Digital Re-print -
July | August 2013
Pig feed pelletizing technology
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Pig feed pelletizing technology
by Joyce Li, service centre manager, Amisy Machinery, China
he advantages of feed pellets in pig Modulation can gelatinize starch, sterilize and should have substances like milk residue
farming are well documented so pig increase pellet quality (particle hardness and powder, added sugar, grease and also a
breeders are inclined to adopt pellets durability), which is related to feed intake. certain of vegetable protein.
into feed and are interested in improving The moisture and temperature factors Piglet feed pellets should mainly consider
feed pellet quality. Research shows that mainly affect modulation. Supplying moisture the energy and protein level. The level is
there is a proportional relationship by steam can lubricate materials and reduce between 20 - 25 percent and the coarse
between factors which determine pig feed energy consumption. However, the amount fibre content is under 4 percent. The feed
pellet quality. Feed formulation accounts of steam added should be restricted. Higher pellets for piglets should contain balanced
for 40 percent, raw material granularity or lower modulating temperature makes nutrition, with a soft texture and good
20 percent, modulating 20 percent, ring pellet structure loose, increases pellet break- palatability.
die specification 15 percent, cooling 5 age ratio and pulverulent ratio and loses The amount of digestive enzymes and
percent and other factors 5 percent. nutritional content. So discharge tempera- their activity are radically reduced so the
ture of pig feed pellet should be controlled weaned piglets cannot entirely digest the
So in the case of determined feed formu- between 76 and 92 degrees Celsius. vegetable protein which causes diarrhea.
lation, feed pelleting technology is crucial to The increased PH value, which inhibits lacto-
pig feed quality. Feed pellets are produced Feed pellet cooling bacillus growth and stimulates the colon
through a serious of processes such as crush- The pelleting follow-up processes such as bacillus production also causes diarrhea. So
ing feed ingredients, mixing raw materials, cooling and spraying should also be valued. feed pellets for weaned pigs should reduce
pelleting, cooling, spraying and packing. Each Pelleted feed has a high moisture content diarrhea and increase survival rate and daily
procedure is obligatory. and temperature. In this case, feed pellets weight gain.
have a soft texture and are prone to mildew Feeds should incorporate high-energy
Crushing and mixing during storage so the cooling process is nec- ingredients such as grains, fat and lactose.
The sequence of crushing and mixing essary. The cooling airflow and cooling time The grains must be ripened because they
feed ingredients affects pellet quality. Mixing should be controlled strictly. During the pel- can improve digestion and absorption rate
feed ingredients after crushing has been leting process some nutritional ingredients and reduce diarrhea. The easily digestible
universally adopted in America, China and are damaged or lost by the high temperature proteins such as bean pulp, whey powder
other countries. Raw materials which have and friction force, in order to ensure pig feed and soybean concentrate protein are ideal
different shapes and thicknesses should be pellet quality, some liquid nutrition should protein sauces. Some antigen substances
ground before mixing otherwise it will not be reintroduced to increase the energy level within soybean concentrate protein like
be possible achieve the optimal mixing and help prevent diseases. glycinin and polymerization globulin cause
effect. Different sized ingredients are difficult brief allergic reaction in the early growth
to mix evenly and the nutritional content Feed formulation for pigs at stage of weaned piglets. Even so, the feed
of the feed will be inconsistent. The mixing different stages ingredients must contain soybean protein to
uniformity is also affected by the grinding Pigs at different growth stages have make piglets produce antiallergic ability.
fineness of feed ingredients. The closer the different physiological characteristics which
physical properties of each component of should be considered when choosing feed Pig fattening stage
feed pellet (including particle size), the more ingredients and designing feed formulas. If Increasing feed intake is the main factor
even the mixing. pigs are well fed they can generate immune to improve growth rate during the fattening
tolerance to the anti-pathogenic substances stage.
Pig feed pelleting of feeds and protect the digestive tract. Feed pellet ingredients are mainly made
Pelleting is the most crucial procedure in The feed pellet ingredients should fit their up of corn and bean cake. The feed ingre-
the feed pellet process. Modulation is the digestive ability and make preparation for dients for fattening pigs should be reason-
critical factor, which affects the end result. weaned pigs feeding. The feed ingredients ably collocated so as to ensure the weight
16 | July - august 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
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Belt- and gearless drive system.
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Figure 1: Energy needs distribution for pregnant sows Figure 2: Daily feed intake for pregnant sows
gain rate and meat quality. The proteins Sow feeding From the table we know that the daily
and amino acids of feed ingredients are Figure 1 shows the energy needs distribu- feed intake for pregnant sows should be
used to stimulate the production of lean tion for pregnant sows. From the table we reduced to 2.5 kg during the first 30 days so
body mass. Research shows that greater know most of the feed is used as energy. as to maintain the energy levels and reduce
energy intakes directly improve pigs’ pro- During this period, it is important that feed waste. Then feed intake is adopted
tein and lean meat accumulation, the daily the feed ingredients are not mouldy or according to the body conditions. In the
weight gain, feed utilization rate and the degenerative as poor quality feed can cause later gestation stage, feed intake is increased
fat content. miscarriage. to expand stomach capacity and meet piglet
However, when the daily weight gain Dried fat and soybean oil should be nutrition needs. In the last stages of preg-
hits a certain degree, greater energy intake added to the feed to improve the birth nancy, feed intake reduced to 1.5 kg so as
does not ensure an increase in lean meat. weight and survival rate of piglets. Sows at to prevent constipation before parturition.
Greater or fewer trace elements may lead different pregnancy stages need different During the lactation period, sows may eat
to metabolic disorders, slow weight gain nutrition and feed intakes. Research shows less which causes weight loss and influences
speed, more feeds consumption and diseas- that in the early pregnancy sows need about lactation. So lysine should be added to the
es or death. So the amount and proportion 6 g lysine while in the later stages the lysine feed pellets so as to reduce weight loss of
of amino acids, energy level, protein level intake is 15 g. Figure 2 shows the is the daily lactating sows, improve piglet weight gain
and mineral elements should be considered. feed intakes of pregnant sows. rate, provide sufficient milk for piglets and
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Most breeders use antibiotics to increase
the animal’s immune system and prevent
disease but the continuous usage causes
resistance to drugs, destroys the intestinal
flora balance and affects human health. The
oligosaccharide additive has the antibiotics
function but it has no pollution and residue.
It is considered as the ideal replacement of
antibiotics and can be added to the feeds
Feed and the environment
Now consumers not only require nutri-
tious, safe and healthy pork but also want
pig feed pellets that are ecological and
the whole rearing process is environmen-
tally sound. However, foul gases such as
ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, skatole, trimethyl
ammonia and the nitrogen, phosphorus,
heavy metal in pig excrement result in envi-
The root of this pollution is in the feed.
Nitrogen and phosphorus content which
can not be well utilized by pigs are the main
pollution sources. Feed ingredients with
higher digestion rates and less nutritional
shorten the weaning-estrous interval. When can be destroyed and feed nutrients can variation can reduce the nitrogen emissions
the piglets are weaned, the nutrition level of fully contact with digestive enzyme so as to by 5 percent. So feed ingredients should be
feed pellets for sows should be sufficient so increase the feed utilization rate. reasonably selected.
as to improve pregnancy rate. However, when the comminuting fine- Pigs at different stages have different
ness is reduced, the gastric ulcer rate and nutrition needs. Research shows that adapt-
Pellet size and pig health keratinization degree is increased. Fine feed ing the amino acids levels according to pigs’
Pig gastric ulcers are a recurrent problem pellets increase the feed and water intake growth stages and physiological state can
which often occurs on intensive pig farms. which strengthen the materials’ flow-ability effectively reduce the nitrogen and phospho-
The gastric ulcer refers to the erosion or in pig’s stomach. Therefore, pepsin and rus emissions.
necrosis of gastric mucosa tissues caused gastric acid are constantly in contact with Studies indicate that pig emissions are
by acute indigestion and stomach bleeding the mucous membrane of the cardia which related to the composition of pigs’ feed
thus forming the round ulcer surface and is easy to produce stomach ulcer. As gastric pellet. Every 1 percent reduction in protein
even gastric perforation. It causes anorexia, ulcers in pigs are generally related to fine content will reduce the nitrogen excretion
abdominal discomfort, constipation, diarrhea feeds, the size of feed pellets is a question by 8.4 percent. And when the coarse protein
and gastrorrhagia. worth considering. content is reduced from 18 - 15 percent
The feed is a main pathogenic factor in In production, the comminuting fine- the nitrogen emission is decreased by 25
pig gastric ulcers. Feed factors relate to feed ness should make appropriate adjustments percent. So reducing the protein content
formulation, feed ingredient quality, feed according to pigs’ productivity at different and improving the protein digestion rate are
pellet process technology and feed pellet growth ages. Research shows that commi- important measures to reduce the nitrogen
utilization technology. Feeds containing too nuting fineness of feed ingredients for piglets pollution of pigs manure.
much corn will cause fibre shortage and is optimal between 300 µm and 500 µm. Pig feed pellets are produced based on
induce gastric ulcers. Adding coarse-fibre Appropriate granularity can increase feed the nutritional needs of pigs, the nutritional
raw materials such as grass meal or bran will intake and digestive rate so particle size for value of feed composition and by adopting
ensure a healthy fibre content. sow feeds is best between 400 µm and 500 a scientific formula so pigs can fully exploit
A shortage of vitamin A, B1, E and sele- µm. It is optimal between 500 µm and 600 the nutritional benefits and reduce nitrogen
nium can also cause the disease. The solution µm for fattening pigs. Other factors such as emissions. Considering the side effects of
is to ensure the vitamin content is sufficient. irregular feeding time, frequent feeds change antibiotics and drugs, breeders are more
In order to reduce costs, some breeders or feeding interruption can also lead to inclined to add safe and ecological feed addi-
use poor-quality feeds. Low-quality fishmeals stomach ulcers. So pigs should be scientifi- tives to treat disease, improve feed utilization
which contain a lot of coarse impurities cally fed. rate and pigs’ production property, reduce
can cause gastric trauma and even produce pollution to environment. For example, add-
histamine which induces the gastric ulcers. Bacterial infection ing a certain amount of vegetable acid,
Breeders should use top-quality feed ingre- During the pelleting process, feeds are protease and probiotics can maintain the
dients which free from moisture and mildew modulated by high temperature which can balance of pigs’ intestinal flora, improve feed
so as to prevent the increase of unsaturated kill the harmful substance of feed ingredients pellets’ utilization rate, significantly reduce
fatty acid content and the occurrence of such as Salmonella, corona virus and coliba- the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus
gastric ulcers. cillus. Bacterial infection can cause damage and protect the environment.
Tests carried out by Kansas State to pigs. Helicobacter pylori can cause ulcers
University, USA show that the particle size and cystic gastritis. The corona virus causes
of corns is reduced with 100 µm each time vomiting and can damage stomach ganglion More InforMatIon:
the pigs’ weight gain can increase by 1.3 per- which results in the lost control of stomach Email: email@example.com
cent. This is because when the comminuting muscle contraction and the gastric disten- Website: www.feed-pellet-mill.com
fineness is reduced, the anti-nutritional factor sion.
18 | July - august 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
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