsistent. The mixing different stages ingredients must contain soybean protein to uniformity is also affected by the grinding Pigs at different growth stages have make piglets produce antiallergic ability. fineness of feed ingredients. The closer the different physiological characteristics which physical properties of each component of should be considered when choosing feed Pig fattening stage feed pellet (including particle size), the more ingredients and designing feed formulas. If Increasing feed intake is the main factor even the mixing. pigs are well fed they can generate immune to improve growth rate during the fattening tolerance to the anti-pathogenic substances stage. Pig feed pelleting of feeds and protect the digestive tract. Feed pellet ingredients are mainly made Pelleting is the most crucial procedure in The feed pellet ingredients should fit their up of corn and bean cake. The feed ingre- the feed pellet process. Modulation is the digestive ability and make preparation for dients for fattening pigs should be reason- critical factor, which affects the end result. weaned pigs feeding. The feed ingredients ably collocated so as to ensure the weight 16 | July - august 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy Built by feed millers for feed millers. Equipped with the industry‘s most efficient drive system, the new Bühler pellet mill Kubex™ T saves up to 30% of energy – while boosting line capacity to up to 80 tons per hour. With the Kubex™ T you save costs, reduce the release of CO 2 and make your operation even more productive. Gaining competitive advantages has never been easier. For more information please visit www.buhlergroup.com/kubex-t Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96 email@example.com, www.buhlergroup.com Kubex™ T pellet mill. Developed in close cooperation with leading feed millers. Direct drive concept. Saves up to 30% of energy compared to conventional drive systems. Variable die speed. Formulation- specific optimization of production process and pellet quality. Up to 585 kW motor power. Boosts line capacity to up to 80 t/h. Belt- and gearless drive system. For minimum maintenance and ultimate machine availability. ABS control for press rolls. Prevents roll slippage and protects machine against blockages. 360° accessibility. Wide-opening sliding doors on both sides. The world’s most compact design. Fits anywhere and everywhere. Almost double capacity with same footprint as conventional pellet mills. Innovations for a better world. FEATURE Figure 1: Energy needs distribution for pregnant sows Figure 2: Daily feed intake for pregnant sows gain rate and meat quality. The proteins Sow feeding From the table we know that the daily and amino acids of feed ingredients are Figure 1 shows the energy needs distribu- feed intake for pregnant sows should be used to stimulate the production of lean tion for pregnant sows. From the table we reduced to 2.5 kg during the first 30 days so body mass. Research shows that greater know most of the feed is used as energy. as to maintain the energy levels and reduce energy intakes directly improve pigs’ pro- During this period, it is important that feed waste. Then feed intake is adopted tein and lean meat accumulation, the daily the feed ingredients are not mouldy or according to the body conditions. In the weight gain, feed utilization rate and the degenerative as poor quality feed can cause later gestation stage, feed intake is increased fat content. miscarriage. to expand stomach capacity and meet piglet However, when the daily weight gain Dried fat and soybean oil should be nutrition needs. In the last stages of preg- hits a certain degree, greater energy intake added to the feed to improve the birth nancy, feed intake reduced to 1.5 kg so as does not ensure an increase in lean meat. weight and survival rate of piglets. Sows at to prevent constipation before parturition. Greater or fewer trace elements may lead different pregnancy stages need different During the lactation period, sows may eat to metabolic disorders, slow weight gain nutrition and feed intakes. Research shows less which causes weight loss and influences speed, more feeds consumption and diseas- that in the early pregnancy sows need about lactation. So lysine should be added to the es or death. So the amount and proportion 6 g lysine while in the later stages the lysine feed pellets so as to reduce weight loss of of amino acids, energy level, protein level intake is 15 g. Figure 2 shows the is the daily lactating sows, improve piglet weight gain and mineral elements should be considered. feed intakes of pregnant sows. rate, provide sufficient milk for piglets and A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 Deep Processing Grains A Russian Milling Conference industry’s longest Get the February 4-7, 2014 standing title delivered direct to your door, six times year with a GFMT GFMT has been engaged by the Cereals-MixedaFeed-Veterinary Exposition 2014, which will be held in the All-Rusia Exhibition Centre IN PRINT subscription (VVC) in Moscow from February 4-7, 2014, to deliver a one-and-a- half-day conference on milling for feed manufacturers. March - April 2012 It will be called the ‘Deep Processing Grains Conference’ and focus 2012 ry - Februa January Die and roll re-working machines • Assessing cereal quality parameters ue : & is iss storage on feed manufacturing developments both in the mechanical and In th Bulk ling 2011 mber • hand s issue: - Dece mber Nove xin • Mycotoview In this an over Grinding by a proven • asing makes your se for • Databal diet • Incre concept storage choice simple In this issue: nutritional areas. anima tion African es ula capacity • form Efficiency in flour milling s: • Improving advanc g feed millin • que techni y saving last Digital ve supply from Animal the most Energ e to • of is one activities in A glanc microwa farm to fork decade moisture ment buoyant related field safety measure Insects • Victam Asia the agri Food grain • Controlling • in the grain with heat & Product in line solutions oved open Global kets Showcase milling ry • feed mar So as to compliment the exposition rather than compete with it, Get ysis • anal Process rtunities for impr indust ervatives recurring • Global new oppo quality and • Pres vatives are a sions ent in grain & feed prof it • RecPreserespublic discus advancgrain topic in markets rapid testing 1891 - first published in we intend to break this conference into three separate blocks so ting & feed milling industries l sor come of for the global flour Optica ng has considered A subscription magazine ed in 1891 • sorti Optical should be for inclusion ies - first publish 17/04/2012 13:05 n industr age and us optio t cleaning 10:12 feed milling 02/02/2012 flour & as a serio ern whea 1 GFMT12.02.indd mod the global in any ine for magaz iption plant A subscr that delegates can maximise their time in the exhibition halls while in 1891 shed publi - first 1 17:28 1 tries 30/11/201 g indus .indd GFMT12.01 millin & feed See all of our glean developmental information from conference still managing tomagazines l flour globa for the zine n maga riptio A subsc 1 .06.indd GFMT11 speakers, says also ﬁ Gilbert of Perendale Publishers Limited, online. You will Rogernd a publishers back issues, full archive ofof Grain and Feed Milling Technology magazine. as well as downloadable “This is an honour for us to be invited to join with the Cereals-Mixed features Feed-Veterinary Exposition to organise this innovative program for ONLINE Russian feed millers and nutritionists. We are calling on exhibitors to consider proposing topics that they are specialists in and which they would like to share with the audience. “The conference itself with be in both English and Russian and will have a period of questions and answers at the end of each session,” he adds. Delegates will be asked to register prior to the event in order to ensure sufﬁcient facilities are made available. Each of the three sessions will comprise three speakers each and will be organised into themes by species and processing by feed type. Companies interested in proposing speakers for the program www.oj-hojtryk.dk GlobalTHE should contact Roger Gilbert directly (firstname.lastname@example.org) Miller Phone: +45 75 14 22 55 O&J Højtryk A/S or Elena Belserova (email@example.com) Fax: +45 82 28 91 41 Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 For more information about our other publications and services visit: mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Esbjerg Ø www.perendale.com CVR.: 73 66 86 11 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy July - august 2013 | 17 AD_o&j.indd 1 21/11/2012 15:08 FEATURE Most breeders use antibiotics to increase the animal’s immune system and prevent disease but the continuous usage causes resistance to drugs, destroys the intestinal flora balance and affects human health. The oligosaccharide additive has the antibiotics function but it has no pollution and residue. It is considered as the ideal replacement of antibiotics and can be added to the feeds pellet. Feed and the environment Now consumers not only require nutri- tious, safe and healthy pork but also want pig feed pellets that are ecological and the whole rearing process is environmen- tally sound. However, foul gases such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, skatole, trimethyl ammonia and the nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metal in pig excrement result in envi- ronment pollution. The root of this pollution is in the feed. Nitrogen and phosphorus content which can not be well utilized by pigs are the main pollution sources. Feed ingredients with higher digestion rates and less nutritional shorten the weaning-estrous interval. When can be destroyed and feed nutrients can variation can reduce the nitrogen emissions the piglets are weaned, the nutrition level of fully contact with digestive enzyme so as to by 5 percent. So feed ingredients should be feed pellets for sows should be sufficient so increase the feed utilization rate. reasonably selected. as to improve pregnancy rate. However, when the comminuting fine- Pigs at different stages have different ness is reduced, the gastric ulcer rate and nutrition needs. Research shows that adapt- Pellet size and pig health keratinization degree is increased. Fine feed ing the amino acids levels according to pigs’ Pig gastric ulcers are a recurrent problem pellets increase the feed and water intake growth stages and physiological state can which often occurs on intensive pig farms. which strengthen the materials’ flow-ability effectively reduce the nitrogen and phospho- The gastric ulcer refers to the erosion or in pig’s stomach. Therefore, pepsin and rus emissions. necrosis of gastric mucosa tissues caused gastric acid are constantly in contact with Studies indicate that pig emissions are by acute indigestion and stomach bleeding the mucous membrane of the cardia which related to the composition of pigs’ feed thus forming the round ulcer surface and is easy to produce stomach ulcer. As gastric pellet. Every 1 percent reduction in protein even gastric perforation. It causes anorexia, ulcers in pigs are generally related to fine content will reduce the nitrogen excretion abdominal discomfort, constipation, diarrhea feeds, the size of feed pellets is a question by 8.4 percent. And when the coarse protein and gastrorrhagia. worth considering. content is reduced from 18 - 15 percent The feed is a main pathogenic factor in In production, the comminuting fine- the nitrogen emission is decreased by 25 pig gastric ulcers. Feed factors relate to feed ness should make appropriate adjustments percent. So reducing the protein content formulation, feed ingredient quality, feed according to pigs’ productivity at different and improving the protein digestion rate are pellet process technology and feed pellet growth ages. Research shows that commi- important measures to reduce the nitrogen utilization technology. Feeds containing too nuting fineness of feed ingredients for piglets pollution of pigs manure. much corn will cause fibre shortage and is optimal between 300 µm and 500 µm. Pig feed pellets are produced based on induce gastric ulcers. Adding coarse-fibre Appropriate granularity can increase feed the nutritional needs of pigs, the nutritional raw materials such as grass meal or bran will intake and digestive rate so particle size for value of feed composition and by adopting ensure a healthy fibre content. sow feeds is best between 400 µm and 500 a scientific formula so pigs can fully exploit A shortage of vitamin A, B1, E and sele- µm. It is optimal between 500 µm and 600 the nutritional benefits and reduce nitrogen nium can also cause the disease. The solution µm for fattening pigs. Other factors such as emissions. Considering the side effects of is to ensure the vitamin content is sufficient. irregular feeding time, frequent feeds change antibiotics and drugs, breeders are more In order to reduce costs, some breeders or feeding interruption can also lead to inclined to add safe and ecological feed addi- use poor-quality feeds. Low-quality fishmeals stomach ulcers. So pigs should be scientifi- tives to treat disease, improve feed utilization which contain a lot of coarse impurities cally fed. rate and pigs’ production property, reduce can cause gastric trauma and even produce pollution to environment. For example, add- histamine which induces the gastric ulcers. Bacterial infection ing a certain amount of vegetable acid, Breeders should use top-quality feed ingre- During the pelleting process, feeds are protease and probiotics can maintain the dients which free from moisture and mildew modulated by high temperature which can balance of pigs’ intestinal flora, improve feed so as to prevent the increase of unsaturated kill the harmful substance of feed ingredients pellets’ utilization rate, significantly reduce fatty acid content and the occurrence of such as Salmonella, corona virus and coliba- the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus gastric ulcers. cillus. Bacterial infection can cause damage and protect the environment. Tests carried out by Kansas State to pigs. Helicobacter pylori can cause ulcers University, USA show that the particle size and cystic gastritis. The corona virus causes of corns is reduced with 100 µm each time vomiting and can damage stomach ganglion More InforMatIon: the pigs’ weight gain can increase by 1.3 per- which results in the lost control of stomach Email: email@example.com cent. This is because when the comminuting muscle contraction and the gastric disten- Website: www.feed-pellet-mill.com fineness is reduced, the anti-nutritional factor sion. 18 | July - august 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy This digital Re-print is part of the July | August 2013 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full LINKS online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. July - August 2013 first published in 1891 • See the full issue • Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production? • Visit the GFMT website In this issue: • Contact the GFMT Team • Improving • Pig feed poultry health pelletizing and production technology efficiency with probiotics • Feed focus Cattle • Exploring the challenge • Sweeping of single • Subscribe to GFMT changes versus multi- to OSHA’s enzyme dosing sweep auger comparisons enforcement INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi- tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove. 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