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Improving poultry health and production efficiency with probiotics


To avoid diseases resulting from high pathogenic pressure in intensive broiler and turkey housing systems, antibiotic growth promoters have been used in many cases in the past. Since the EU-prohibition of these products, an increasing interest exists for alternatives to support the microbiota in the intestine and for the maintenance of animal health.

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									                            Digital Re-print -
                           July | August 2013
                Pig feed pelletizing technology

Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.
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or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872


Pig feed pelletizing technology
by Joyce Li, service centre manager, Amisy Machinery, China

       he advantages of feed pellets in pig         Modulation can gelatinize starch, sterilize and    should have substances like milk residue
       farming are well documented so pig           increase pellet quality (particle hardness and     powder, added sugar, grease and also a
       breeders are inclined to adopt pellets       durability), which is related to feed intake.      certain of vegetable protein.
into feed and are interested in improving              The moisture and temperature factors                Piglet feed pellets should mainly consider
feed pellet quality. Research shows that            mainly affect modulation. Supplying moisture       the energy and protein level. The level is
there is a proportional relationship                by steam can lubricate materials and reduce        between 20 - 25 percent and the coarse
between factors which determine pig feed            energy consumption. However, the amount            fibre content is under 4 percent. The feed
pellet quality. Feed formulation accounts           of steam added should be restricted. Higher        pellets for piglets should contain balanced
for 40 percent, raw material granularity            or lower modulating temperature makes              nutrition, with a soft texture and good
20 percent, modulating 20 percent, ring             pellet structure loose, increases pellet break-    palatability.
die specification 15 percent, cooling 5             age ratio and pulverulent ratio and loses              The amount of digestive enzymes and
percent and other factors 5 percent.                nutritional content. So discharge tempera-         their activity are radically reduced so the
                                                    ture of pig feed pellet should be controlled       weaned piglets cannot entirely digest the
    So in the case of determined feed formu-        between 76 and 92 degrees Celsius.                 vegetable protein which causes diarrhea.
lation, feed pelleting technology is crucial to                                                        The increased PH value, which inhibits lacto-
pig feed quality. Feed pellets are produced         Feed pellet cooling                                bacillus growth and stimulates the colon
through a serious of processes such as crush-           The pelleting follow-up processes such as      bacillus production also causes diarrhea. So
ing feed ingredients, mixing raw materials,         cooling and spraying should also be valued.        feed pellets for weaned pigs should reduce
pelleting, cooling, spraying and packing. Each      Pelleted feed has a high moisture content          diarrhea and increase survival rate and daily
procedure is obligatory.                            and temperature. In this case, feed pellets        weight gain.
                                                    have a soft texture and are prone to mildew            Feeds should incorporate high-energy
Crushing and mixing                                 during storage so the cooling process is nec-      ingredients such as grains, fat and lactose.
    The sequence of crushing and mixing             essary. The cooling airflow and cooling time       The grains must be ripened because they
feed ingredients affects pellet quality. Mixing     should be controlled strictly. During the pel-     can improve digestion and absorption rate
feed ingredients after crushing has been            leting process some nutritional ingredients        and reduce diarrhea. The easily digestible
universally adopted in America, China and           are damaged or lost by the high temperature        proteins such as bean pulp, whey powder
other countries. Raw materials which have           and friction force, in order to ensure pig feed    and soybean concentrate protein are ideal
different shapes and thicknesses should be          pellet quality, some liquid nutrition should       protein sauces. Some antigen substances
ground before mixing otherwise it will not          be reintroduced to increase the energy level       within soybean concentrate protein like
be possible achieve the optimal mixing              and help prevent diseases.                         glycinin and polymerization globulin cause
effect. Different sized ingredients are difficult                                                      brief allergic reaction in the early growth
to mix evenly and the nutritional content           Feed formulation for pigs at                       stage of weaned piglets. Even so, the feed
of the feed will be inconsistent. The mixing        different stages                                   ingredients must contain soybean protein to
uniformity is also affected by the grinding             Pigs at different growth stages have           make piglets produce antiallergic ability.
fineness of feed ingredients. The closer the        different physiological characteristics which
physical properties of each component of            should be considered when choosing feed            Pig fattening stage
feed pellet (including particle size), the more     ingredients and designing feed formulas. If           Increasing feed intake is the main factor
even the mixing.                                    pigs are well fed they can generate immune         to improve growth rate during the fattening
                                                    tolerance to the anti-pathogenic substances        stage.
Pig feed pelleting                                  of feeds and protect the digestive tract.             Feed pellet ingredients are mainly made
    Pelleting is the most crucial procedure in          The feed pellet ingredients should fit their   up of corn and bean cake. The feed ingre-
the feed pellet process. Modulation is the          digestive ability and make preparation for         dients for fattening pigs should be reason-
critical factor, which affects the end result.      weaned pigs feeding. The feed ingredients          ably collocated so as to ensure the weight

16 | July - august 2013                                                                                         Grain  &feed millinG technoloGy
Built by feed millers for feed millers. Equipped with the industry‘s most efficient
drive system, the new Bühler pellet mill Kubex™ T saves up to 30% of energy –
while boosting line capacity to up to 80 tons per hour. With the Kubex™ T
you save costs, reduce the release of CO 2 and make your operation even more
productive. Gaining competitive advantages has never been easier. For more
information please visit

Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96,

                                                                                                Kubex™ T pellet mill.
                                                                                                Developed in close cooperation
                                                                                                with leading feed millers.

                                                                                                Direct drive concept. Saves up to
                                                                                                30% of energy compared to
                                                                                                conventional drive systems.

                                                                                                Variable die speed. Formulation-
                                                                                                specific optimization of production
                                                                                                process and pellet quality.

                                                                                                Up to 585 kW motor power. Boosts
                                                                                                line capacity to up to 80 t/h.

                                                                                                Belt- and gearless drive system.
                                                                                                For minimum maintenance and
                                                                                                ultimate machine availability.

                                                                                                ABS control for press rolls.
                                                                                                Prevents roll slippage and protects
                                                                                                machine against blockages.

                                                                                                360° accessibility. Wide-opening
                                                                                                sliding doors on both sides.

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                                                                                                Almost double capacity with same
                                                                                                footprint as conventional pellet mills.

Innovations for a better world.

          Figure 1: Energy needs distribution for pregnant sows                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Figure 2: Daily feed intake for pregnant sows

    gain rate and meat quality. The proteins                                                                                                        Sow feeding                                                                                                                                                                                                                     From the table we know that the daily
    and amino acids of feed ingredients are                                                                                                             Figure 1 shows the energy needs distribu-                                                                                                                                                                               feed intake for pregnant sows should be
    used to stimulate the production of lean                                                                                                        tion for pregnant sows. From the table we                                                                                                                                                                                   reduced to 2.5 kg during the first 30 days so
    body mass. Research shows that greater                                                                                                          know most of the feed is used as energy.                                                                                                                                                                                    as to maintain the energy levels and reduce
    energy intakes directly improve pigs’ pro-                                                                                                      During this period, it is important that                                                                                                                                                                                    feed waste. Then feed intake is adopted
    tein and lean meat accumulation, the daily                                                                                                      the feed ingredients are not mouldy or                                                                                                                                                                                      according to the body conditions. In the
    weight gain, feed utilization rate and the                                                                                                      degenerative as poor quality feed can cause                                                                                                                                                                                 later gestation stage, feed intake is increased
    fat content.                                                                                                                                    miscarriage.                                                                                                                                                                                                                to expand stomach capacity and meet piglet
        However, when the daily weight gain                                                                                                             Dried fat and soybean oil should be                                                                                                                                                                                     nutrition needs. In the last stages of preg-
    hits a certain degree, greater energy intake                                                                                                    added to the feed to improve the birth                                                                                                                                                                                      nancy, feed intake reduced to 1.5 kg so as
    does not ensure an increase in lean meat.                                                                                                       weight and survival rate of piglets. Sows at                                                                                                                                                                                to prevent constipation before parturition.
    Greater or fewer trace elements may lead                                                                                                        different pregnancy stages need different                                                                                                                                                                                       During the lactation period, sows may eat
    to metabolic disorders, slow weight gain                                                                                                        nutrition and feed intakes. Research shows                                                                                                                                                                                  less which causes weight loss and influences
    speed, more feeds consumption and diseas-                                                                                                       that in the early pregnancy sows need about                                                                                                                                                                                 lactation. So lysine should be added to the
    es or death. So the amount and proportion                                                                                                       6 g lysine while in the later stages the lysine                                                                                                                                                                             feed pellets so as to reduce weight loss of
    of amino acids, energy level, protein level                                                                                                     intake is 15 g. Figure 2 shows the is the daily                                                                                                                                                                             lactating sows, improve piglet weight gain
    and mineral elements should be considered.                                                                                                      feed intakes of pregnant sows.                                                                                                                                                                                              rate, provide sufficient milk for piglets and

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      on feed manufacturing developments both in the mechanical and                                                                                           In th Bulk ling
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                               nutritional areas.
                                                                                                                                                                              anima tion
                                                                                                          African es                                                                ula                                                                    capacity
                                                                                              •                                                                                form Efficiency in flour milling
                                                                                                                                                                                          s:                                                                                                                    •       Improving
                                                                                                                   feed millin                                                   • que
                                                                                                                                                                                techni y saving
                                                                                                                                                                                         last                                                               Digital ve                                                  supply from
                                                                                                           Animal the most                                                                Energ
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                                                                                                            is one activities
                                                                                                                                in                                                  A glanc                                                                 microwa                                                     farm to fork
                                                                                                                                                                                     decade                                                                  moisture ment
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                                                                                                                                                                                             safety                                                          measure           Insects                           •      Victam Asia
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 with heat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             &                                          Product
                                                                                                                            in line solutions oved
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     So as to compliment the exposition rather than compete with it,
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              - first published in

     we intend to break this conference into three separate blocks so
                                                                                                                                       ting                                                                                                                                         & feed milling industries
                                                                                                                                  l sor come of                                                                                                                for the global flour
                                                                                                                            Optica ng has considered                                                                                   A subscription magazine         ed in 1891
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        speakers, says also fi Gilbert of Perendale Publishers Limited,
       online. You will Rogernd a
          publishers back issues,
       full archive ofof Grain and Feed Milling Technology magazine.
       as well as downloadable
  “This is an honour for us to be invited to join with the Cereals-Mixed
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   Russian feed millers and nutritionists. We are calling on exhibitors to
   consider proposing topics that they are specialists in and which they
                     would like to share with the audience.
    “The conference itself with be in both English and Russian and will
    have a period of questions and answers at the end of each session,”
                                 he adds.
     Delegates will be asked to register prior to the event in order to
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   Each of the three sessions will comprise three speakers each and will
     be organised into themes by species and processing by feed type.
   Companies interested in proposing speakers for the program

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               AD_o&j.indd 1                                                                                  21/11/2012 15:08

                                                                                                          Most breeders use antibiotics to increase
                                                                                                     the animal’s immune system and prevent
                                                                                                     disease but the continuous usage causes
                                                                                                     resistance to drugs, destroys the intestinal
                                                                                                     flora balance and affects human health. The
                                                                                                     oligosaccharide additive has the antibiotics
                                                                                                     function but it has no pollution and residue.
                                                                                                     It is considered as the ideal replacement of
                                                                                                     antibiotics and can be added to the feeds

                                                                                                     Feed and the environment
                                                                                                         Now consumers not only require nutri-
                                                                                                     tious, safe and healthy pork but also want
                                                                                                     pig feed pellets that are ecological and
                                                                                                     the whole rearing process is environmen-
                                                                                                     tally sound. However, foul gases such as
                                                                                                     ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, skatole, trimethyl
                                                                                                     ammonia and the nitrogen, phosphorus,
                                                                                                     heavy metal in pig excrement result in envi-
                                                                                                     ronment pollution.
                                                                                                         The root of this pollution is in the feed.
                                                                                                     Nitrogen and phosphorus content which
                                                                                                     can not be well utilized by pigs are the main
                                                                                                     pollution sources. Feed ingredients with
                                                                                                     higher digestion rates and less nutritional
shorten the weaning-estrous interval. When         can be destroyed and feed nutrients can           variation can reduce the nitrogen emissions
the piglets are weaned, the nutrition level of     fully contact with digestive enzyme so as to      by 5 percent. So feed ingredients should be
feed pellets for sows should be sufficient so      increase the feed utilization rate.               reasonably selected.
as to improve pregnancy rate.                          However, when the comminuting fine-               Pigs at different stages have different
                                                   ness is reduced, the gastric ulcer rate and       nutrition needs. Research shows that adapt-
Pellet size and pig health                         keratinization degree is increased. Fine feed     ing the amino acids levels according to pigs’
    Pig gastric ulcers are a recurrent problem     pellets increase the feed and water intake        growth stages and physiological state can
which often occurs on intensive pig farms.         which strengthen the materials’ flow-ability      effectively reduce the nitrogen and phospho-
The gastric ulcer refers to the erosion or         in pig’s stomach. Therefore, pepsin and           rus emissions.
necrosis of gastric mucosa tissues caused          gastric acid are constantly in contact with           Studies indicate that pig emissions are
by acute indigestion and stomach bleeding          the mucous membrane of the cardia which           related to the composition of pigs’ feed
thus forming the round ulcer surface and           is easy to produce stomach ulcer. As gastric      pellet. Every 1 percent reduction in protein
even gastric perforation. It causes anorexia,      ulcers in pigs are generally related to fine      content will reduce the nitrogen excretion
abdominal discomfort, constipation, diarrhea       feeds, the size of feed pellets is a question     by 8.4 percent. And when the coarse protein
and gastrorrhagia.                                 worth considering.                                content is reduced from 18 - 15 percent
    The feed is a main pathogenic factor in            In production, the comminuting fine-          the nitrogen emission is decreased by 25
pig gastric ulcers. Feed factors relate to feed    ness should make appropriate adjustments          percent. So reducing the protein content
formulation, feed ingredient quality, feed         according to pigs’ productivity at different      and improving the protein digestion rate are
pellet process technology and feed pellet          growth ages. Research shows that commi-           important measures to reduce the nitrogen
utilization technology. Feeds containing too       nuting fineness of feed ingredients for piglets   pollution of pigs manure.
much corn will cause fibre shortage and            is optimal between 300 µm and 500 µm.                 Pig feed pellets are produced based on
induce gastric ulcers. Adding coarse-fibre         Appropriate granularity can increase feed         the nutritional needs of pigs, the nutritional
raw materials such as grass meal or bran will      intake and digestive rate so particle size for    value of feed composition and by adopting
ensure a healthy fibre content.                    sow feeds is best between 400 µm and 500          a scientific formula so pigs can fully exploit
    A shortage of vitamin A, B1, E and sele-       µm. It is optimal between 500 µm and 600          the nutritional benefits and reduce nitrogen
nium can also cause the disease. The solution      µm for fattening pigs. Other factors such as      emissions. Considering the side effects of
is to ensure the vitamin content is sufficient.    irregular feeding time, frequent feeds change     antibiotics and drugs, breeders are more
In order to reduce costs, some breeders            or feeding interruption can also lead to          inclined to add safe and ecological feed addi-
use poor-quality feeds. Low-quality fishmeals      stomach ulcers. So pigs should be scientifi-      tives to treat disease, improve feed utilization
which contain a lot of coarse impurities           cally fed.                                        rate and pigs’ production property, reduce
can cause gastric trauma and even produce                                                            pollution to environment. For example, add-
histamine which induces the gastric ulcers.        Bacterial infection                               ing a certain amount of vegetable acid,
Breeders should use top-quality feed ingre-             During the pelleting process, feeds are      protease and probiotics can maintain the
dients which free from moisture and mildew         modulated by high temperature which can           balance of pigs’ intestinal flora, improve feed
so as to prevent the increase of unsaturated       kill the harmful substance of feed ingredients    pellets’ utilization rate, significantly reduce
fatty acid content and the occurrence of           such as Salmonella, corona virus and coliba-      the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus
gastric ulcers.                                    cillus. Bacterial infection can cause damage      and protect the environment.
    Tests carried out by Kansas State              to pigs. Helicobacter pylori can cause ulcers
University, USA show that the particle size        and cystic gastritis. The corona virus causes
of corns is reduced with 100 µm each time          vomiting and can damage stomach ganglion            More InforMatIon:
the pigs’ weight gain can increase by 1.3 per-     which results in the lost control of stomach          Email:
cent. This is because when the comminuting         muscle contraction and the gastric disten-            Website:
fineness is reduced, the anti-nutritional factor   sion.

18 | July - august 2013                                                                                        Grain  &feed millinG technoloGy
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                    first published in 1891
                                                                                                                                      •	 See	the	full	issue
                                      •       Aflatoxins in
                                              a new risk in maize
                                                                                                                                      •	   Visit	the	GFMT	website
                                                                                       In this issue:

                                                                                                                                      •	   Contact	the	GFMT	Team
                                      •       Improving                            •    Pig feed
                                              poultry health                            pelletizing
                                              and production                            technology
                                              efficiency with
                                              probiotics                           •    Feed focus

                                                                                   •    Exploring
                                                                                        the challenge
                                      •       Sweeping                                  of single

                                                                                                                                      •	   Subscribe	to	GFMT
                                              changes                                   versus multi-
                                              to OSHA’s                                 enzyme dosing
                                              sweep auger                               comparisons

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